Personality, Intelligence, and Neuropsychology in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Clinical Disorders

  • Margaret Semrud-Clikeman
  • Phyllis Anne Teeter
Chapter
Part of the Perspectives on Individual Differences book series (PIDF)

Abstract

Historically clinicians and researchers have utilized theories drawn from research in personality or intelligence or neuropsychology in isolation, with less attention given to the interaction between these three fields in the evaluation of childhood and adult disorders. Although each paradigm provides essential information for understanding disorders, it is likely that used alone, the approaches will miss important information needed for both assessment and the development of appropriate interventions.

Keywords

Traumatic Brain Injury Head Injury Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Conduct Disorder Personality Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbruzzese, M., Ferris, S., Bellodi, L., and Scarone, S. (1993). Frontal lobe dysfunction in mental illness. Psycoloquy, 93, 1–13.Google Scholar
  2. Abrams, R., and Taylor, M. A. (1980). A comparison of unipolar and bipolar depressive illness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 1084.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Achenbach, R. (1990). Conceptualizations of developmental psychopathology. In M. Lewis and S. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology (pp. 3–13 ). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (rev. 3rd ed. ). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  5. Andreasen, N. C., Olsen, S. A., Dennert, J. W., and Smith, M. R. (1982). Ventricular enlargement in schizophrenia: Relationship to positive and negative symptoms. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 297–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Appellof, E. (1986). Prefrontal lobe functions in juvenile delinquents (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (9), 3206B.Google Scholar
  7. Atkins, M. S., and Pelham, W. E. (1991). School-based assessment of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 24, 197–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bear, D. M. (1983). Hemispheric specialization and the neurology of emotions. Archives of Neurology, 40, 195–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Becker, M., Isaac, W., and Hynd, G. W. (1987). Neuropsychological development of nonverbal behaviors attributed to “frontal lobe” functioning. Developmental Neuropsychology, 3, 275–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berman, A., and Siegal, A. (1976). Adaptive and learning skills in juvenile delinquents: A neuropsychological analysis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 9(9), 51–58.Google Scholar
  11. Berman, K. E, Torrey, E. F., Daniel, D. G., and Weinberger, D. R. (1992). Regional cerebral blood flow in monozygotic twins discordant and concordant for schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 927–934.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berndt, D. J., and Berndt, S. M. (1980). Relationship of mild depression to psychological deficit in college students. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 868–874.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Keenan, K., Benjamin, J., Krifcher, B., Moore, C., et al. (1992). Further evidence for family-genetic risk factors in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 728–738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Biederman, J., Newcom, J., and Sprich, S. (1991). Comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with conduct, depressive, anxiety, and other disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 564–577.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Biederman, J., and Steingard, R. (1989). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents. Psychiatric Annals, 19, 587–596.Google Scholar
  16. Binder, L. M. (1986). Persisting symptoms after mild head injury: A review of post concussive syndrome. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 8, 323–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boll, T. J. (1983). Minor head injury in children: Out of sight but not out of mind. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 12, 74–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boll, T. J., and Barth, J. T. (1981). Neuropsychology of brain damage in children. In S. B. Filskov and T. J. Boll (Eds.), Handbook of clinical neuropsychology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  19. Breen, M. J., and Barkley, R. A. (1984). Psychological adjustment in learning disabled, hyperactive, and hyperactive/leaming disabled children as measured by the Personality Inventory for Children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 13, 232–236.Google Scholar
  20. Brink, J., Garrett, A., Hale, W., Woo-Sam, J., and Nickel, V. (1970). Recovery of motor and intellectual function in children sustaining severe head injuries. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 12, 565–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brooks, L., Campsie, L., Symington, C., Beattie, A., and McKinley, W. (1986). The five year outcome of severe blunt head injury: A relative’s view. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 49, 764–770.Google Scholar
  22. Brumback, R. A. (1988). Child depression and medically treatable learning disability. In D. L. Molfese and S. J. Segalowitz (Eds.), Brain lateralization in children: Developmental implications (pp. 463–505 ). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  23. Carney, J., and Gerring, J. (1990). Return to school following severe closed head injury: A critical phase in pediatric rehabilitation. Pediatrician, 17, 222–229.Google Scholar
  24. Cattaneo, A. M., Biserni, P., Cazzullo, C. L., Locatelli, M., Gambini, O., and Scarone, S. (1988). Neurofunctional assessment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: A comparative and methodological analysis. Schizophrenia Research, 2, 57.Google Scholar
  25. Cook, E. H., and Leventhal, B. L. (1992). Neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood and adolescence. In S. C. Yudofsky and R. E. Hales (Eds.), Textbook of neuropsychiatry (pp. 639–662 ). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  26. Dawson, G., Klinger, L. G., Panagiotides, H., Hill, D., and Spieker, S. (1992). Frontal lobe activity and affective behavior of infants of mothers with depressive symptoms. Child Development, 63, 725–737.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dean, R. S. (1985). Neuropsychological assessment. In J. D. Cavenar, R. Michels, H. K. H. Brodie, A. M. Cooper, S. B. Guze, L. L. Judd, G. L. Klerman, and A. J. Solnit (Eds.), Psychiatry. Philadelphia: Lippincott.Google Scholar
  28. Dean, R. S. (1986). Neuropsychological aspects of psychiatric disorders. In J. Obrzut and G. W. Hynd (Eds.), Child neuro-psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 83–112 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  29. d’Elia, G., and Perris, C. (1974). Cerebral functional dominance and depression: An analysis of EEG amplitude in depressed patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 49, 191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dimond, S. J., Farrington, L., and Johnson, P. (1976). Differing emotional responses from right and left hemispheres. Nature, 261, 690–692.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. DiScala, C., Osberg, J. S., Gans, B. M., Chin, L. J., and Grant, C. C. (1991). Children with traumatic head injury: Morbidity and post acute treatment. Archives of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation, 72, 662–666.Google Scholar
  32. Fletcher, J., and Taylor, H. (1984). Neuropsychological approaches to children: Towards a developmental neuropsychology. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 6, 39–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Flor-Henry, P. (1976). Lateralized temporo-limbic dysfunction and psychopathology. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 280, 777–797.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Frick, P., and Lahey, B. B. (1991). Nature and characteristics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. School Psychology Review, 20, 163–173.Google Scholar
  35. Galaburda, A. (1991). Anatomy of dyslexia: Argument against phrenology. In D. Duane and D. Gray (Eds.), The reading brain: The biological basis of dyslexia (pp. 119–131 ). Parkton, MD: York.Google Scholar
  36. Garber, H. J., Ananath, J. V., Chiu, L. C., Griswold, V. J., and Oldendorf, W. H. (1989). Nuclear magnetic resonance study of obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1001–1005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gershon, E. S., and Reider, R. O. (1992). Major disorders of mind and brain. Scientific American, 127–133.Google Scholar
  38. Geschwind, N. (1965). Disconnection syndromes in animals and man. Brain, 88, 237–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Golden, C. (1981). The Luria-Nebraska Children’s Battery: Theory formulation. In G. W. Hynd and J. Obrzut (Eds.), Neuro-psychological assessment and the school-aged child (pp. 277–302 ). New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  40. Gorenstein, E. E., Mammato, C. A., and Sandy, J. M. (1989). Performance of inattentive-overactive children on selected measures of prefrontal-type function. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45, 619–632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Grafman, J., Vance, S., Weingatner, H., Salazar, A., and Amin, D. (1986). The effects of lateralized frontal lobe lesions on mood regulation. Brain, 109, 1127–1148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hare, R. D., and Connoly, J. E (1987). Perceptual asymmetries and information processing in psychopaths. In S. A. Mednick and T. E. Moffitt (Eds.), Biology and antisocial behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Heaton, R., Baade, L., and Johnson, L. (1978). Neuropsychological test results associated with psychiatric disorders in adults. Psychological Bulletin, 85, 141–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hebb, D. O. (1942). The effect of early and late brain injury on test scores, and the nature of normal adult intelligence. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 85, 275–292.Google Scholar
  45. Heilman, K. M., Schwartz, H. D., and Watson, R. T. (1978). Hypoarousal in patients with neglect syndrome and emotional indifference. Neurology, 29, 229–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hertzig, M. E. (1982). Stability and change in nonfocal neurological signs. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 21, 231–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hinshaw, S. P. (1992). Externalizing behavior problems and academic underachievement in childhood and adolescence: Causal relationships and underlying mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 127–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hynd, G. W., Lorys, A. R., Semrud-Clikeman, M., Nieves, N., Huettner, M. I. S., and Lahey, B. B. (1991). Attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity (ADD/WO): A distinct behavioral and neurocognitive syndrome. Journal of Child Neurology (Supplement), 17–25.Google Scholar
  49. Hynd, G. W., and Semrud-Clikeman, M. (1990). Neuropsychological assessment. In A. S. Kaufman (Ed.), Assessing adolescent and adult intelligence (pp. 638–748 ). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  50. Hynd, G. W., and Willis, W. G. (1988). Pediatric neuropsychology. Orlando, FL: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  51. Jarvie, H. F. (1954). Frontal lobe wounds causing disinhibition: A study of six cases. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 17, 14–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jarvik, M. E. (1977). Psychopharmacology in the practice of medicine. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Judd, T. (1986). Assessment and interventions for major symp- toms of brain damage. Workshop in Managua, Nicaragua.Google Scholar
  53. Judd, T. (1992). Neuropsychotherapy: Psychotherapeutic techniques for brain injured clients. Workshop at the Washington State Psychological Association, Seattle.Google Scholar
  54. Kandel, E., Mednick, S. A., Kirkegaard-Sorenson, L., Hutchings, B., Knop, J., Rosenberg, R., and Schulsinger, F. (1988). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 224–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kaslow, N., Rehm, L., and Siegel, A. (1984). Social-cognitive and cognitive correlates of depression in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 12, 605–620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kaufman, A. S. (1979). Intelligent testing with the WISC-R. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  57. Klonoff, H., Low, M. D., and Clark, C. (1977). Head injuries in children: A prospective five year follow-up. Journal ofNeumlogy, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 40, 1211–1219.Google Scholar
  58. Kolb, B., and Whishaw, I. (1980). Fundamentals of human neuro-psychology. San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  59. Kolb, B., and Whishaw, I. (1985). Fundamentals of human neuro-psychology ( 2nd ed. ). San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  60. Kolligan, J., and Sternberg, R. J. (1987). Intelligence, information processing and specific learning disabilities: A triarchic synthesis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 20, 8–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kozlovskaya, G. V., and Goryunova, A. V. (1988). Psychological disintegration during the early development of children at high risk for endogenous mental disorders. Soviet Neurology and Psychiatry, 21, 26–35.Google Scholar
  62. Kronfol, Z., Hamsher, K. D., Digre, K., and Waziri, R. (1978). Depression and hemispheric functions: Changes associated with unilateral ECT. British Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 560–567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kusche, C. A., Cook, E. T., and Greenberg, M. T. (in press). Neuropsychological and cognitive functioning in children with internalizing, externalizing, and comorbid psychopathology. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology.Google Scholar
  64. Lehr, E. (1990). A developmental perspective. In E. Lehr (Ed.), Psychological management of traumatic brian injuries in children and adolescents (pp. 41–98 ). Rockville, MD: Aspen.Google Scholar
  65. Lenneberg, E. H. (1967). Biological foundations of language. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  66. Lezak, M. D. (1983). Neuropsychological assessment ( 2nd ed. ). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Lezak, M. D. (1987). Relationships between personality disorders, social disturbances, and physical disability following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 2, 57–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Linz, T., Hynd, G. W., Isaac, W., and Gibson, D. (1988). Do behaviors attributed to frontal lobe functioning discriminate between aggressive conduct disordered juvenile delinquents? Archives of Neuropsychology, 1, 29–35.Google Scholar
  69. Livingston, R., Taylor, J. L., and Crawford, S. L. (1988). A study of somatic complaints and psychiatric diagnosis in children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 185–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lou, H. C., Henriksen, L., and Bruhn, R (1984). Focal cerebral hypoperfusion in children with dysphasia and/or attentional deficit disorder. Archives of Neurology, 41, 825–829.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Luria, A. R. (1973). The working brain. New York: Basic Books. Luria, A. S. (1980). Higher cortical functions in man ( 2nd ed. ). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  72. Martin, D. A. (1988). Children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury: Impact on the family. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 21, 464–470.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McBurnett, K., Hynd, G. W., Lahey, B., and Town, R. (1988). Do neuropsychological measures contribute to the prediction of academic achievement? Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 6, 162–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McCabe, R. J. R., and Green, D. (1987). Rehabilitating severely head-injured adolescents: Three case reports. Journal of Child Psychiatry and Psychology, 28, 111–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mesulam, M. (1985). Principles of behavioral neurology. Philadelphia: Davis.Google Scholar
  76. Milich, R., and Landau, S. (1989). The role of social status variables in differentiating subgroups of hyperactive children. In L. M. Bloomingdale and J. Swanson (Eds.), Attention deficit disorder: Current concepts and emerging trends in attentional and behavioral disorders of childhood (Vol. 5, pp. 1–16 ). Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  77. Moffitt, T. E. ( 1992, April). The neuropsychology of conduct disorder. Paper presented at NIMH workshop on conduct disorders, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  78. Moffitt, T. E., and Henry, B. (1989). Neuropsychological assessment of executive functions in self-reported delinquents. Development and Psychopathology, 1, 105–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Moffitt, T. E., and Silva, P. A. (1988). IQ and delinquency: A direct test of the differential detection hypothesis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 330–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Nieves, N. (1991). Childhood psychopathology and learning disabilities: Neuropsychological relationships. In J. E. Obrzut and G. W. Hynd (Eds.), Neuropsychological foundations of learning disabilities (pp. 113–146 ). San Diego, CA: Academic press.Google Scholar
  81. Parmelee, D. X., and O’Shanick, G. J. (1987). Neuropsychiatric interventions with head injured children and adolescents. Brain Injury, 1, 41–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Passler, M., Isaac, W., and Hynd, G. W. (1985). Neuropsychological behavior attributed to frontal lobe functioning in children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 1, 349–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pianta, R. C., and Caldwell, C. B. (1990). Stability of externalizing symptoms from kindergarten to first grade and factors related to instability. Development and Psychopathology, 2, 247–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pirozzolo, F. J., and Papanicolaou, A. C. (1986). Plasticity and recovery of function in the central nervous system. In J. E. Obzrut and G.W. Hynd (Eds.), Child neuropsychology: Theory and research (Vol. 1, pp. 10–21 ). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  85. Reitan, R. M. (1979). Manual for administration of neuro-psychological test batteries for adults and children. Tucson, AZ: Author.Google Scholar
  86. Reitan, R. M., and Davison, L. (1974). Clinical neuropsychology: Current status and applications. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  87. Reitan, R. M., and Wolfson, D. (1985). Neuroanatomy and neuropathology: A clinical guide for neuropsychologists. Tucson, AZ: Neuropsychology Press.Google Scholar
  88. Ross, E. D. (1981). The aprosodias: Functional-anatomical organization of the affective components of language in the right hemisphere. Archives of Neurology, 38, 561–569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rutter, M., Chadwick, O., and Shaffer, D. (1983). Head injury. In M. Rutter (Ed.), Developmental neuropsychiatry (pp. 83–111 ). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  90. Scarone, S., Colombo, C., Livian, S., Abbruzzese, M., Ronchi, P., Locatelli, M., Scotti, G., and Smeraldi, E. (1992). Increased right caudate nucleus size in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): Detection with magnetic resonance imaging. Psychiatry Research, 45, 115–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Schaffner, D., Bijur, P., Chadwick, O., and Rutter, M. (1980). Head injury and later reading disability. Journal of the Américan Academy of Child Psychiatry, 19, 592–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Semrud-Clikeman, M., and Hynd, G. W. (1990). Right hemispheric dysfunction in nonverbal learning disabilities: Social, academic, and adaptive functioning in adults and children. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 196–209.Google Scholar
  93. Semrud-Clikeman, M., and Hynd, G. W. (1991). Review of issues and measures in childhood depression. International Journal of School Psychology, 12, 275–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Semrud-Clikeman, M., Hynd, G. W., Novey, E. S., and Eliopulos, D. (1991). Dyslexia and brain morphology: Relationships between neuroanatomical variation and neurolinguistic tasks. Learning and Individual Differences, 3, 225–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Semrud-Clikeman, M., Lorys, A. R., Hynd, G. W., and Lahey, B. B. (1993). Differential diagnosis of children with ADD/H and ADD with co-occurring conduct disorder: Discriminant validity of neurocognitive measures. School Psychology International, 14, 361–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Shaffer, D., Schoenfeld, I., O’Connor, P. A., Stokman, C., Trautman, R, Shafer, S., and Ng, S. (1985). Neurological soft signs. Archives bf General Psychiatry, 42, 342–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sohlberg, M. M., and Mateer, C. A. (1989). Introduction to cognitive rehabilitation: Theory and practice. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  98. Stanovich, K. E. (1993). The construct validity of discrepancy definitions of reading disability. In G. R. Lyon, D. B. Gray, J. F. Kavanagh, and N. A. Krasnegor (Eds.), Better understanding learning disabilities: New views from research and their implications for education and public policies (pp. 273–308 ). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.Google Scholar
  99. Strauss, C. S. (1991). Anxiety disorders of childhood and adolescence. School Psychology Review, 19, 142–157.Google Scholar
  100. Stuss, D., and Benson, F. (1986). The frontal lobes. New York: Raven.Google Scholar
  101. Swanson, H. L. (1982). A multidimensional model for assessing learning-disabled student’s intelligence: An information-processing framework. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 5, 312–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Swanson, H. L. (1993). Learning disabilities from the perspective of cognitive psychology. In G. R. Lyon, D. B. Gray, J. E. Kavanagh, and N. A. Krasnegor (Eds.), Better understanding learning disabilities: New views from research and their implications for education and public policies (pp. 199–228 ). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.Google Scholar
  103. Taylor, E. A. (1983). Measurement issues and approaches. In M. Rutter (Ed.), Developmental neuropsychiatry (pp. 239–248 ). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  104. Teeter, R. A. (1986). Standard neuropsychological batteries for children. In J. Obzrut and G. W. Hynd (Eds.), Child neuro-psychology: Clinical practice (Vol. 2, pp. 187–228 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  105. Tramontana, M. B., and Hooper, S. R. (1989). Neuropsychology of child psychopathology. In C. R. Reynolds and E. FletcherJanzen (Eds.), Handbook of clinical child neuropsychology (pp. 87–106 ). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  106. Tramontana, M. G., Sherrets, S. D., and Golden, C. J. (1980). Brain dysfunction in youngsters with psychiatric disorders: Application of Selz-Reitan rules for neuropsychological diagnosis. Clinical Neuropsychology, 2. 118–123.Google Scholar
  107. Tranel, D. (1992). Functional neuroanatomy: Neuropsychological correlates of cortical and subcortical damage. In S. C. Yudofsky and R. E. Hales (Eds.), Textbook of neuropsychiatry (pp. 57–88 ). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  108. Tremblay, R. E., Masse, B., Perron, D., and Leblanc, M. (1992). Early disruptive behavior, poor school achievement, delinquent behavior, and delinquent personality: Longitudinal analyses. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 64–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Voeller, K. K. S. (1986). Right-hemisphere deficit syndrome in children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 1004–1009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Wechsler, D. (1974). Manual for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  111. White, J. L., Moffitt, T. E., and Silva, P. A. (1989). A prospective replication of the protective effects of IQ in subjects at high risk for juvenile delinquency. Journal of Consulting and clinical Psychology, 57, 719–724.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Williamson, P. C., Kutcher, S. P., Cooper, P. W., Gary-Snow, W., Szalai, J. P., Kaye, H., Morrison, S. L., Willinsky, R. A., and Mamelak, M. (1989). Psychological, topographic EEG and CT scan correlates of frontal lobe function in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 29, 137–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Witelson, S. (1987). Neurobiological aspects of language in children. Child Development, 58, 653–688.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Woods, B. T. (1980). The restricted effects of right-hemisphere lesions after age one: Wechsler test data. Neuropsychologia, 18, 65–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Woo-Sam, J., Zimmerman, I. L., Brink, J. A., Uyehara, K., and Miller, A. R. (1970). Socioeconomic status and post-traumatic intelligence in children with severe head injuries. Psychological Reports, 27, 147–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Yeudall, L., Fromm-Auch, D., and Davies, R. (1982). Neuro-psychological impairment in persistent delinquency. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 170, 257–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Yozawitz, A., Bruder, G., Sutton, S., Sharpe, L., Gurland, B., Fleiss, J., and Costa, L. (1979). Dichotic perception: Evidence for right hemisphere dysfunction in affective psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 224–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Zametkin, M. D., Nordahl, T. E., Gross, M., King, A. C., Semple, W. E., Rumsey, J., Hamburger, S., and Cohen, R. M. (1990). Cerebral glucose metabolism in adults with hyperactivity of childhood onset. New England Journal of Medicine, 323, 1361–1366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margaret Semrud-Clikeman
    • 1
  • Phyllis Anne Teeter
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Educational PsychologyUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Educational PsychologyUniversity of Wisconsin-MilwaukeeMilwaukeeUSA

Personalised recommendations