There can be significant loss in optical connections due to misalignment or mismatch of the modes between the two devices. Misalignment between a source and a single mode waveguide by dimensions of less than 1 μm can cause coupling loss exceeding 1 dB. Coupling problems are exaggerated by the small dimensions of typical optical waveguides and sources, which makes alignment a critical and challenging task. In this chapter, we will establish the fundamental rules for coupling optical power between two waveguides and between a source and waveguide. The coupling techniques are based on the concepts developed in previous discussion on coupled mode theory.
KeywordsRadiation Mode Coupling Efficiency Couple Mode Theory Optical Source Slab Waveguide
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