Critical Care Management of Refractory Status Epilepticus

  • J. Claassen
  • L. J. Hirsch
  • S. A. Mayer


Status epilepticus is defined as continuous or repetitive seizure activity persisting for at least 30 minutes without recovery of consciousness between attacks. Though differing to some degree, most authors define refractory status epilepticus as generalized status epilepticus that continues clinically or electrographically despite first and second line therapy. Definitions differ primarily regarding the required number of failed anticonvulsant drugs (two [1–5] or three [6–9]), and whether a minimum duration of persistent seizure activity is required (ranging from none [1, 5, 7–9] to one [3] or two [2, 4] hours). Status epilepticus can be classified according to clinical and electroencephalogram (EEG) findings (Fig. 1).


Status Epilepticus Refractory Status Refractory Status Epilepticus Convulsive Status Epilepticus Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Claassen
  • L. J. Hirsch
  • S. A. Mayer

There are no affiliations available

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