Gender and Cell-mediated Immunity Following Trauma, Shock, and Sepsis

  • M. G. Schwacha
  • A. Samy
  • I. H. Chaudry


While improved preventative methods and patient care have decreased patient morbidity and mortality, major traumatic injury remains one of the leading causes of death for young adults (<30 years of age) in the United States. Trauma represents a severe form of injury including bone fracture, penetrating soft tissue injury, (i.e., gunshot wounds), thermal injury and protracted surgical procedures. Many forms of traumatic injury, such as penetrating soft tissue trauma, are usually associated with a subsequent loss of significant blood volume. During the initial 60-minute post-traumatic period, approximately 50% of the observed mortality is due to exsanguination or central nervous system (CNS) complications. In the subsequent 2 hours, close to 30% of the victims succumb to major internal organ damage. Unfortunately, surviving trauma patient prognosis remains dire, since these patients display a 50% mortality rate from secondary complications that include sepsis, multiple organ failure (MOF), and eventual death [1-3]. Sepsis is the major non-neurological cause of death following trauma. A significant effort in scientific and medical research has been directed towards understanding the relationship between major traumatic injury and/or shock and the predisposition to septic/infectious complications and/or MOF.


Hemorrhagic Shock Steroidogenic Enzyme Androgen Receptor Antagonist Gender Dimorphism Subsequent Sepsis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. G. Schwacha
  • A. Samy
  • I. H. Chaudry

There are no affiliations available

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