Personality and Intelligence in Industrial and Organizational Psychology

  • Ruth Kanfer
  • Phillip L. Ackerman
  • Todd Murtha
  • Maynard Goff
Part of the Perspectives on Individual Differences book series (PIDF)


The discipline of industrial and organizational (I/O) psychology focuses on understanding human behavior in the context of work. Since the emergence of I/O psychology as a field of scientific inquiry in the United States at the turn of the century, I/O psychologists have been concerned with a wide variety of topics, including personnel selection and placement, job training, task design, worker motivation, organizational influences on work behavior, and procedures for optimizing job performance and worker efficiency. (For reviews of these and other I/O areas, see Dun-nette, 1976; Dunnette & Hough, 1990, 1991, 1992.) From an individual differences perspective, however, two fundamental questions may be proposed to underlie much of I/O theory and research: (a) What roles do cognitive and nonability individual differences play in the determination of job performance? (b) How may individual-difference theories and assessment measures be employed to improve predictions of the fit between an individual and a job?


Personality Inventory Personality Test Personality Measure Ability Test Organizational Psychology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abt, L. E. (1947). The efficiency of the group Rorschach: Testing the psychiatric screening of Marine Corps recruits. Journal of Psychology, 23, 205–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ackerman, P. L. (1988). Determinants of individual differences during skill acquisition: Cognitive abilities and information processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 117, 288–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ackerman, P. L. (1990). A correlational analysis of skill specificity: Learning, abilities, and individual differences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16, 883–901.Google Scholar
  4. Ackerman, P. L. (1992). Predicting individual differences in complex skill acquisition: Dynamics of ability determinants. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 598–614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ackerman, P. L., and Kyllonen, P.C. (1991). Trainee characteristics. In J. E. Morrison (Ed.), Training for performance: Principles of applied human learning (pp. 193–229 ). West Sussex, England: Wiley.Google Scholar
  6. Adams, C. R. (1941). A new measure of personality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 25, 141–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Adler, S., and Weiss, H. M. (1988). Recent developments in the study of personality and organizational behavior. In C. L. Cooper and I. Robertson (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology 1988 (pp. 307–330 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  8. Allport, G. W. (1921). Personality and character. Psychological Bulletin, 18, 441–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Allport, G. W. (1928). A test for ascendance-submission. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 23, 118–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and National Council on Measurement in Education. (1985). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  11. American Psychological Association. (1954). Technical recommendations for psychological tests and diagnostic techniques. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  12. American Psychological Association. (1970). Psychological assessment and public policy. American Psychologist, 25, 264–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. American Society of Personnel Administrators. (1971). Personnel testing. ASPA Survey No. 12. In Bulletin to Management (BNA Policy and Practice Series). Washington, DC: Bureau of National Affairs.Google Scholar
  14. Anastasi, A. (1980). Psychological testing and privacy. In W. C. Bier (Ed.), Privacy: A vanishing value? New York: Fordham University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Anastasi, A. (1985). The use of personal assessment in industry: Methodological and interpretative problems. In H. J. Bernardin and D. A. Bownas (Eds.), Personality assessment in organizations (pp. 1–20 ). New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  16. Arvey, R. D., and Faley, R. H. (1988). Fairness in selecting employees. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  17. Ash, P. (1991). A history of honesty testing. In J. W. Jones (Ed.), Pre-employment honesty testing: Current research and future directions (pp. 3–20 ). Westport, CT: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  18. Balinsky, B. (1945). The multiple choice group Rorschach test as a means of screening applicants for jobs. Journal of Psychology, 19, 203–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Barnabas, B. (1948). Validity of personality and interest tests in selection and placement situations. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, 51, 335–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Barrett, G. V., Phillips, J. S., and Alexander, R. A. (1981). Concurrent and predictive validity designs: A critical reanalysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Barrick, M. R., and Mount, M. K. (1991). The Big Five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 44, 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Barrick, M. R., and Mount, M. K. (1993). Autonomy as a moderator of the relationships between the big five personality dimensions and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 111–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bemis, S. E. (1968). Occupational validity of the General Aptitude Test Battery. Journal of Applied Psychology, 52, 240–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bennett, G. K., and Gordon, H. P. (1944). Personality test scores and success in the field of nursing. Journal of Applied Psychology, 28, 267–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bentz, V. J. (1985). Research findings from personality assessment of executives. In H. J. Bernardin and D. A. Bownas (Eds.), Personality assessment in organizations (pp. 82–144 ). New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  26. Bemreuter, R. G. (1933a). The theory and construction of the personality inventory. Journal of Social Psychology, 4, 387–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bemreuter, R. G. (1933b). The validity of the personality inventory. Personnel Journal, 11, 383–386.Google Scholar
  28. Beyerstein, B. L., and Beyerstein, D. F. (Eds.). (1991). The write stuff: Evaluations of graphology, the study of handwriting analysis. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus.Google Scholar
  29. Biesheuvel, S. (1965). Personnel selection. Annual Review of Psychology, 16, 295–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bills, M. A., and Ward, L. W. (1936). Testing salesmen of casualty insurance. Personnel Journal, 15, 55–58.Google Scholar
  31. Bingham, W. V. (1923). Psychology applied. Scientific Monthly, 16, 141–159.Google Scholar
  32. Borgatta, E. F. (1964). The structure of personality characteristics. Behavioral Science, 12, 8–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Borman, W. C., Rosse, R: L., and Abrahams, N. M. (1980). An empirical construct validity approach to studying predictor-job performance links. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 662–671.Google Scholar
  34. Brockner, J. (1985). Self-esteem at work. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  35. Bureau of National Affairs. (1963). Employee selection procedures: Personnel policies forum survey no. 70. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  36. Bureau of National Affairs Survey. (1976). Selection procedures and personnel records: Personnel policies forum survey no. 114. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  37. Butcher, J. N. (1985). Personality assessment in industry: Theoretical issues and illustrations. In H. J. Bernardin and D. A. Bownas (Eds.), Personality assessment in organizations (pp. 277–310 ). New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  38. Carroll, J. B. (1980). Individual difference relations in psychometric and experimental cognitive tasks (Technical Report No. 163 ). Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, L. L. Thurstone Psychometric Laboratory.Google Scholar
  39. Carroll, J. B. (1993). Human cognitive abilities; A survey of factor-analytic studies. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Cattell, McK. (1890). Mental tests and measurements. Mind, 15, 373–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Challman, R. C. (1945). The validity of the Harrower-Erickson multiple choice test as a screening device. Journal of Psychology, 20, 41–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Clarke, W. V. (1956). The construction of an industrial selection personality test. Journal of Personality, 16, 379–394.Google Scholar
  43. Cleveland, E. A. (1948). Sales personnel research, 1935–1945: A review. Personnel Psychology, 1, 211–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Collins, M. (1925). Character and temperament tests: A preliminary report. British Journal of Psychology, 16, 89–99.Google Scholar
  45. Cortina, J. M., Doherty, M. L., Schmitt, N., Kaufman, G., and Smith, R. G. (1992). The “big five” personality factors in the IPI and MMPI: Predictors of police performance. Personnel Psychology, 45, 119–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Costa, P. T., Jr., and McCrae, R. R. (1988). From catalog to classification: Murray’s needs and the five-factor model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 258–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Costa, P. T., Jr., and McCrae, R. R. (1992a). Four ways five factors are basic. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 653–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Costa, P. T., Jr., and McCrae, R. R. (1992b). Revised NEO Personality Inventory manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  49. Cronbach, L. J. (1957). The two disciplines of scientific psychology. American Psychologist, 12, 671–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Cronbach, L. J. (1990). Essentials of psychological testing ( 5th ed. ). New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  51. Cronbach, L. J., and Snow, R. E. (1977). Aptitudes and instructional methods: A handbook for research on interactions. New York: Irvington.Google Scholar
  52. Digman, J. M. (1990). Personality structure: Emergence of the five-factor model. Annual Review of Psychology, 41, 417–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Digman, J. M., and Inouye, J. (1986). Further specification of the five robust factors of personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 116–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Dodge, A. E. (1938a). Social dominance of clerical workers and sales persons. Journal of Educational Psychology, 28,132–139. Dodge, A. E (1938b). Social dominance and sales personality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 22, 132–139.Google Scholar
  55. Dodge, A. F. (1940). What are the personality traits of the successful salesperson? Journal of Applied Psychology, 22, 229–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Dorcus, R. M. (1944). A brief study of the Humm-Wadsworth Temperament Scale and the Guilford-Martin Personnel Inventory in an industrial situation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 28, 302–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Downey, J. (1920). Some volitional patterns revealed by the will-profile. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3, 281–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Dunnette, M. D. (1962). Personnel management. Annual Review of Psychology, 13, 285–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Dunnette, M. D. (1963). A note on the criterion. Journal of Applied Psychology, 47, 251–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Dunnette, M. D. (Ed.). (1976). Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  61. Dunnette, M. D., and Borman, W. C. (1979). Personnel selection and classification systems. Annual Review of Psychology, 30, 477–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Dunnette, M. D., Bownas, D. A., and Bosshardt, M. J. (1981). Electric power plant study: Prediction of inappropriate, unreliable or aberrant job behavior in nuclear power plant settings. Minneapolis, MN: Personnel Decisions Research Institute.Google Scholar
  63. Dunnette, M. D., and Hough, L. M. (Eds.). (1990). Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 1 ). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  64. Dunnette, M. D., and Hough, L. M. (Eds.). (1991). Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 2 ). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  65. Dunnette, M. D., and Hough, L. M. (Eds.). (1992). Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 3 ). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  66. Dunnette, M. D., McCartney, J., Carlson, H. C., and Kirchner, W. K. (1962). A study of faking behavior on a forced-choice self-description checklist. Personnel Psychology, 15, 13–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ellis, A. (1946). The validity of personality questionnaires. Psychological Bulletin, 43, 385–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ellis, A., and Conrad, H. S. (1948). The validity of personality inventories in military practice. Psychological Bulletin, 45, 385–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Civil Service Commission, Department of Labor, and Department of Justice. (1978). Adoption by four agencies of uniform guidelines on employee selection procedures. Federal Register, 43 (166), 38290–38315.Google Scholar
  70. Fiske, D. W. (1949). Consistency of the factorial structures of personality ratings from different sources. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 44, 329–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Fitts, P., and Posner, M. I. (1967). Human performance. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  72. Flanagan, J. C. (Ed.). (1948). Army Air Forces Aviation Psychology Program research reports: 1. The Aviation Psychology Program in the Army Air Forces. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  73. Forlano, G., and Kirkpatrick, E. H. (1945). Intelligence and adjustment measurements in the selection of radio tube mounters. Journal of Applied Psychology, 29, 257–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Franz, S. I. (1919). Handbook of mental examination methods ( 2nd ed. ). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  75. Friedman, T., and Williams, E. B. (1982). Current use of tests for employment. In A. Wigdor and W. Garner (Eds.), National Academy of Sciences report on ability testing (Vol. 2 ). Washington, DC: National Research Council.Google Scholar
  76. Furfey, P. H. (1926). An improved rating scale technique. Journal of Educational Psychology, 17, 45–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Galton, F. (1883). Inquiries into human faculty and its development. New York: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Garrison, K. C. (1939). The use of psychological tests in the selection of student-nurses. Journal of Applied Psychology, 23, 461–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ghiselli, E. E. (1973). The validity of aptitude tests in personnel selection. Personnel Psychology, 26, 461–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ghiselli, E. E., and Barthol, R. P. (1953). The validity of personality inventories in the selection of employees. Journal of Applied Psychology, 37, 18–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Goff, M., and Ackerman, P. L. (1992). Personality-intelligence relations: Assessing typical intellectual engagement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 537–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Goldberg, L. R. (1971). A historical survey of personality scales and inventories. In P. Reynolds (Eds.), Advances in psychological assessment (Vol. 2, pp. 293–336 ). Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books.Google Scholar
  83. Goldberg, L. R. (1981). Language and individual differences: The search for universals in personality lexicons. In L. Wheeler (Ed.), Review of personality and social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 141–166 ). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  84. Goldberg, L. R. (1990). An alternative “description of personality:” The big-five factor structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 1216–1229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Gough, H. G. (1953). A nonintellectual intelligence test. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 17, 242–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Gough, H. G. (1971). The assessment of wayward impulse by means of the Personnel Reaction Blank. Personnel Psychology, 24, 669–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Gough, H. G. (1985). A work orientation scale for the California Psychological Inventory. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 505–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Gross, M. L. (1962). The brain watchers. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  89. Guilford, J. P. (1956). The structure of intellect. Psychological Bulletin, 53, 267–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Guilford, J. P., and Lacey, J. I. (Eds.). (1948). Army Air Forces Aviation Psychology Program research reports: Printed classification tests. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  91. Guion, R. M., and Gibson, W. M. (1988). Personnel selection and placement. Annual Review of Psychology, 39, 349–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Guion, R. M., and Gottier, R. F. (1965). Validity of personality measures in personnel selection. Personnel Psychology, 18, 135–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hakstian, A. R., Woolsey, L. K., Schroeder, M. L. (1987). Validity of a large-scale assessment battery in an industrial setting. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 47, 165–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hale, M. (1982). History of employment testing. In A. K. Wigdor and W. R. Garner (Eds.), Ability testing: Uses, consequences, and controversies (Part II, pp. 3–38 ). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  95. Hampton, P. (1940). Personality and success in selling. Personnel Journal, 19, 108–115.Google Scholar
  96. Hansen, C. P. (1989). A causal model of the relationship among accidents, biodata, personality, and cognitive factors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 81–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Harrell, T. W. (1949). Humm-Wadsworth Temperament Scale and ratings of salesmen. Personnel Psychology, 2, 451–495.Google Scholar
  98. Harrell, W. (1940). Testing cotton mill supervisors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 24, 31–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Hathaway, S. R., and McKinley, J. C. (1940). A multiphasic personality schedule (Minnesota): I. Construction of the schedule. Journal of Psychology, 10, 249–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Hathaway, S. R., and McKinley, J. C. (1951). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory manual. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  101. Hedlund, D. E. (1965). A review of the MMPI in industry. Psychological Reports, 17, 875–889.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Helmreich, R. L., Sawin, L. L., and Carsrud, A. L. (1986). The honeymoon effect in job performance: Temporal increases in the predictive power of achievement motivation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 185–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Hogan, J., and Hogan, R. (1986). Hogan personnel selection series manual. Minneapolis, MN: National Computer Systems.Google Scholar
  104. Hogan, J., and Hogan, R. (1989). How to measure employee reliability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 273–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Hogan, J., Hogan, R., and Murtha, T. (1992). Validation of a personality measure of managerial performance. Journal of Business and Psychology, 7, 225–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Hogan, R. (1986). Hogan Personality Inventory manual. Minneapolis, MN: National Computer Systems.Google Scholar
  107. Hogan, R., Carpenter, B. N., Briggs, S. R., and Hansson, R. O. (1985). Personality assessment and personnel selection. In H. J. Bernardin and D. A. Bownas (Eds.), Personality assessment in organizations (pp. 21–52 ). New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  108. Hogan, R., DeSoto, C. B., and Solano, C. (1977). Traits, tests, and personality research. American Psychologist, 32, 255–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Hogan, R., and Hogan, J. (1991). Personality and status. In D. G. Gilbert and J. J. Conley (Eds.), Personality, social skills, and psychopathology (pp. 137–154 ). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  110. Hogan, R., Hogan, J., and Busch, C. (1984). How to measure service orientation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 167–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Hogan, R., and Nicholson, R. (1988). The meaning of personality test scores. American Psychologist, 43, 621–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Holmes, F. J. (1950). Validity tests for insurance office personnel. Personnel Psychology, 3, 57–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Hough, L. M. (1992). The “big five” personality variables-construct confusion: Description versus prediction. Human Performance, 5, 139–155.Google Scholar
  114. Hough, L. M., Eaton, N. K., Dunnette, M. D., Kamp, J. D. and McCloy, R. A. (1990). Criterion-related validities of personality constructs and the effect of response distortion on those validities. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75 (Monograph), 581–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Hull, C. L. (1928). Aptitude testing. New York: World. Humm, D. G, and Wadsworth, G. W. (1933a). A diagnostic inventory of temperament: A preliminary report. Psychological Bulletin, 30, 602.Google Scholar
  116. Humm, D. G., and Wadsworth, G. W. (1933b). The Humm Wadsworth Temperament Scale Preliminary report. Personnel Journal, 12, 314–323.Google Scholar
  117. Humphreys, L. G. (1962). The organization of human abilities. American Psychologist, 17, 475–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Hunt, E., Frost, N., and Lunneborg, C. (1973). Individual differences in cognition: A new approach to intelligence. In G. Bower (Ed.), Advances in learning and motivation (Vol. 7, pp. 87–122 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  119. Hunter, J. E. (1986). Cognitive ability, cognitive aptitudes, job knowledge, and job performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 29, 340–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Jackson, D. N., and Kovacheff, J. D. (1993). Personality questionnaires in selection: Privacy issues and the Soroka case. Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, 30, 45–50.Google Scholar
  121. Jensen, M. B., and Rotter, J. B. (1947). The value of thirteen psychological tests in officer candidate screening. Journal of Applied Psychology, 31, 312–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Jurgensen, C. E. (1944). Report on the “Classification Inventory,” a personality test for industrial use. Journal of Applied Psychology, 28, 445–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Katzell, R. A., and Katzell, M. E. (1962). Development and application of structured tests of personality. Review of Educational Research, 32, 51–63.Google Scholar
  124. Kelly, T. L. (1928). Crossroads in the mind of man: A study of differentiable mental abilities. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Kenrick, D. T., and Funder, D. C. (1988). Profiting from controversy. American Psychologist, 43, 23–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Klimoski, R. J., and Rafaeli, A. (1983). Inferring personal qualities through handwriting analysis. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 56, 191–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Knauft, E. B. (1949). A selection battery for bake shop managers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 33, 304–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Kornhauser, A. W. (1922). The psychology of vocational selection. Psychological Bulletin, 19, 192–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Kornhauser, A. W., and Kingsbury, F. A. (1924). Psychological tests in business. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  130. Kruger B. L. (1938). A statistical analysis of the Humm Wadsworth Temperament Scale. Journal of Applied Psychology, 22, 641–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Kurtz, A. K. (1942). Recent research in the selection of life insurance salesmen. Journal of Applied Psychology, 25, 11–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Kurtz, A. K. (1948). A research test of the Rorschach Test. Personnel Psychology, 1, 41–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Kyllonen, P. C., and Christal, R. E. (1989). Cognitive modeling of learning abilities: A status report of LAMP. In R. F. Dillon and J. W. Pellegrino (Eds.), Testing: Theoretical and applied perspectives (pp. 146–173 ). New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  134. Kyllonen, P. C., and Tine, W. C. (1988). Individual differences in associative learning and forgetting. Intelligence, 12, 393–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Kyllonen, P. C., Tine, W. C., and Christal, R. E. (1991). Knowledge and processing speed as determinants of associative learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 120, 89–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Laird, D. (1925a). Detecting abnormal behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 20, 128–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Laird, D. (1925b). A mental hygiene and vocational test. Journal of Educational Psychology, 16, 419–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Lent, R. H., Aurbach, H. A., and Levin, L. S. (1971). Predictors, criteria, and significant results. Personnel Psychology, 24, 519–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Levy, R. (1979, March). Handwriting and hiring. Dunn’s Review, pp. 72–79.Google Scholar
  140. Locke, E. A., and Hulin, C. L. (1962). A review and evaluation of the validity studies of Activity Vector Analysis. Personnel Psychology, 15, 25–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Lohman, D. F. (1979). Spatial ability: A review and reanalysis of the correlational literature (Technical Report No. 8 ). Stanford, CA: Stanford University, School of Education.Google Scholar
  142. Lohman, D. F. (1987). Spatial abilities as traits, processes, and knowledge. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Advances of the psychology of human intelligence (Vol. 4, pp. 181–248 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  143. Mailer, J. B. (1935). Character and personality tests. Psychological Bulletin, 32, 500–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. May, M. A. (1925). The present status of the Will-Temperament tests. Journal of Applied Psychology, 9, 29–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. McCrae, R. R., and Costa, P. T. Jr. (1985). Updating Norman’s “adequate taxonomy”: Intelligence and personality dimen-Google Scholar
  146. sions in natural language and in questionnaires. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49,710–721.Google Scholar
  147. McCrae, R. R., and Costa, P. T., Jr. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 81–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. McCrae, R. R., and Costa, P. T., Jr. (1989). The structure of interpersonal traits: Wiggins’ circumplex and the five-factor model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 586–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. McHenry, J. J., Hough, L. M., Toquam, J. L., Hanson, M. A., and Ashworth, S. (1990). Project A validity results: The relationship between predictor and criterion domains. Personnel Psychology, 43, 335–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Melton, A. (Ed.). (1948). Army Air Forces Aviation Psychology Program research reports: 4. Apparatus tests. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  151. Miner, J. B. (1917). The evaluation of a method for the finely graduated estimation of ability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1, 123–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Miner, M. G. (1976). Selection procedures and personnel records: Personnel policies forum survey no. 114. Washington, DC: Bureau of National Affairs.Google Scholar
  153. Mischel, W. (1968). Personality and assessment. New York: Wiley. Mischel, W. (1969). Continuity and change in personality. American Psychologist, 24, 1012–1018.Google Scholar
  154. Mischel, W. (1973). Toward a cognitive social learning reconceptualization of personality. Psychological Review, 80, 252–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Mitchell, T. R. (1979). Organizational behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 30, 243–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Mowday, R. T., and Spencer, D. G. (1981). The influence of task and personality characteristics on employee turnover and absenteeism. Academy of Management Journal, 24, 634–642.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. National Industrial Conference Board. (1941). Experience with employment tests. In Studies in personnel policy no. 32. New York: National Industrial Conference Board.Google Scholar
  158. Neter, E., and Ben-Shakhar, G. (1989). Predictive validity of graphological inferences: A meta-analytic approach. Personality and Individual Differences, 10, 737–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Norman, W. T. (1963). Toward an adequate taxonomy of personality attributes: Replicated factor structure in peer nomination personality ratings. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66, 574–583.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Paterson, D. G. (1923). Methods of rating human qualities. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 110 81–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Paterson, D. G., Elliott, R. M., Anderson, L. D., Toops, H. A., and Heidbreder, E. (1930). Minnesota mechanical ability tests. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  162. Peters, L. H., Fisher, C. D., and O’Connor, E. J. (1982). The moderating effect of situational control of performance variance on the relationship between individual differences and performance. Personnel Psychology, 35, 609–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Peterson, D. R. (1968). The clinical study of social behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  164. Pillister, H. (1936). American psychologists judge fifty-three vocational tests. Journal of Applied Psychology, 20, 761–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Pressey, S. L., and Pressey, L. W. (1919). “Cross-out” tests, with suggestions as to a group scale of emotions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 3, 138–150.Google Scholar
  166. Ream, M. J. (1922). Group will-temperament tests. Journal of Educational Psychology, 13, 7–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Rhinehart, J. B. (1933). An attempt to predict the success of student nurses by the use of a battery of tests. Journal of Applied Psychology, 17, 277–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Ridgeway, J. (1964, December). The snoops: Private lives and public service. New Republic, 151, 13–17.Google Scholar
  169. Ridgeway, J. (1965, March). Who’s fit to serve? New Republic, 152, 9–11.Google Scholar
  170. Rosse, J. G., Miller, H. E., and Barnes, L. K. (1991). Combining personality and cognitive ability predictors for hiring service-oriented employees. Journal of Business and Psychology, 5, 431–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Rugg, H. O. (1921). Is the rating of human character practicable? Journal of Educational Psychology, 12, 425–428, 485–501.Google Scholar
  172. Rugg, H. O. (1922). Is the rating of human character practicable? Journal of Educational Psychology, 13, 30–42, 81–93.Google Scholar
  173. Sackett, P. R., Bums, L. R., and Callahan, C. (1989). Integrity testing for personnel selection: An update. Personnel Psychology, 42, 491–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Sackett, P. R., and Harris, M. M. (1984). Honesty testing for personnel selection: A review and critique. Personnel Psychology, 37, 221–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Sartain, A. Q. (1946). Relation between scores on certain standard tests and supervisory success in an aircraft factory. Journal of Applied Psychology, 30, 328–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Schmidt, F. L., and Hunter, J. E. (1977). Development of a general solution to the problem of validity generalization Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 529–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Schmidt, F. L., Hunter, J. E., and Pearlman, K. (1981). Task differences as moderators of aptitude test validity in selection: A red herring. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 166–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Schmidt, F. L., Ones, D. S., and Hunter, J. E. (1992). Personnel selection. Annual Review of Psychology, 41, 627–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Schmitt, N., Gooding, R. Z., Noe, R. A., and Kirsch, M. (1984). Metaanalyses of validity studies published between 1964 and 1982 and the investigation of study characteristics. Personnel Psychology, 37, 407–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Schmitt, N., and Schneider, B. (1983). Current issues in personnel selection. In K. M. Rowland and J. Ferris (Eds.), Research in personnel and human resources management (Vol. 1, pp. 85125 ). Greenwich, CT: JAI.Google Scholar
  181. Shipley, W. C., Gray, F. E., and Newbert, N. (1946). The Personal Inventory-is derivation and validation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 2, 318–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Sinaiko, H. W. (1949). The Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study in the selection of department store section managers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 33, 36–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Snow, R. E. (1989a). Aptitude-treatment interaction as a framework for research on individual differences in learning. In P. L. Ackerman, R. J. Sternberg, and R. Glaser (Eds.), Learning and individual differences: Advances in theory and research (pp. 13–59 ). New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  184. Snow, R. E. (1989b). Cognitive-conative aptitude interactions in learning In R. Kanfer, P. L. Ackerman, and R. Cudeck (Eds.) Abilities, motivation, and methodology: The Minnesota Symposium on learning and individual differences (pp. 435–474 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  185. Snow, R. E., and Yalow, E. (1982). Education and intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of human intelligence (pp. 493–585 ). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  186. Sparks, C. P. (1983). Paper-and-pencil measures of potential. In G. E Dreher and P. R. Sackett (Eds.), Perspectives on employee staffing and selection (pp. 349–368 ). Homewood, IL: Irwin.Google Scholar
  187. Spearman, C. (1904). “General intelligence,” objectively determined and measured. American Journal of Psychology, 15, 201–293.Google Scholar
  188. Spriegel, W. R., and Dale, A. G. (1953). Trends in personnel selection and induction. Personnel, 30, 169–175.Google Scholar
  189. Stuit, D. B. (Ed.). (1947). Personnel research and test development in the Bureau of Naval Personnel. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  190. Super, D. E. (1942). The Bernreuter Personality Inventory: A review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 39, 94–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Taylor, E. K., and Nevis, E. C. (1961). Personnel selection. Annual Review of Psychology, 12, 389–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Tenopyr, M. L. (1981). The realities of employment testing. American Psychologist, 36, 1120–1127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Thomson, G. H. (1916). A hierarchy without a general factor. British Journal of Psychology, 8, 271–281.Google Scholar
  194. Thomson, G. H. (1939). The factorial analysis of human ability. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  195. Thomdike, E. L. (1920). A constant error in psychological rating. Journal of Applied Psychology, 4, 25–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Thorndike, R.L. (1986). The role of general ability in prediction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 29, 332–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Thurstone, L. L. (1938). Primary mental abilities. Psychometric Monographs, 1.Google Scholar
  198. Thurstone, L. L., and Thurstone, T. G. (1941). Factorial studies of intelligence. Psychometric Monographs, 2.Google Scholar
  199. Tupes, E. C., and Christal, R. E. (1961). Recurrent personality factors based on trait ratings (ASD-TR-61–97). Lackland Air Force Base, TX: Aeronautical Systems Division, Personnel Laboratory.Google Scholar
  200. U.S. Adjutant General’s Office. (1919). The personnel system of the United States Army. Vol. 1. History of the personnel system. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  201. Viteles, M. S. (1930). Psychology in industry. Psychological Bulletin, 27, 567–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Viteles, M. S. (1932). Industrial psychology. New York: Norton. Watson, G. (1932). Measures of character and personality. Psychological Bulletin, 29, 147–176.Google Scholar
  203. Watson, G. (1933). Character and personality tests. Psychological Bulletin, 30, 467–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Weider, A., Mittelmann, B., Weschler, D., and Wolff, H. G. (1944). The Cornell Selectee Index: A method for quick testing of selectees for the armed forces. Journal of the American Medical Association, 124, 224–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Whyte, W. H. (1954). The fallacies of “personality” testing. Fortune, 50, 117–121.Google Scholar
  206. Woltz, D. J. (1988). An investigation of the role of working memory in procedural skill acquisition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 117, 319–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Yoakum, C. S., and Yerkes, R. M. (Eds.). (1920). Mental tests in the American Army. London: Sidgwick and Jackson.Google Scholar
  208. Young, K. (1923). The history of mental testing. Pedagogical Seminary, 31, 1–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Zubin, K. (1948). Recent advances in screening the emotionally maladjusted. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 4, 56–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ruth Kanfer
    • 1
  • Phillip L. Ackerman
    • 1
  • Todd Murtha
    • 1
  • Maynard Goff
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations