Environmental (and Genetic) Influences on Personality and Intelligence

  • Nathan Brody
  • Michael J. Crowley
Part of the Perspectives on Individual Differences book series (PIDF)


Environmental and genetic influences both overlap and permeate each other. To discuss one in the absence of the other is likely to lead to error. Accordingly, environmental influences will be examined in this chapter within the context of behavioral genetic research designed to consider genetic and environmental influences simultaneously. Studies of presumed environmental influences on personality and intelligence have rarely been conducted with appropriate controls for genetic influences. We shall argue that we know relatively little about the influence of the environment on intelligence and personality.


Personality Trait Environmental Influence Genetic Influence Shared Environment Behavior Genetic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allgulander, C., and Lavori, P. W. (1991). Excess mortality among 3302 patients with pure anxiety neurosis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 599–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailey, J. M., and Revelle, W. (1991). Increased heritability for lower IQ levels? Behavior Genetics, 21, 397–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker, L., and Daniels, D. (1990). Nonshared environmental influences and personality differences in adult twins. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 103–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Beeckmans, K., Thiery, E., Derom, C., Vernon, P. A., Vlietinck, R., and Derom, R. ( 1993, July). Relating type of placentation to later intellectual development in monozygotic twins. Paper presented to the Behavior Genetics Association meeting in Sydney, Australia.Google Scholar
  5. Bergeman, C. S., Chipuer, H. M., Plomin, R., Pedersen, N. L., McCleam, G. E., Nesselroade, J. R., Costa, P. T., Jr., and McCrae, R. R. (1993). Genetic and environmental effects on openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness: An adoption/twin study. Journal of Personality, 61, 159–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bouchard, T. J., Jr., Lykken D. T., McGue, M., Segal, N. L., and Tellegen, A. (1990). Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota study of twins reared apart. Science, 250, 223–228.Google Scholar
  7. Bouchard, T. J., Jr., and McGue, M. (1981). Familial studies of intelligence: A review. Science, 212, 1055–1059.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bouchard, T. J., Jr., and Segal, N. (1985). Environment and IQ. In B. J. Wolman (Ed.), Handbook of intelligence: Theories, measurements, and applications (pp. 391–464 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  9. Brackbill, Y., and Nichols, P. L. (1982). A test of the confluence model of intellectual development. Developmental Psychology, 18, 192–198.Google Scholar
  10. Braungart, J. M., Fulker, D. W., and Plomin, R. (1992). Genetic mediation of the home environment during infancy: A sibling adoption study of the HOME. Developmental Psychology, 28, 1048–1055.Google Scholar
  11. Brody, N. (1983). Where are the emperor’s clothes? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 6, 303–310.Google Scholar
  12. Brody, N. (1988). Personality: In search of individuality San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  13. Brody, N. (1990). Behavior therapy versus placebo: Comment on Bowers and Clum’s meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 106–109.Google Scholar
  14. Brody, N. (1992). Intelligence ( 2nd ed. ). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  15. Brody, N. (1993a). 5 and -.5: Continuity and change in personal dispositions. In T. Heatherton and J. Weinberger (Eds.), Can personality change Washington, DC: APA Books.Google Scholar
  16. Brody, N. (1993b). Intelligence and the behavioral genetics of personality. In R. Plomin and G. E. McClearn (Eds.), Nature nurture and psychology (pp. 161–178 ). Washington, DC: APA Books.Google Scholar
  17. Bronfenbrenner, U., and Ceci, S. J. (1993). Heredity, environment, and the question of “how” -a first approximation. In R. Plomin and G. E. McClearn (Eds.), Nature, nurture, and psychology. Washington, DC: APA Books.Google Scholar
  18. Cadoret, R. J., Troughton, E., Merchant, L. M., and Witters, A. (1990). Early life psychosocial events and adult affective symptoms. In L. Robins and M. Rutter (Eds.), Straight and devious pathways from childhood to adulthood. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Cahan, S., and Cohen, N. (1989). Age versus schooling effects on intelligence development. Child Development, 60, 1239–1249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Caldwell, B. M., and Bradley, R. H. (1978). Home observation and measurement of the environment. Little Rock: University of Arkansas Press.Google Scholar
  21. Cannon, T. D., Mednick, S. A., and Pamas, J. (1990). Antecedents of predominantly negative-and predominantly positive-symptom schizophrenia in a high-risk population. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 622–632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cannon, T. D., Mednick, S. A., Pamas, J., Schulsinger, F., Praestholm, J., and Vestergaard, A. (1993). Developmental brain abnormalities in the offspring of schizophrenic mothers. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 551–564.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Capron, C., and Duyme, M. (1989). Assessment of effects of socioeconomic status on IQ in a full cross-fostering design. Nature, 340, 552–553.Google Scholar
  24. Carroll, J. B. (1993). Human cognitive abilities: A survey of factor-analytic studies. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Caspi, A., and Herbener, E. S. (1990). Continuity and change: Assortative marriage and the consistency of personality in adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 250–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Caspi, A., Herbener, E. S., and Ozer, D. J. (1992). Shared experiences and the similarity of personalities: A longitudinal study of married couples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 281–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ceci, S. J. (1990). On intelligencechwr(133) more or less: A bio-ecological treatise on intellectual development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  28. Cherny, S. S., Cardon, L. R., Fulker, D. W., and DeFries, J. C. (1992). Differential heritability across levels of cognitive ability. Behavior Genetics, 22, 153–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Chipuer, H. M., Plomin, R., Pedersen, N. L., McClearn, G. E., and Nesselroade, J. R. (1993). Genetic influences on the family environment: The role of personality. Developmental Psychology, 29, 110–118.Google Scholar
  30. Chipuer, H. M., Rovine, M., and Plomin, R. (1990). LISREL modeling: Genetic and environmental influences on IQ revisited. Intelligence, 14, I l-29.Google Scholar
  31. Cloninger, C. R. (1986). A unified biosocial theory of anxiety and its role in the development of anxiety states. Psychiatric Developments, 3, 167–226.Google Scholar
  32. Cloninger, C. R., and Gottesman, I. I. (1987). Genetic and environmental factors in antisocial behavior disorders. In S. Mednick, T. Moffit, and S. Stack (Eds.), The causes of crime (pp. 92–109 ). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Colombo, J. (1993). Infant cognition: Predicting later cognitive functioning. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  34. Consortium for Longitudinal Studies. (Ed.). (1983). As the twig is bentchwr(133) lasting effects of preschool programs. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  35. Daniels, D., and Plomin, R. (1985). Differential experience of siblings in the same family. Developmental Psychology, 21, 747–760.Google Scholar
  36. DeFries, J. C., Plomin, R, and LaBuda, M. C. (1987). Genetic stability of cognitive development from childhood to adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 23, 4–12.Google Scholar
  37. Detterman, D. K., Thompson, L. A., and Plomin, R. (1990). Differences in heritability across groups differing in ability. Behavior Genetics, 20, 369–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Digman, J. M. (1990). Personality structure: Emergence of the five-factor model. Annual Review of Psychology, 41, 417–440.Google Scholar
  39. Dunn, J., and Plomin, R. (1990). Separate lives. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  40. Dunn, J., and Plomin, R. (1991). Why are siblings so different? The significance of differences in siblings experiences within the family. Family Process, 30, 271–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Dunn, J., Stocker, C., and Plomin, R. (1990). Nonshared experiences within the family: Correlates of behavioral problems in middle childhood. Developmental Psychology, 2, 113–126.Google Scholar
  42. Eaves, L., and Eysenck, H. (1976). Genetic and environmental components of inconsistency and unrepeatability in twins’ responses to a neuroticism questionnaire. Behavior Genetics, 6, 145–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Ernst, C., and Angst, J. (1983). Birth order: Its influence on personality. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  44. Flynn, J. R. (1984). The mean IQ of Americans: Massive gains 1932–1978. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 29–51.Google Scholar
  45. Flynn, J. R. (1987). Massive IQ gains in 14 nations: What IQ tests really measure. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 171–191.Google Scholar
  46. Fulton, M., Thomson, G., Hunter, R., Raab, G., Laxen, D., and Hepburn, W. (1987). Influence of blood lead on the ability and attainment of children in Edinburgh. Lancet, I, 1221–1226.Google Scholar
  47. Garber, H., L. (1988). The Milwaukee project: Preventing mental retardation in children at risk. Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation.Google Scholar
  48. Gatz, M., Pedersen, N. L., Plomin, R., Nesselroade, J. R., and McClearn, G. E. (1992). Importance of shared genes and shared environments for symptoms of depression in older adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 701–708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Gottesman, I. I., and Bertelsen, A. (1989). Confirming unexpressed genotypes for schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 867–872.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hammen, C. (1991). Generation of stress in the course of unipolar depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 555–561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Harngvist, K. (1968a). Relative changes in intelligence from 1318: I. Background and methodology. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 9, 50–64.Google Scholar
  52. Harnqvist, K. (1968b). Relative changes in intelligence from 1318: II. Results. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 9, 65–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Heath, A. C., Neale, M. C., Kessler, R. C., Eaves, L. J., and Kendler, K. S. (1992). Evidence for genetic influences on personality from self-reports and informant ratings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 85–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Heber, R., and Garber, H. (1972). An experiment in prevention of cultural-familial retardation. In D. A. A. Primrose (Ed.), Proceedings of the Second Congress of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Mental Deficiency. Warsaw: Polish Medical Publishers.Google Scholar
  55. Heber, R., and Garber, H. (1975). Progress report II: An experiment in the prevention of cultural-familial retardation. In D. A. A. Primrose (Ed.), Proceedings of the Second Congress of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Mental Deficiency (Vol. 1 ). Warsaw: Polish Medical Publishers.Google Scholar
  56. Hetherington, E. M., Reiss, D., and Plomin, R. (Eds.) (1994). Separate social worlds of siblings: The impact of nonshared environment on development. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  57. Huesmann, L. R., Eron, L. D., and Yarmel, P. W. (1987). Intellectual functioning and aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 218–231.Google Scholar
  58. Jacobsen, B. (1988). Perinatal origin of eventual self-destructive behavior. Pre-and Peri-Natal psychology, 3, 157–170.Google Scholar
  59. Jensen, A. R. (1977). Cumulative deficit in IQ of blacks in the deep South. Developmental Psychology, 13, 184–191.Google Scholar
  60. Jensen, A. R. (1989). The Milwaukee Project: Preventing mental retardation in children at risk [Book review]. Developmental Review, 9, 234–358.Google Scholar
  61. John, O. P. (1990). The “big-five” factor taxonomy: Dimensions of personality in the natural language and questionnaires. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of personality theory and research. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  62. Kelly, E. L., and Conley, J. J. (1987). Personality and compatibility: A prospective analysis of marital stability and marital satisfaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 27–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Kendler, K. S., Neale, M. C., Kessler, R. C., Heath, A. C., and Eaves, L. J. (1992). Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder: Same genes, (partly) different environments? Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 716–722.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kierman, G. L. (1988). The current age of melancholia: Evidence for increase in depression among adolescents and young adults. British Journal of Psychology, 152, 4–14.Google Scholar
  65. Klerman, G. L. (1990). Approaches to the phenomena of co-morbidity. In J. D. Maser and C. R. Cloninger (Eds.), Comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  66. Levenson, M. R., Aldwin, C. M., Bosse, R., and Spiro, A., III. (1988). Emotionality and mental health: Longitudinal findings from the Normative Aging Study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 94–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lewinsohn, P. M., Zeiss, A. M., and Duncan, E. M. (1989). Probability of relapse after recovery from and episode of depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98, 107–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Loehlin, J. C. (1992). Genes and environment in personality development. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  69. Loehlin, J. C., and DeFries, J. C. (1987). Genotype-environment correlation and IQ. Behavior Genetics, 17, 263–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Loehlin, J. C., Horn, J. M., and Willerman, L. (1989). Modeling IQ change: Evidence from the Texas Adoption project. Child Development, 60, 993–1004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Loehlin, J. C., and Nichols, R. C. (1976). Heredity, environment, and personality Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  72. Loehlin, J. C., Willerman, L., and Horn, J. M. (1987). Personality resemblance in adoptive families when the children are late-adolescent or adult. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 961–969.Google Scholar
  73. Lorge, I. (1945). Schooling makes a difference. Teachers College Record, 46, 483–492.Google Scholar
  74. Lynn, R. (1990). The role of nutrition in secular increases in intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 273–285.Google Scholar
  75. Lynn, R. (1993). Nutrition and intelligence. In P. A. Vernon (Ed.), Biological approaches to human intelligence. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  76. Martin, N., and Jardine, R. (1986). Eysenck’s contributions to behavior genetics. In S. Modgil and C. Modgil (Eds.), Hans Eysenck: Consensus and controversy. Philadelphia: Falmer.Google Scholar
  77. Matheny, A. P., Jr. (1979). Appraisal of parental bias in twin studies: Ascribed zygosity and IQ differences in twins. Acta Genetica Medica Gemmellologica, 28, 155–160.Google Scholar
  78. Matheny, A. P., Jr., Wilson, R. S., and Dolan, A. B. (1976). Relations between twins’ similarity of appearance and behavioral similarity. Behavior Genetics, 6, 343–351.Google Scholar
  79. McCartney, K., Harris, M. J., and Bemieri, E (1990). Growing up and growing apart: A developmental analysis of twin studies. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 226–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. McCrae, R. R. (1990). Controlling neuroticism in the measurement of stress. Stress Medicine, 6, 237–241.Google Scholar
  81. McCrae, R. R., and Costa, P. T., Jr. (1990). Personality in adulthood. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  82. McGue, M., and Lykken, D. T. (1992). Genetic influence on risk of divorce. Psychological Science, 3, 368–373.Google Scholar
  83. McGue, M., Bacon, S., and Lykken, D. T. (1993). Personality stability and change in early adulthood: A behavioral genetic analysis. Developmental Psychology, 29, 96–109.Google Scholar
  84. McGue, M., Bouchard, T. J., Jr., Iacono, W. G., and Lykken, D. T. (19930. Behavioral genetics of cognitive ability: A life-span perspective. In R. Plomin and G E. McLearn (Eds.), Nature, nurture and psychology Washington, DC: APA Books.Google Scholar
  85. McMichael, A. J., Baghurst, P. A., Wigg, N. R., Vimpani, G. V., Robertson, E. F., and Roberts, R. J. (1988). Port Pirie cohort study: Environmental exposure to lead and children’s abilities at the age of four years. New England Journal of Medicine, 319, 468–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Mednick, S. A., Gabrelli, W. F., Jr., and Hutchings, B. (1987). Genetic factors in the etiology of criminal behavior. In S. A. Mednick, T. E. Moffitt, and S. A. Stack (Eds.), The causes of crime: New biological approaches. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  87. Meehl, P. E. (1972). A critical afterword. In I. I. Gottesman and J. Shields, Schizophrenia and genetics: A twin study vantage point New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  88. Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-coursepersistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Moos, R. H., and Moos, B. S. (1981). Family Environment Scale manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  90. Morris-Yates, A., Andrews, G., Howie, P., and Henderson, S. (1990). Twins: A test of the equal environments assumption. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 8, 322–326.Google Scholar
  91. Munsinger, J., and Douglass, A., II. (1976). The syntactic abilities of identical twins, fraternal twins, and their siblings. Child Development, 47, 40–50.Google Scholar
  92. Pedersen, N. L., Plomin, R., Nesselroade, J. R., and McClearn, G. E. (1992). A quantitative genetic analysis of cognitive abilities during the second half of the life-span. Psychological Science, 3, 346–353.Google Scholar
  93. Phillips, K., and Fulker, D. W. (1989). Quantitative genetic analysis of longitudinal trends in adoption designs with application to IQ in the Colorado Adoption project. Behavior Genetics, 19, 621–658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Plomin, R., and Bergeman, C. S. (1991). The nature of nurture: Genetic influences on “environmental” measures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 14, 373–427.Google Scholar
  95. Plomin, R., Corley, R., DeFries, J. C., and Fulker, D. W. (1990). Individual differences in television viewing in early childhood: Nature as well as nurture. Psychological Science, 1, 371–377.Google Scholar
  96. Plomin, R., and Daniels, D. (1987). Why are children in the same family so different from one another? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10, 1–16.Google Scholar
  97. Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., and Fulker, D. W. (1988). Nature and nurture during infancy and early childhood. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  98. Plomin, R., Willerman, L., and Loehlin, J. C. (1976). Resemblance in appearance and the equal environments assumption in twin studies of personality traits. Behavior Genetics, 6, 43–52.Google Scholar
  99. Prioleau, L., Murdock, M., and Brody, N. (1983). An analysis of psychotherapy versus placebo studies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 6, 275–310.Google Scholar
  100. Ramey, C. T. (1992). High risk children and IQ: Altering inter-generational patterns. Intelligence, 16, 239–256.Google Scholar
  101. Ramey, C. T., Holmberg, M. C., Sparling, J. H., and Collier, A. M. (1977). An introduction to the Carolina Abecedarian Project. In B. M. Caldwell and D. J. Stedman (Eds.), Infant education: A guide for helping handicapped children in the first three years. New York: Walker.Google Scholar
  102. Reed, E. W., and Rich, S. S. (1982). Parent-offspring correlations and regressions for IQ. Behavior Genetics, 12, 535–542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Reiss, D., Plomin, R., Hetherinton, E. M., Howe, G. W., Rovine, M., Tryon, A., and Hagan, M. S. (1994). The separate worlds of teenage siblings: An introduction to the study of the non-shared environment and adolescent development. In E. M. Hetherington, D. Reiss, and R. Plomin (Eds.), Separate social worlds of siblings: The impact of nonshared environment on development. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  104. Rowe, D. C., Woulbroun, E. J., and Gulley, B. L. (1994). Peers and friends as nonshared environmental influences. In E. M. Hetherington, D. Reiss, and R. Plomin (Eds.), Separate social worlds of siblings: The impact of nonshared environment on development. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  105. Royce, J. M., Darlington, R. B., and Murray, H. W. (1983). Pooled analyses: Findings across studies. In Consortium for Longitudinal Studies (Ed.), As the twig is bentchwr(133) lasting effects of preschool programs. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  106. Rush, D., Stein, Z., Susser, M., and Brody, N. (1980). Outcome at one year of age: Effects of somatic and psychological measures. In D. Rush, Z. Stein, and M. Susser (Eds.), Diet in pregnancy: A randomized controlled trial of nutritional supplements. New York: Liss.Google Scholar
  107. Scarr, S. (1968). Environmental bias in twin studies. Eugenics Quarterly, 15, 34–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Scarr, S. (1992). Developmental theories for the 1990s: Development and individual differences. Child Development, 63, 1–19. Scan, S., and Cater-Saltzman, L. (1979). Twin method: Defense of a critical assumption. Behavior Genetics, 9, 527–542.Google Scholar
  109. Scan, S., and McCartney, K. (1983). How people make their own environments: A theory of gene-environment effects. Child Development, 54, 424–435.Google Scholar
  110. Schoenthaler, S. J., Amos, S. P., Eysenck, H. J., Peritz, E., and Yudkin, J. (1991). Controlled trial of vitamin-mineral supplementation: Effects of intelligence and performance. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 351–362.Google Scholar
  111. Scribner, S., and Cole, M. (1981). The psychology of literacy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  112. Seligman, M. E. P. (1990). Why is there so much depression today? The waxing of the individual and the waning of the commons. In R. E. Ingram (Ed.), Contemporary psychological approaches to depression. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  113. Smith, M. L., Glass, G. V., and Miller, T. I. (1980). The benefits of psychotherapy. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  114. Spitz, H. H. (1986). The rising of intelligence. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  115. Sundet, J. M., Tambs, K., Magnus, P., and Berg, K. (1988). On the question of secular trends in the heritability of intelligence test scores: A study of Norwegian twins. Intelligence, 8, 283–293.Google Scholar
  116. Teasdale, T. W., and Owen, O. R. (1989). Continuing secular increases in intelligence and a stable prevalence of high intelligence levels. Intelligence, 13, 255–262.Google Scholar
  117. Tellegen, A. (1982). Brief manual for the Differential Personality Questionnaire. Unpublished manuscript, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  118. Thompson, L. A., Detterman, D. K., and Plomin, R. (1991). Associations between cognitive abilities and scholastic achievement: Genetic overlap but environmental differences. Psychological Science, 2, 158–165.Google Scholar
  119. True, W. R., Rice, J., Eisen, S. A., Heath, A. C., Goldberg, J., Lyons, M. H., and Nowak, J. (1993). A twin study of genetic and environmental contributions to liability for posttraumatic stress symptoms. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 257–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Volger, G. P., and DeFries, J. C. (1983). Linearity of offspring-parent regression for general cognitive ability. Behavior Genetics, 13, 355–360.Google Scholar
  121. Wahlstein, D. (1990). Insensitivity of the analysis of variance to heredity-environment interaction. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 13, 109–161.Google Scholar
  122. Wilson, R. S. (1983). The Louisville twin study: Developmental synchronies in behavior. Child Development, 54, 298–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Wilson, R. S. (1986). Continuity and change in cognitive ability profile. Behavior Genetics, 16, 45–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Wortman, C. B., and Silver, R. C. (1989). The myths of coping with loss. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 349–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Zajonc, R. B., and Markus, G. B. (1975). Birth order and intellectual development. Psychological Review, 82, 74–88.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nathan Brody
    • 1
  • Michael J. Crowley
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyWesleyan UniversityMiddletownUSA

Personalised recommendations