The Protective Role of T Cells in Immunity to Malaria

  • William P. Weidanz
  • David A. Brake
  • Lisa A. Cavacini
  • Carole A. Long
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 239)

Abstract

Members of the genus Plasmodium have a complex life cycle which involves both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. In the former, they parasitize the erythron, causing malaria, a disease characterized by high morbidity and mortality worldwide. In an effort to develop an effective vaccine to combat this disease, research has focused primarily on extracellular stages of the parasite presumably because they should be more accessible to antibody-dependent resistance mechanisms than intracellular parasites. Target stages include sporozoites, gametes, and merozoites. In addition, plasmodial antigens expressed on the membranes of infected erythrocytes are being studied as potential targets of protective antibodies.1 Certain of the stage specific antigens which have been identified and expressed by recombinant DNA technology or synthesized biochemically in the laboratory are currently being investigated in experimental animals and humans as candidate vaccines.2–4 In contrast, other data suggest that plasmodia can be destroyed during intracellular development by immune mechanisms apart from or in addition to those mediated by antibodies.5 While efforts to define these immune mechanisms and to identify and characterize parasite antigens responsible for their activation have only recently begun, it is possible that they will provide a basis for the design of additional immunizing agents to be tested against malaria. In this article, we will review certain evidence that T cells, in addition to their function as helper cells in the production of protective antibodies, play an essential though as yet undefined role in antibody-independent immunity to malaria, and we will speculate on mechanisms by which protection is achieved.

Keywords

Nude Mouse Post Infection Adoptive Transfer Protective Antibody Murine Malaria 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    L.H. Miller, R.J. Howard, R. Carter, M.F. Good, V. Nussenzweig, and R.S. Nussenzweig, Research toward malaria vaccines. Science, 234: 1349 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J.E. Egan, J.L. Weber, W.R. Ballou, W. Majarian, D.M. Gordon, S.L. Hoffman, R.A. Wirtz, S. Schneider, G. Woollett, M.R. Hollingdale, J.F. Young, and W.T. Hockmeyer, Efficacy of murine malaria sporozoite vaccines: Implications for human vaccine development. Science, 236: 453 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    W.R. Ballou, J.A. Sherwood, F.A. Neva, D.M. Gordon, R.A. Wirtz, G.F. Wasserman, C.L. Diggs, S.L. Hoffman, M.R. Hollingdale, W.T. Hockmeyer, I. Schneider, J.F. Young, P. Reeve, and J.D. Chulay, Safety and efficacy of a recombinant DNA Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite vaccine, Lancet, 1: 1278 (1987).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D.A. Herrington, D.F. Clyde, G. Losonsky, M. Cortesia, J.R. Murphy, J. Davis, S. Bagar, A.M. Felix, E.P. Heiner, D. Gillesser., E. Nardin, R.S. Nussenzweig, V. Nussenzweig, M.R. Hollingdale, and M.M. Levine, Safety and immunogenicity in man of a synthetic peptide vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites, Nature, 328: 257 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    A.C. Allison and E.M. Eugui, The role of cell-mediated immune responses in resistance to malaria with special reference to oxidant stress, Ann. Rev. Immunol. 1: 361 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J.H.L. Playfair, Immunity to malaria, Brit. Med. Bull. 38: 167 (1982).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    W.P. Weidanz and J.L. Grun, Antibody-independent mechanisms in the development of acquired immunity te malaria, in: “Host defenses to intracellular pathogens,” T.K. Eisenstein, P. Actor, and F. Friedman, eds., Plenum Press, New York (1983).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    W.P. Weidanz and C.A. Long, The role of T cells i.n immunity to malaria, in: “Malaria Immunology,” Progress in Allergy, P. Perlmann and H. Wigzell, eds,S. Karger, Basel (in press).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R.G. Rank and W.P. Weidanz, Nonsterilizing immunity in avian malaria: an antibody-independent phenomenon, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 151: 257 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    F.I. Weinbaum, C.B. Evans, R.E. Tigelaar, Immunity to Plasmodium berghei yoelii in mice. I. The course of infection in T cell and B cell deficient mice, J. Immunol. 117: 1999 (1976).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    D.W. Roberts, R.G. Rank, W.P. Weidanz, and J.F. Finerty, Prevention of recrudescent malaria in nude mice by thymic grafting or by treatment with hyperimmune serum, Infect. Immun. 16: 321 (1977).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    D.W. Roberts and W.P. Weidanz, T-cell immunity to malaria in the B-cell deficient mouse, Amer. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 28: 1 (1979).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J.L. Grun and W.P. Weidanz, Antibody-independent immunity to reinfection malaria in B-cell deficient mice, Infect. Immun. 41: 1197 (1983).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J.L. Grun and W.P. Weidanz, Immunity to Plasmodium chabaudi adami in the B-cell deficient mouse, Nature 290: 143 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A.N. Jayawardena, G.A.T. Targett, E. Leuchars, and A.J.S. Davies, The immunological response of CBA mice to P. yoelii II. The passive transfer of immunity with serum and cells, Immunol. 34: 157 (1978).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    R.R. Freeman, A.J. Trejdosiewicz, and G.A.M. Cross, Protective monoclonal antibodies recognizing stage-specific merozoite antigens of a rodent malaria parasite, Nature 284: 366 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    W.M. Majarian, T.M. Daly, W.P. Weidanz, and C.A. Long, Passive immunization against murine malaria with an IgG3 monoclonal antibody, J. Immunol. 132: 3131 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    D.H. Chen, R.E. Tigelaar, F.I. Weinbaum, Immunity to sporozoite-induced malaria infection in mice. I. The effect of immunization of T and B cell-deficient mice, J. Immunol. 118: 1322 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. Ferreira, L. Schofield, V. Enea, H. Schellekens, P. Van der Meide, W.E. Collins, R.S. Nussenzweig, and V. Nussenzweig, Inhibition of development of exoerythrocytic forms of malaria parasites by gamma-interferon, Science 232: 881 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    L. Schofield, A. Ferreira, V. Nussenzweig, and R.S. Nussenzweig, Antimalarial activity of alpha tumor necrosis factor and gamma interferon, Fed. Proc. 46: 7560 (1987).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    I.N. Brown, A.C. Allison, and R.B. Taylor, Plasmodium berghei infections in thymectomized rats, Nature 219: 292 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    L.A. Cavacini, C.A. Long, and W.P. Weidanz, T-cell immunity in murine malaria: adoptive transfer of resistance to Plasmodium chabaudi adami in nude mice with splenic T cells, Infect. Immun. 52: 637 (1986).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    D.A. Brake, W.P. Weidanz, and C.A. Long, Antigen-specific, interleukin 2-propagated T lymphocytes confer resistance to a murine malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi adami J. Immunol. 137: 347 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    D.J. Cher and T.R. Mossmann, Two types of murine helper T-cell clone. H. Delayed-type hypersensitivity is mediated by TH1 clones, J. Immunol. 138: 3688.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    S. Cohen and P.H. Lambert, Malaria, in: “Immunology of Parasitic Infections,” S. Cohen and K.S. Warren, Eds., Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1982).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    A.C. Allison and E.M. Eugui, A radical interpretation of immunity to malaria parasites, Lancet 2: 1431 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    I.A. Clark and N.H. Hunt, Evidence for reactive oxygen intermediates causing hemolysis and parasite death in malaria, Infect. Immun. 39: 1 (1983).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    I.A. Clark, W.B. Cowden, and G.A. Butcher, Free oxygen generators as antimalarial drugs, Lancet 1: 234 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    C.F. Ockenhouse and H.L. Shear, Oxidative killing of intraerythrocytic malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii by activated macrophages, J. Immunol. 132: 424 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    H.M. Dockrell and J.H.L. Playfair, Killing of blood-stage malaria parasites by hydrogen peroxide. Infect. Immun. 39: 456 (1983).PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    A.N. Jayawardena, immune responses in malaria, in: “Parasitic Diseases,” J. Mansfield, ed., Marcel Dekker, New York (1981).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    J.B. Jensen, M.T. Boland, J.S. Allan, J.M. Carlin, J.A. Vande Waa, A.A. Divo, and M.A. Akood, Association between human serum-induced crisis forms in cultured Plasmodium falciparum and clinical immunity to malaria in Sudan, Infect. Immun. 41: 1302 (1983).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    J.M. Carlin, J.B. Jensen, and T.G. Geary, Comparison of inducers of crisis forms in Plasmodium falciparum in vitro Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 34: 668 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    J.B. Jensen, Crisis forms in falciparum malaria. J. Cell. Biochem. Suppl. 10A: 121 (1986)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • William P. Weidanz
    • 1
  • David A. Brake
    • 1
  • Lisa A. Cavacini
    • 1
  • Carole A. Long
    • 1
  1. 1.The Malaria Research Group Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyHahnemann University School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations