The Turkish Genocide of the Armenians

Continuing Effects on Survivors and Their Families Eight Decades after Massive Trauma
  • Diane Kupelian
  • Anie Sanentz Kalayjian
  • Alice Kassabian
Part of the The Plenum Series on Stress and Coping book series (SSSO)

Abstract

This chapter will introduce to the psychological literature a traumatized group that is little known, although its story is 80 years old. When this group, the Armenians, first emerged from its catastrophic trauma after World War I, psychology was in its infancy. Moreover, there was no impetus for collecting this group’s personal data, in contrast to the reparations requirements that produced much of the early literature on Holocaust survivors.

Keywords

Ethnic Identity Transaction Publisher Holocaust Survivor Turkish Government Armenian Genocide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ackerman, N. (1958). Dynamics of family life. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  2. Adalian, R. (Ed.). (1985). The Armenian genocide and America’s outcry: A compilation of U.S. documents, 1890–1923. Washington, DC: Armenian Assembly of America.Google Scholar
  3. Adalian, R. (Ed.). (1991–1993). The Armenian Genocide in the U.S. Archives, 1915–1918. Alexandria, VA: Chadwyck–Healey Microfiche.Google Scholar
  4. Adalian, R. (1992). The Armenian genocide: Revisionism and denial. In M. N. Dobkowski and I. Wallimann (Eds.), Genocide in our time: An annotated bibliography with analytical introductions (pp. 85–106 ). Ann Arbor, MI: Pierian Press.Google Scholar
  5. Albeck, J. H. (1994). Intergenerational consequences of trauma: Reframing traps in treatment theory—a second-generation perspective. In M. B. Williams and J. F. Sommer (Eds.), Handbook of post-traumatic therapy (pp. 106–125). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  6. Atamian, S. (1949, October 13). Traditional Armenian family of Turkish Armenia. Hairenik Weekly, pp. 4–5.Google Scholar
  7. Atamian, S. (1955). The Armenian community. New York: Philosophical Library.Google Scholar
  8. Bardakjian, K. (1985). Hitler and the Armenian genocide. Cambridge, MA: Zoryan Institute.Google Scholar
  9. Barton, J. L. (1918). U.S. Inquiry Document No. 808. Atrocities, Turkish: American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Reprinted Spring 1984 in Armenian Review, 37, 164–202.Google Scholar
  10. Beavers, W. (1977). Psychotherapy and growth: A family systems perspective. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  11. Boven, T. V. (1985). Paragraph 30: Note on the deleted reference to the massacre of the Armenians in the study on the question of the prevention and the punishment of the crime of genocide. In G. Libaridian (English language ed.), A crime of silence: The Armenian genocide (pp. 168–172 ). Bath, UK: Pitman Press.Google Scholar
  12. Bowen, M. (1978). Family therapy in clinical practice. New York: Aronson.Google Scholar
  13. Boyajian, D. H. (1972). Armenia: The case for a forgotten genocide. Westwood, NJ: Educational Book Crafters.Google Scholar
  14. Boyajian, K., and Grigorian, H. ( 1982, June 20–24). Sequelae of the Armenian genocide on survivors. Paper presented at the International Conference on the Holocaust and Genocide, Tel Aviv, Israel.Google Scholar
  15. Boyajian, K., and Grigorian, H. (1988). Psychological sequelae of the Armenian genocide. In R. G. Hovannisian (Ed.), The Armenian genocide in perspective (pp. 177–185 ). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  16. Bryce, V (1916). The treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire 1915–1916. London: Sir Joseph Causton and Sons.Google Scholar
  17. Chaliand, G., and Ternon, Y. (1983). The Armenians: From genocide to resistance (T. Benett, Trans.). London: Zed Press.Google Scholar
  18. Charny, I. (1983). The Turks, Armenians, and Jews. In I. W. Charny and S. Davidson (Eds.), The Book of the International Conference on the Holocaust and Genocide: Book One. The Conference Program and Crisis (pp. 269–316 ). Tel Aviv: Institute of the International Conference on the Holocaust and Genocide.Google Scholar
  19. Charny, I. (1993). A contribution to the psychology of denial of genocide: Denial as a celebration of destructiveness, an attempt to dominate the minds of men, and a “killing” of history. In Genocide and human rights: Lessons from the Armenian experience (pp. 289–306). Belmont, MA: Armenian Heritage Press. (A special issue of the Journal ofArmenian Studies, 4 (1 and 2).)Google Scholar
  20. Cohen R. (1983, May 31). Killing truth. Washington Post, p. B I.Google Scholar
  21. Dadrian, V N. (1991). The documentation of the World War I Armenian massacres in the proceedings of the Turkish military tribunal. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 23, 549–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dadrian, V. N. (1994a). Documentation of the Armenian genocide in German and Austrian sources. In I. W. Charny (Ed.), The widening circle of genocide: A critical bibliographic review (Vol. 3, pp. 77–125 ). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  23. Dadrian, V N. (1994b). The secret Young-Turk Ittihadist conference and the decision for the World War I genocide of the Armenians. Journal of Political and Military Sociology, 22(1), 173–202.Google Scholar
  24. Dadrian, V. N. (1995). The history of the Armenian genocide: Ethnic conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the Caucasus. Providence, RI: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  25. Dagirmanjian, S. (1996). Armenian families. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, and J. K. Pearce (Eds.), Ethnicity and Family Therapy ( 2nd ed., pp. 376–391 ). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  26. Danieli, Y. (1982). Families of survivors of the Nazi Holocaust: Some short-and long-term effects. In C. D. Spiel-berger and I. G. Sarason (Eds.), Stress and anxiety (Vol. 8, pp. 405–421 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  27. Danieli, Y. (1983). Psychotherapists’ participation in the conspiracy of silence about the Holocaust. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 1 (1), 23–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Danieli, Y. (1985). The treatment and prevention of long-term effects and intergenerational transmission of victimization: A lesson from Holocaust survivors and their children. In C. R. Figley (Ed.), Trauma and its wake: The study and treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (pp. 295–313 ). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  29. Danieli, Y. (1988). Treating survivors and children of survivors of the Nazi Holocaust. In F. M. Ochberg (Ed.), Post-traumatic therapy and victims of violence (pp. 278–294 ). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  30. Danieli, Y. (1989). Mourning in survivors and children of survivors of the Nazi Holocaust: The role of group and community modalities. In D. R. Dietrich and P. C. Shabad (Eds.), The problem of loss and mourning: Psychoanalytic perspectives (pp. 427–460 ). Madison, CT: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  31. Davidson, S. (1980). Transgenerational transmission in the families of Holocaust survivors. International Journal of Family Psychiatry, 1(1), 95–112.Google Scholar
  32. Davis, L. (1989). The slaughterhouse province: An American diplomat’s report on the Armenian genocide, 1915–1917. S. Blair (Ed.). New Rochelle, NY: Aristide D. Caratzas.Google Scholar
  33. Dekmejian, R. H. (1988). Determinants of genocide: Armenians and Jews as case studies. In R. G. Hovannissian (Ed.), The Armenian genocide in perspective (pp. 85–96 ). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  34. Der-Karabetian, A. (1980). Relation of two cultural identities of Armenian-Americans. Psychological Reports, 47, 123–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Der-Karabetian, A. (1981). Armenian identity: Comparative and context-bound. Armenian Review, 34, 25–31.Google Scholar
  36. Derogatis, L., and Melisaratos, N. (1983). The Brief Symptom Inventory: An introductory report. Psychological Medicine, 10, 125–132.Google Scholar
  37. Dobkin, M. (1984). What genocide? What holocaust? News from Turkey, 1915–23: A case study. In I. W. Charny (Ed.), Toward the understanding and prevention of genocide: Proceedings of the International Conference on the Holocaust and Genocide (pp. 100–112 ). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  38. Freyberg, J. T. (1980). Difficulties in separation-individuation as experienced by offspring of Nazi holocaust survivors. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 50(1), 87–95.Google Scholar
  39. Grubrich-Simitis, I. (1981). Extreme traumatization as cumulative trauma: Psychoanalytic investigations of the effects of concentration camp experiences on survivors and their children. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 36, 415–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gunter, M. M. (1992). Historical origins of Armenian-Turkish enmity. In Genocide and human rights: Lessons from the Armenian experience (pp. 257–288). Belmont, MA: Armenian Heritage Press. (A special issue of the Journal ofArmenian Studies, 4 (1 and 2).)Google Scholar
  41. Guroian V. (1988). Collective responsibility and official excuse making: The case of the Turkish genocide of the Armenians. In R. G. Hovannissian (Ed.), The Armenian genocide in perspective (pp. 135–152 ). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  42. Hoffmann, T. (1985). German eyewitness reports of the genocide of the Armenians, 1915–16. In G. Libaridian (English lang. Ed.), A crime of silence: The Armenian genocide (pp. 61–92 ). Bath, UK: Pitman Press.Google Scholar
  43. Horowitz, I. L. (1980). Taking lives: Genocide and state power. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  44. Housepian, M. (1971). The Smyrna affair: The first comprehensive account of the burning of the city and the expulsion of the Christians from Turkey in 1922. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  45. Hovannisian, R. (1967). Armenia on the road to independence 1918. Berkeley: University California Press. Hovannisian, R. (1985). The Armenian Question, 1878–1923. In G. Libaridian (English lang. Ed.), A Crime of Silence: The Armenian Genocide (pp. 11–33 ). Bath, UK: Pitman Press.Google Scholar
  46. Hovannisian, R. (1988). The Armenian Genocide and patterns of denial. In R. Hovannissian (Ed.), The Armenian Genocide in Perspective (pp. 111–134 ). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  47. Kalayjian, A., Shahinian, D., Gergerian, E., and Saraydarian, L. (1996). Coping with Ottoman Turkish genocide: An exploration of the experience ofArmenian survivors. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9 (1), 87–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kalfaian, A. (1982). Chomaklou: The history of an Armenian village (Trans. K. Asadourian). New York: Chomaklou Compatriotic Society.Google Scholar
  49. Kassabian, A. (1987). A three generational study ofArmenian family structure as it correlates to Armenian ethnic identity within the context of traumatic loss. The Catholic University of America, No. 87–13,571, University Microfilms International, 48 (04A).Google Scholar
  50. Kernaklian, P. (1967). The Armenian-American personality structure and its relationship to various states of ethnicity. Syracuse University No. 67–12,068, University Microfilms International, 28 (04A).Google Scholar
  51. Kestenberg, J. S. (1972). Psychoanalytic contributions to the problem of children of survivors from Nazi persecution. Israel Annals of Psychiatry and Related Disciplines, 10, 311–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Klein, H. (1971). Families of Holocaust survivors in the kibbutz: Psychological studies. In H. Krystal and W. G. Niederland (Eds.), Psychic traumatization: Aftereffects in individuals and communities (pp. 67–92 ). Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  53. Krell, R. (1982). Family therapy with children of concentration camp survivors. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 36 (4), 513–522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Krystal, H. (1988). Integration and self-healing: Affect, trauma, alexithymia. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.Google Scholar
  55. Krystal, H., and Niederland, W. (1968). Clinical observations on the survivor syndrome. In H. Krystal (Ed.), Massive psychic trauma (pp. 327–348 ). New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  56. Kupelian, D. (1993). Armenian genocide survivors: Adaptation and adjustment eight decades after massive trauma. American University, No. 94–22,771, University Microfilms International, 55 (04B).Google Scholar
  57. Kuper, L. (1981). Genocide. Suffolk, UK: Pengu in Books.Google Scholar
  58. Kuper, L. (1988). The Turkish genocide of Armenians, 1915–1917. In Richard Hovanissian (Ed.), The Armenian genocide in perspective (pp. 43–59 ). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  59. Libaridian, G. (1985). The ideology of the Young Turk Movement. In G. Libaridian (English lang. Ed.), A crime of silence: The Armenian genocide (pp. 37–49 ). Bath, UK: Pitman Press.Google Scholar
  60. Lidgett, E. (1987). The ancient people. London: James Nisbetter.Google Scholar
  61. Lidz, T. (1960). Schism and skew in the families of schizophrenics. In N. W. Bell and E. F. Vogel (Eds.), A modern introduction to the family (pp. 595–607 ). Glencoe, IL: Free Press.Google Scholar
  62. Lidz, T., Cornelison, A. R., Fleck, S., and Terry, D. (1957). The interfamily environment of schizophrenic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 114, 24–248.Google Scholar
  63. Lifton, R. (1969). Death in life: Survivors of Hiroshima. New York: Vintage Press.Google Scholar
  64. Loftus, J. (1993). Genocide and deterrence. In Genocide and human rights: Lessons from the Armenian experience (pp. 363–371). Belmont, MA: Armenian Heritage Press. (A special issue of the Journal ofArmenian Studies, 4(1 and 2).)Google Scholar
  65. Malcolm, V. M. (1919). The Armenians in America. Boston: Pilgrim Press.Google Scholar
  66. Mazian, F. ( 1983, Winter). The patriarchal Armenian family: 1914. Armenian Review, 36(4), 14–66.Google Scholar
  67. Melson, R. (1992). Revolution and genocide: On the origins of the Armenian Genocide and the Holocaust. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  68. Miller, J. ( 1990, April 22). Holocaust museum: A troubled start. New York Times Magazine, sec. 6, p. 34.Google Scholar
  69. Miller, D., and Miller, L. (1993). Survivors: An oral history of the Armenian Genocide. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  70. Minasian, E. (1986–1987). The forty years of Musa Dagh: The film that was denied. Journal of Armenian Studies, 3, 121–132.Google Scholar
  71. Minuchin, S., Montalvo, B., Guerney, B., Rossman, B., and Schumer, F. (1967). Families of the slums. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  72. Mirak, R. (1983). Torn between two lands: Armenians in America, 1890 to World War I. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Montville, J. V. (1987). Psychoanalytical enlightenment and the greening of diplomacy. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 37, 297–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Moos, R. H., and Moos, B. S. (1981). Family environment manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  75. Morganthau, H. (1975a). Ambassador Morgenthau’s story (2nd ed.). Plandome, NY: New Age Publishers. Original published 1918, Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Page.Google Scholar
  76. Morganthau, H. (1975b). The tragedy of Armenia (2nd ed.). Plandome, NY: New Age Publishers. Original published 1918, London: Spottiswoode, Ballantyne and Co.Google Scholar
  77. Neugarten, B. L. Havighurst, R. J., and Tobin, S. S. (1961). The measurement of life satisfaction. Journal of Gerontology, 16, 134–143 ).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Niederland, W. (1981). The survivor syndrome: Further observations and dimensions. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 29(2), 413–425.Google Scholar
  79. Olson, D. H., Portner, J., and Bell, R. Q. (1982). Clinical rating scale for the circumplex model of marital and family systems. St. Paul: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  80. Papazian, D. R. (1933). Misplaced credulity: Contemporary Turkish attempts to refute the Armenian genocide. In Genocide and human rights: Lessons from the Armenian experience (pp. 227–256). Belmont, MA: Armenian Heritage Press. (A special issue of the Journal of Armenian Studies, 4 (1 and 2).)Google Scholar
  81. Peroomian, R. (1993). Literary responses to catastrophe: A comparison of the Armenian and the Jewish experience. Atlanta: Scholars Press.Google Scholar
  82. Reid, J. (1984). The Armenian massacres in Ottoman and Turkish historiography. Armenian Review, 37, 22–40.Google Scholar
  83. Reiss, D. (1971). Varieties of consensual experience I: A theory for relating family interactions to individual thinking. Family Process, 10, 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Roid, G. H., and Fitts, W. H. (1989). Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS): Revised manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  85. Russell, A. (1974). Late psychosocial consequences in concentration camp survivor families. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 44, 611–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Salerian, A. ( 1982, June 20–24). A psychological report: Armenian genocide survivors-67 years later. Paper presented at the International Conference on the Holocaust and Genocide, Tel Aviv, Israel.Google Scholar
  87. Sarafian, A. (Ed.). (1993). Archival collections on the Armenian genocide: United States official documents on the Armenian genocide. Vol. 1: The Lower Euphrates. Watertown, MA: Armenian Review.Google Scholar
  88. Sarkissian, Z. (1984). Coping with massive stressful life events: The impact of the Armenian genocide of 1915 on the present day health and morale of a group of women survivors. Armenian Review, 37, 33–44.Google Scholar
  89. Simpson, C. (1993). The splendid blond beast, Money law, and genocide in the twentieth century. New York: Grove Press. Smith, R. W., Markusen, E., and Lifton, R. J. (1995). Professional ethics and the denial of the Armenian Genocide. Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 9(1),1–22.Google Scholar
  90. Spicer, D. (1971). Persistent identity systems. Science, 174, 795–800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Spitzer, R., Williams, J., Gibbon, M., and First, M. (1989). Instruction manual for the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-I1I-R (SCID, 5/1/89 revision). New York: Biometrics Research.Google Scholar
  92. Steinberg, A. (1989). Holocaust survivors and their children: A review of the clinical literature. In P. Marcus and A. Rosenberg (Eds.), Healing their wounds: Psychotherapy with Holocaust survivors and their families (pp. 23–48 ). New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  93. Stierlin, H. (1974). Separating parents and adolescents. New York: Quadrangle.Google Scholar
  94. Stolorow, R. D., and Atwood, G. E. (1992). Contexts of being: The intersubjective foundations of psychological life. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.Google Scholar
  95. Sullivan, H. S. (1953). The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  96. Tashjian, J. (1947). The Armenians of the United States and Canada. Boston: Hairenik Publications.Google Scholar
  97. Toynbee, A. J. (1916). The treatment of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire. London: Sir Joseph Causton and Sons.Google Scholar
  98. Villa, S. H., and Matossian, M. K. (1982). Armenian village life before 1914. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.Google Scholar
  99. Walker, C. J. (1991). Armenia and Karabagh: The struggle for unity. London: Minority Rights Publications.Google Scholar
  100. Warner, L., and Srole, L. (1945). The social system ofAmerican ethnic groups. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  101. Wynne, L. C., Ryckoff, I., Day, J., and Hirsch, S. I. (1958). Pseudomutuality in family relations of schizophrenics. Psychiatry, 21, 205–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diane Kupelian
    • 1
  • Anie Sanentz Kalayjian
    • 2
    • 3
  • Alice Kassabian
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.USA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyFordham UniversityNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.New YorkUSA
  4. 4.School of Social WorkVirginia Commonwealth UniversityArlingtonUSA
  5. 5.ViennaUSA

Personalised recommendations