An Alternative Path to Exceptionality: Prenatal Effects of Teratogenic Substances on Developmental Processes

  • Karen Kopera-Frye
  • Robert Arendt
Part of the Springer Series on Human Exceptionality book series (SSHE)


When one thinks of exceptionality, ideas such as “above average” or “varying from standard and typical norms” come to mind. In the area of behavioral teratology (the study of the effects of prenatal exposure to substances on developmental processes), the usual focus is also on how individuals deviate or vary from normative development. These effects are primarily pervasive and adverse in nature. It is important for readers to realize that the research described here entails effects not amenable to transient, environmental, or situational determinants of development (e.g., examining educational settings and promotion of giftedness), and that individuals who have been prenatally exposed to harmful agents display enduring, atypical developmental behaviors. Thus, exceptionality here is based on the premise that individuals do not undergo normal, typical developmental processes in the same fashion as those who were prenatally free from exposure to teratogenic agents.


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Prenatal Exposure Alcohol Exposure Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Cocaine Exposure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karen Kopera-Frye
    • 1
  • Robert Arendt
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of AkronAkronUSA
  2. 2.Division of Pediatric PsychologyCase Western Reserve University School of MedicineClevelandUSA

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