TNF as a Mediator of Cardiac Depression following Snakebite

  • O. Szold
  • R. Ben-Abraham
  • P. Sorkine


Snake envenomation is still a major health threat in different parts of the world [1, 2], particularly in rural areas and tropical and subtropical countries [3]. In North America, over 5000 Americans suffer from snakebites annually with as many as a quarter of these being from poisonous species [4]. The incidence of death from snakebites is low in most countries because of the quick availability of medical care, even in rural areas. In the United States, the mortality rate from snakebite is below 1% for victims who receive antivenom [5], while it is 0.5% per 2000 bites in France [6]. Worldwide, some 30,000-to-40,000 persons die every year as a result of venomous snakebite. These numbers seem, however, to underestimate the danger to the population since reports arriving from developing countries are incomplete.


Tumor Necrosis Factor Snake Venom Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Venom Component Cardiac Depression 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. Szold
  • R. Ben-Abraham
  • P. Sorkine

There are no affiliations available

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