Lymphokine-Induced Macrophage Resistance to Infection with Leishmania Major
Leishmania are obligately intracellular protozoan parasites whose host cell within Infected humans and experimental animals Is the macrophage. Development of an effective Immune response to these organisms presents a unique immunologic predicament: the cell that sustains parasite viability within the host is also the central effector cell for induction of immune responses and expression of cytotoxic effector reactions. Once the parasite Is inside a macrophage, It Is protected from many of the humoral host defense mechanisms that develop during Infectious diseases. Resolution of infection, then, is primarily dependent upon extraordinary alterations In the intracellular environment of the macrophage that lead to death of the parasite, or elimination of the Infected cell itself (4,8,9). An alternative approach for intervention in the cycle of infection with Leishmania Is the development of macrophages resistant to Infection with the parasite. Macrophages from animals that are undergoing a vigorous Immune response to an infectious agent ingest fewer obligate or facultatively Intracellular pathogens in vitro than macrophages from uninfected mice (8,14). In fact, this decreased uptake of parasites, which we call “resistance to infection”, has been observed in activated macrophages obtained from mice Infected with Mycobacterium bovis strain BCG, as well as macrophages from L. donovanI-infected mice that were resolving systemic disease (5,14).
KeywordsBone Marrow Macrophage Walter Reed Army Institute Resident Peritoneal Macrophage Intracellular Protozoan Parasite Macrophage Activation Factor
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