The carbohydrate—sucrose

  • W. M. Nicol


Carbohydrates are a family of naturally occurring substances of varying sweetness comprising hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. Sugars, starches and celluloses are sub-sections of the family but in this chapter the focus is on sugars and in particular on sucrose, the most important member of the family. Sucrose, or sugar as it is commonly known, occurs widely in nature. It is present in the juice of most fruit and some root vegetables notably the sugar beet Beta vulgaris which is a temperate climatic zone plant. It occurs in the sap of many trees such as the American sugar maple Acer saccharum, the carob Ceratonia siliqua, and certain palm trees. It is also found in the stem and roots of grasses, particularly the sub-tropical continental grass, the sugar cane Saccharum officinarum.


Sugar Beet Cocoa Butter Food Ingredient Gelatinisation Temperature Cane Sugar 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amerine, M.A., Pangbom, R.M. and Roessler, E.B. (1965) Principles of Sensory Evaluation of Food, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Austin, R.B., Kingston, G., Longden, P.C. and Donovan, P.A. (1978) J. Agric. Sci., Camb. 91, 667–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Back, J.F., Oakenfull, D. and Smith, M.B. (1979) Biochemistry 18 (23) 5191–5196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bean, M.M., Yamazaki, W.T. and Donelson, D.H. (1978) Cereal Chem. 55 (6), 936–952.Google Scholar
  5. Bennett, M.C. (1982) Sugar Azucar 77, 35–39.Google Scholar
  6. Booth, D.A. (1988) Appetite 11 (Suppl. 1), 94–102.Google Scholar
  7. British Nutrition Foundation (1987) Sugars and Syrups Task Force,BNF, London. Chatterjee, A., Jalan, K.N., Agarwal, S.K. et al. (1977) Lancet i, 1333–1335.Google Scholar
  8. Chief Medical Officer’s Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA) (1989) Dietary Sugars and Human Disease, HMSO, London.Google Scholar
  9. Dobbing, J. (ed.) (1987) Sweetness, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  10. FAO/WHO (1980) Carbohydrates in Human Nutrition, FAO/WHO, Geneva.Google Scholar
  11. Glinsmann, W.H., Irausquin, H. and Park, Y.H. (1986) Evaluation of health aspects of sugars contained in carbohydrate sweeteners. J. Nutr. 116 (11) S1–S216.Google Scholar
  12. Hefferren, J.J. et al. (1986) J. Dental Res. 65, 1473–1543 (special issue).Google Scholar
  13. Hersage, L. and Montenegro, J.R. (1984) Gaz. Med. 91, 59–62.Google Scholar
  14. Hugill, A. (1979) In Developments in Sweeteners-1, eds. C. Hough, K.J. Parker and A.J. Vlitos, Elsevier Applied Science, London, pp. 1–42.Google Scholar
  15. Hyvonen, L., Kurkela, R., Koivistoinen, P. and Merimaa, P. (1977) Lebensm.-Wiss. Technol. 10, 316–320.Google Scholar
  16. McCance and Widdowson’s (1978) The Composition of Foods 4th edn., HMSO, London. Macdonald, I. and Vettorazzi, G. (eds.) (1988) Sucrose, Nutritional and Safety Aspects, Springer Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  17. McKay, D.A.M. (1979) In Health and Sugar Substitutes, ed. B.S. Guggenheim, Karger, Basel, p. 322.Google Scholar
  18. Niedick, E.A. and Babemics, L. (1979) Gordian 79 (2), 35–44.Google Scholar
  19. Pangborn, R.M. (1965) In Proc. 1st Internat. Cong. Food Sci. Technol., Vol III, ed. J.M. Leitch, Gordon and Breach, New York, p. 291.Google Scholar
  20. Razanajatovo, L., Alais, C. and Paul, R. (1978) Lait 58 (578), 483–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Seiler, D.A.L. (1969) BFMIRA Symposium No 4, Relative Humidity in the Food Industry, pp. 28–36.Google Scholar
  22. Shore, M. (1978) J. Agric. Sci., Camb. 91, 674.Google Scholar
  23. Van der Wel, H. and Arvidson, K. (1978) Qualitative psychological studies on the gustatory effects of the sweet-tasting proteins thaumatin and monellin. Chem. Senses Flay. 3, 291–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wootton, M. and Bamunuarachchi, A. (1980) Starke 32 (4), 126–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. M. Nicol

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations