The purpose of this chapter is to present an introductory, nonmathematical background in electron optics. The level is geared to the user of an electron microscope who is interested in understanding the qualitative features of the electron optical column but does not want to design a microscope. Because of this, mathematical statements are made and not derived in general and, in fact, mathematics is kept to a minimum with little more than high school background required. Although the discussion will center on magnetic lenses, as they are the most popular, an introduction to the terminology, laws and techniques will be given using light optical principles. Electrostatic lenses will be discussed briefly, especially as the electron gun is an electrostatic lens. Although aberrations are discussed in some detail, it is important to remember that a good approximate picture of the image formation process may be easily derived ignoring aberrations and adhering only to Gaussian optics. Subsequent chapters in this book will describe applications to image formation. For those interested in more complete and/or mathematical treatments, a list of texts on electron optics is included at the end.


Objective Lens Electron Optic Spherical Aberration Pole Piece Angular Aperture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. H. Geiss
    • 1
  1. 1.IBM Research LaboratorySan JoseUSA

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