Introduction and Overview

  • Clifford R. Pollock
  • Michal Lipson


In 1837, the era of electrical communication began with the demonstration of the telegraph by Samuel Morse. The telegraph passed information at a data rate, in modern terminology, of a few bits per second, but the speed of propagation was essentially infinite compared to the message itself. The transmission medium was wire cable. The telegraph was followed by Alexander Graham Bell’s invention of the telephone. The first telephone exchange was operated in New Haven, Connecticut, USA, in 1878. At approximately 4 kHz bandwidth, the telephone represented a major increase in the effective bandwidth of a moderate distance communication system.


Optical Waveguide Effective Bandwidth Optical Communication System Transmission Medium Optical Carrier 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clifford R. Pollock
    • 1
  • Michal Lipson
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Electrical and Computer EngineeringCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

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