Identification and Characterization of a Non-Interferon Antileishmanial Macrophage Activating Factor (Antileishmanial MAF)
Macrophages, the final effector cells in many cellular immune responses are capable of destroying a variety of intracellular pathogens such as viruses, fungi, chlamydia, rickettsiae and leishmania (1,2) as well as neoplastic cells (3). However, the biochemical identity of macrophage activating factor (MAF), and therefore the elucidation of its mechanism of action on macrophages have remained ill-defined. In part, this has been due to the limited amounts of MAF produced under conventional conditions, amounts insufficient to achieve a full biochemical purification of this factor. In addition, conventional culture supernatants of activated T cells normally contain a heterogeneous mixture of lymphokines, such as interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) that can all affect the functions of macrophages. Although both human and murine interferon-gamma have been attributed to be the lymphokines to activate macrophages for enhanced oxidative and antimicrobial activity (4–7), numerous reports also demonstrated the existence of non-IFN-gamma MAFs (8–12).
KeywordsMigration Inhibitory Factor Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulate Factor Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Antileishmanial Activity Intracellular Killing
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