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Principles of Thin Film X-Ray Microanalysis

  • J. I. Goldstein

Abstract

The scanning electron microscope-electron probe microanalyzer (SEM-EPMA) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) are two established tools for microscopy. The first instrument enables one to obtain high magnification pictures as well as microchemical information from micron sized areas in solid samples. The second instrument enables one to obtain high magnification pictures and diffraction data from electron transmission thin specimens. Over 10 years ago DUNCUMB (1968) mounted a wavelength dispersive x-ray spectrometer on a TEM in order to obtain chemical and structural as well as diffraction data from the same area of a thin specimen. This idea of a combination instrument has developed rapidly in the last few years into the scanning transmission electron microscope—analytical electron microscope (STEM-AEM) instrument of today. In the modern version of this instrument a 60 to 200 kV electron beam is focused to < 100 and often to < 10 nm diameter at the specimen surface. Scanning coils move the focused beam over the specimen to obtain a STEM image. The emitted x-rays are measured with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDS). Quantitative electron probe microanalysis can be accomplished when the focused beam is positioned at selected points on a specimen. In addition, particle identification and x-ray scanning can be performed with this instrument.

Keywords

Foil Thickness Thin Specimen Mass Absorption Coefficient Focus Electron Beam Fluorescence Correction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. I. Goldstein
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Metallurgy and Materials EngineeringLehigh UniversityBethlehemUSA

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