Clinical Applications of Indirect Calorimetry in the Intensive Care Setting
Metabolic stress, a result of the rapidly changing and complex nature of severe illness, is common in critically ill patients. Although the importance of nutritional support has received increasing interest over recent years, this is usually provided in an empiric manner without necessarily taking into account the specific nutritional and, especially, energy requirements of a particular patient. These factors may be of considerable importance to patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Under-nutrition, as indicated by a severely negative energy balance (>10000 kCal during the ICU stay) has been associated with a higher mortality in critically ill patients at risk for developing multiple organ failure (MOF) , while over-nutrition in artificially-fed patients especially with carbohydrates may increase postoperative length of stay, increase rates of infection and mortality . It would, therefore, seem that an accurate daily and individualized evaluation of energy expenditure would be the best way to administer appropriate energy support in these metabolically brittle patients.
KeywordsSystemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome Intensive Care Unit Stay Multiple Organ Failure Respiratory Quotient Indirect Calorimetry
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