Olive Oil Oxidation

  • Maria Teresa Morales
  • Roman Przybylski


Lipids play an important role in the metabolism of cells by providing a source of energy and reserve storage materials. The main processes leading to the deterioration of lipids are hydrolytic rancidity, or lipolysis, and oxidative rancidity, or oxidation. In olive oil, the former usually begins while the oil is in the fruit, whereas the latter is mainly produced during the extraction process and storage (Kiritsakis 1990). Rancid fat derives from a wide variety of chemical substances. Human taste buds are highly sensitive to some compounds, such as lactones and free fatty acids, so only minute amounts of these compounds are needed to spoil the taste of a food. Although hydrolytic rancidity, which is caused by the release of free fatty acids from glycerides, is extremely important in determining how a product tastes, it is unlikely to be of any nutritional significance because fats are enzymically hydrolyzed in the small intestine before they are absorbed. In some cases, hydrolytic rancidity is regarded as desirable. Oxidative rancidity, however, leads to the formation of both unpalatable and toxic compounds and is thus nutritionally undesirable (Sanders 1983).


Volatile Compound Singlet Oxygen Lipid Oxidation Peroxide Value Ascorbyl Palmitate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alter, M., Gutfinger, T. (1982). Phospholipids in several vegetable oils. Riv Ital Sostanze Grasse 59, 14–18.Google Scholar
  2. Angerosa, F.,et al (1995). GC-MS evaluation of phenplic compound in virgin oils, J Agric Food Chem 43, 1082–1807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Angerosa, E, Di Giacinto, L. (1993). Oxidation of virgin olive oil by metals: Mn and Ni. Rev Fr Corps Gras 40, 41–48.Google Scholar
  4. Aparicio, R., et al. (1998). Detection of rancid defect in virgin olive oil by the electronic nose. Internal Report IGS-TM-100698, Instituto de la Grasa, Seville, Spain.Google Scholar
  5. Aparicio, R., Alonso, V., Morales, M. T. (1996). Developments in olive oil authentication. Proceedings of Food Authenticity ‘96: Methods for the Measurement of Food Authenticity and Adulteration. Norwich, England: Institute of Food Research.Google Scholar
  6. Aparicio, R., Morales, M. T. (1998). Characterization of olives ripeness by green aroma compounds of virgin olive oil. J Agric Food Chem 46, 1116–1122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aparicio, R., Morales, M. T., Alonso, M. V. (1996). Relationship between volatile compounds and sensory attributes of olive oils by the sensory wheel. J Am Oil Chem Soc 73, 1253–1264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baur, C., et al. (1977). Enzymatic oxidation of linoleic acid: Formation of bitter tasting fatty acids. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 164, 171–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bellus, D. (1978). Quenchers of singlet oxygen-A critical review. In Singlet Oxygen Reactions with Organic Compounds and Polymers, pp. 61–110. Edited by B. Ranby, J. F. Rabek. New York: John Wiley, Sons.Google Scholar
  10. Biermann, V., Wittmann, A., Grosch, W. (1980). Occurrence of bitter hydroxy fatty acids in oat and wheat. Fette Seifen Anstrichm 82, 236–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bradley, D. G., Min, D. B. (1992). Singlet oxygen oxidation of foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 31, 211–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carlsson, D. J., Suprunchuk, W., Wiles, D. M. (1976). Photooxidation of unsaturated oils: Effects of singlet oxygen quenchers. J Am Oil Chem Soc 53, 656–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Christopher, J. P., et al. (1972). Factors influencing the positional specificity of soybean lipoxygenase. Biochem Biophys Acta 289, 82–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clark, J. P., Hunsicker, J. C.,, Megremis, C. J. (1990). Tocopherols: Nature’s antioxidants. Food Austr 42, 262–263.Google Scholar
  15. Cuvelier, M. E., Richard, H., Berset, C. (1992). Comparison of the antioxidative activity of some acid-phenols: Structure-activity relationship. Biosci Biotech Biochem 56, 324–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Daniels, D. G., Martin, H. F. (1961). Isolation of a new antioxidant from oat. Nature 191, 1302–1303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. De Man, J. M., Tie, E, De Man, L. (1987). Formation of short chain volatile organic acids in the automated AOM method. J Am Oil Chem Soc 64, 993–995.Google Scholar
  18. Dobarganes, M. C., Pérez-Camino, M. C. (1988). Fatty acid composition: A useful tool for the determination of alteration level in heated fats. Rev Fr Corps Gras 35, 67–70.Google Scholar
  19. Dobarganes, M. C., Rios, J. J., Pérez-Camino, M. C. (1986). Relationship between the composition of vegetable oils and the volatile components produced in their thermoxidation. Grasas Aceites 37, 61–67.Google Scholar
  20. Dziedzic, S. Z., Hudson, B. J. E. (1984). Phenolic acids and related compounds as antioxidants for edible oils. Food Chem 14, 45–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Endo, Y., Usuki, R., Kaneda, T. (1984). Prooxidant activities of chlorophylls and their decomposition products on the photooxidation. J Am Oil Chem Soc 61, 781–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Eriksson, C. E., Qvist, J. A., Vallentin, K. (1977). Conversion of aldehydes to alcohols in liquid foods by alcohol dehydrogenase. In Enzymes in Food and Beverage Processing, pp. 132–142. Edited by R. L. Ory, A. J. St. Angelo. Champaign, IL: American Oil Chemists’ Society.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eskin, N. A. M., et al. (1989). Stability of low linolenic acid canola oil to frying temperatures. J Am Oil Chem Soc 66, 1081–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eskin, N. A. M., Vaisey-Genser, M. (1989). Applications for genetically modified oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 66, 1058–1063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. European Communities (EC) (1995). Official Journal of the Commission of the European Communities. Regulation No. 656/95, L69, March 29.Google Scholar
  26. European Communities (EC) (1997). Official Journal of the Commission of the European Communities. Regulation No. 2472/97, L341, December 12.Google Scholar
  27. Evans, C. D., et al. (1973). Long term storage of soybean and cottonseed salad oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 50, 218–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Evans, C. D., Moser H. A., List, G. R. (1971). Odour and flavour responses to additives in edible oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 48, 495–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Foote, C. S. (1968). Mechanism of photosensitized oxidation. Science 162, 963–970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Foote, C. S. (1976). Photosensitized oxidation and singlet oxygen: consequences in biological system. In Free Radicals in Biology, vol. 2, pp. 85–97. Edited by W. A. Pryor. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  31. Foote, C. S., Denny, R. W. (1970). Chemistry of singlet oxygen. J Am Oil Chem Soc 92, 5216–5218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Frankel, E. N. (1962). Hydroperoxides. In Symposium on Foods: Lipids and Their Oxidation, pp. 51–78. Edited by H. W. Schultz, E. A. Day, R. O. Sinnhuber. Westport, CT: AVI Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  33. Frankel, E. N. (1984). Lipid oxidation: Mechanism, products and flavor significance. JAm Oil Chem Soc 61, 1908–1916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Frankel, E. N. (1985). Chemistry of autoxidation: Mechanism, products and flavor significance. In Flavor Chemistry of Fats and Oils, pp. 1–37. Edited by D. B. Min, T. H. Smouse. Champaign, IL: American Oil Chemists’ Society.Google Scholar
  35. Frankel, E. N. (1989). The antioxidant and nutritional effects of tocopherols, ascorbic acid and 13-carotene in relation to processing of edible oils. Bibl Nutr Dieta 43, 297–312.Google Scholar
  36. Frankel, E. N. (1991). Recent advances in lipid oxidation. JSci FoodAgric 54, 495–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Frankel, E. N. (1993). In search of better methods to evaluate natural antioxidants and oxidative stability in food lipids. Trends Food Sci Technol 4, 220–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gandul-Rojas, B., Minguez-Mosquera, M. I. (1996). Chlorophyll and carotenoid composition in virgin olive oils from various Spanish olive varieties. J Sci Food Agric 72, 31–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gardner, H. W. (1970). Sequential enzymes of linoleic acid oxidation in corn germ: Lipoxygenase and linoleate hydroperoxide isomerase. J Lipid Res 11, 311–321.Google Scholar
  40. Gardner, H. W. (1987). Reactions of hydroperoxides-products of high molecular weight. In Autoxidation of Unsaturated Lipids, pp. 57. Edited by H. W-S. Chan. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  41. Garssen, G. J., Vliegenthart, J. F. G., Boldingh, J. (1972). The origin and structures of dimeric fatty acids from the anaerobic reaction between soya-bean lipoxygenase, linoleic acid and its hydroperoxide. Biochem J 130, 435–439.Google Scholar
  42. Haila, K., Heinonen, M. (1994). Action of r3-carotene on purified rapeseed oil during light storage. Lebensm 1J iss Technol 27, 573–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Heath, H. B., Reineccius, G. A. (1986). Flavor Chemistry and Technology, pp. 112–141. Westport, CT: AVI Publishing Co.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Henick, A. S., Benca, M. E, Mitchell, J. H. (1954). Estimation of carbonyl compounds in rancid fats and foods. JAm Oil Chem Soc 31, 881–883.Google Scholar
  45. Hodgins, D. (1997). The electronic nose: Sensor array-based instruments that emulate the human nose. In Techniques for Analyzing Food Aroma, pp. 331–371. Edited by R. Marsili. New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  46. Holm, U. (1979). Quality Criteria for Edible Fats. SIK-Report, No. 448, pp. 79–88. Göteborg, Sweden: SIK Institute.Google Scholar
  47. Huang, S. W, Frankel, E. N., German, J. B. (1994). Antioxidant activity of a-and y-tocopherols in bulk oils and in oil-in-water emulsions. JAgric Food Chem 42, 2108–2114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hudson, B. J. F., Ghovami, M. (1984). Phospholipids as antioxidant synergists for tocopherols in the autoxidation of edible oils. Lebensm WIss Techno117, 191–194.Google Scholar
  49. Husain, S. R., Terao, J., Matsushita, S. (1986). Effect of browning reaction products of phospholipids on autoxidation of methyl linoleate. JAm Oil Chem Soc 63, 1457–1460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ingold, K. U. (1969). Peroxy radicals. Acct Chem Res 2, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Interesse, E. S., Ruggiero, P., Vitagliano, M. (1971). Autoxidation of olive oil: influence of chlorophyll pigments. IndAgric 9, 318–323.Google Scholar
  52. International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) (1996a). Trade Standard Applying to Olive Oil and Olive Pomace Oil. COI/T.15/Document No. 2/Rev. 5. Madrid, November 20.Google Scholar
  53. International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) (1996b). Organoleptic Evaluation of Virgin Olive Oil. COI/T.20/Document No.15/Rev. 1. Madrid, November 20.Google Scholar
  54. Jawad, I. M., Kochhar, S. P., Hudson, B. J. F. (1984). The physical refining of edible oils. II. Effect on unsaponifiable components. Lebensm WIss Techno1 17, 155–159.Google Scholar
  55. Jung, M. Y., Min, D. B. (1990). a-, y-, S-Tocopherols effects on chlorophyll photosensitized oxidation of soybean oil. JFood Sci 56, 807–815.Google Scholar
  56. Jung, M. Y., Yoon, S. H., Min, D. B. (1989). Effects of processing steps on the contents of minor compounds and oxidation of soybean oil. JAm Oil Chem Soc 66, 118–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kiritsakis, A. (1990). Olive Oil, pp. 104–127. Champaign, IL: American Oil Chemists’ Society.Google Scholar
  58. Kiritsakis, A., Dugan, L R. (1985). Studies in photooxidation of olive oil. JAm Oil Chem Soc 62, 892–896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kiritsakis, A., Tsipeli, A. (1992). Relationship of the acidity of olive oil to its resistance to oxidation. Riv Ital Sostanze Grasse 69, 513–515.Google Scholar
  60. Kochhar, S. P. (1993). Oxidative pathways to the formation of off-flavours. In Food Taints and Off-Flavours, pp. 150–201. Edited by M. J. Saxby. London: Blackie Academic, Professional.Google Scholar
  61. Kress-Rogers, E. (1997). Biosensors and electronic noses for practical applications. In Handbook of Biosensors and Electronic Noses, pp. 3–39. Edited by E. Kress-Rogers. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  62. Krishna, A. G. C., Prabhakar, J. V. (1994). Antioxidant constituents of peanut oil. JAm Oil Chem Soc 71, 1245–1249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Labuza, T. P. (1971). Kinetics of lipid oxidation in foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2, 355–395.Google Scholar
  64. Lea, C. H. (1952). Methods for determining peroxide in lipids. J Sci Food Agric 3, 586–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lee, S. H., Kim, D. H. (1992). Effects of 13-carotene on the stability of soybean oil subject to autox idation and photosensitized oxidation. Food Biotechnol 1, 1–7.Google Scholar
  66. Lee, S. H., Min, D. B. (1990). Effects, quenching mechanism, and kinetics of carotenoids in chloro phyll-sensitized photooxidation of soybean oil. JAgric Food Chem 38, 1630–1634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Leone, A. M., Lallotte, E., Lamparelli, F. (1976). Analytical significance of sterol fraction of virgin olive oil. Riv Technol Aliment Nutr 6, 205–209.Google Scholar
  68. Mariani, C. S., Venturini, P., Fedeli, E. (1993). Determination of hydrocarbons and free and esteri fied minor components in olive oil of different classes. Riv Ital Sostanze Grasse 70, 321–327.Google Scholar
  69. Martin-Polvillo, M., Albi, T., Guinda, A. (1994). Determination of trace elements in edible veg etable oils by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. JAm Oil Chem Soc 71, 347–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. McEwan, J. A. (1994). Consumer attitudes and olive oil acceptance: the potential consumer. Grasas Aceites 45, 9–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. McMullen, L. M., et al. (1991). Ascorbyl palmitate efficacy in enhancing the accelerated storage stability of canola oil. J Food Sci 56, 1651–1654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Meijboom, P. W. (1964). Relationship between molecular structure and flavour perceptibility of aliphatic aldehydes. JAm Oil Chem Soc 41, 326–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Miyashita, K., Takagi, T. (1986). Study on the oxidative rate and prooxidant activity of free fatty acids. JAm Oil Chem Soc 63, 1380–1384.Google Scholar
  74. Morales, M. T., Aparicio, R., Calvente, J. J. (1996). Influence of olive ripeness on the concentration of green aroma compounds in virgin olive oil. Flavour Fragr J 11, 171–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Morales, M. T., Rios, J. J., Aparicio, R. (1997). Changes in the volatile composition of virgin olive oil during oxidation: Flavors and off-flavors. JAgric Food Chem 45, 2666–2673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Noor, N., Augustin, M. A. (1984). Effectiveness of antioxidants on the stability of banana chips. J Sci Food Agric 35, 805–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Papadopoulos, G., Boskou, D. (1991). Antioxidant effect of natural phenols on olive oil. JAm Oil Chem Soc 68, 669–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Perrin, J. L. (1992). Minor constituents and natural antioxidants of olives and olive oil. Rev Fr Corps Gras 39, 25–32.Google Scholar
  79. Pokorny, J. (1990). Influence of lipid alteration on taste and flavour of foods. Nahrung 34, 887–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pokorny, J. (1991). Natural antioxidants for food use. Trends Food Sci Technol 2, 223–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Przybylski, R., et al. (1993). Stability of low linolenic acid canola oil to accelerated storage at 60°C. Lebensm Wiss Technol 26, 205–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Przybylski, R., Eskin, N. A. M. (1995). Methods to measure volatile compounds and the flavor significance of volatile compounds. In Methods To Assess Quality and Stability of Oils and Fat-Containing Foods, pp. 107–133. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press.Google Scholar
  83. Przybylski, R., Hougen, F. W. (1989). Simple method for estimation of volatile carbonyl compounds in edible oils and fried potato chips. JAm Oil Chem Soc 66, 1456–1458.Google Scholar
  84. Rawls, H. R., Van Santen, P. J. (1970). A possible role for singlet oxygen in the initiation of fatty acid autoxidation. JAm Oil Chem Soc 47, 121–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rossell, J. B. (1987). Measurement of rancidity. In Rancidity in Foods, pp. 21–45. Edited by J. C. Allen, R. J. Hamilton. London: Applied Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  86. Ruiz-Lopez, M. D., et al. (1995). Stability of a-tocopherol in virgin olive oil during microwave heating. Lebensm Wiss Technol 28, 644–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sanders, T. A. B. (1983). Nutritional significance of rancidity. In Rancidity in Foods, pp. 59–66. Edited by J. C. Allen, R. J. Hamilton. London: Applied Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  88. Schaich, K. M. (1992). Metals and lipid oxidation. Contemporary issues. Lipids 27, 209–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Schieberle, P., Grosch, W. (1981). Model experiments about the formation of volatile carbonyl compounds. JAm Oil Chem Soc 58, 602–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Shahidi, E., Wanasundra, P. D. (1992). Phenolic antioxidants. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 32, 67–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Simic, M. G., Jovanovic, S. V., Niki, E. (1992). Mechanism of lipid oxidative processes and their inhibition. In Lipid Oxidation in Foods, pp. 14–32. Edited by A. J. St. Angelo. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society.Google Scholar
  92. Snyder, J. M., et al. (1988). Comparison of gas chromatographic methods for volatile lipid oxidation compounds in soybean oil. JAm Oil Chem Soc 65, 1617–1620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Solinas, M., Angerosa, E, Camera, L. (1988). Evoluzione ossidativa di oli vegetali durante la frittura: determinazione dei componenti volatili mediante HRGC e HPLC. Riv Rai Sostanze Grasse 65, 567–574.Google Scholar
  94. Solinas, M., Angerosa, E., Cucurachi, A. (1987). Connessione tra prodotti di neoformazione ossidativa delle sostanze grasse e insorgenza del difetto di rancidità all’ esame organolettico. Nota 2. Determinazione quantitativa. Riv Ital Sostanze Grasse 64, 137–145.Google Scholar
  95. St. Angelo, A. J. (1996). Lipid oxidation in foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 36, 175–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tsimidou, M., Papadopoulos, G., Boskou, D. (1992). Determination of phenolic compounds in vir gin olive oil by reversed-phase HPLC with emphasis on UV detection. Food Chem 44, 53–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Usuki, R., Endo, Y., Kaneda, T. (1984). Prooxidant activities of chlorophylls, and pheophytins on the photooxidation of edible oils. Agric Biol Chem 48, 991–994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Vercellotti, J. R., St. Angelo, A. J., Spanier, A. M. (1992). Lipid oxidation in food: an overview. In Lipid Oxidation in Foods, pp. 1–11. Edited by A. J. St. Angelo. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society.Google Scholar
  99. Verhagen, J., et al. (1977). Conversion of 9-D- and 13-L-hydroperoxylinoleic acids by soybean lipoxygenase-1 under anaerobic conditions. Biochem Biophys Acta 486, 114–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Warner, K., Frankel, E. N. (1987). Effect of 3-carotene on light stability of soybean oil. JAm Oil Chem Soc 64, 213–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Warner, K., Frankel, E. N., Moulton, K. J. (1988). Flavor evaluation of crude oil to predict the quality of soybean oil. JAm Oil Chem Soc 65, 386–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Warner, K., Frankel, E. N., Mounts, T. L. (1989). Flavor and oxidative stability of soybean, sunflower and low erucic rapeseed oils. JAm Oil Chem Soc 66, 558–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. White, P. J., Armstrong, L. S. (1986). Effect of selected oat sterols on the deterioration of heated soybean oil. JAm Oil Chem Soc 63, 525–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Yamauchi, R., Matsushita, S. (1977). Quenching effect of tocopherols on methyl linoleate photooxidation and their oxidation products. Agric Biol Chem 41, 1425–1430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Yanishleva, N., Schiller, H. (1984). Effect of sitosterol on autoxidation rate and product composition in a model lipid system. J Sci Food Agric 35, 219–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Zambiazi, R. C. (1997). The Role of Endogenous Lipid Components on Vegetable Oil Stability. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Manitoba.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Teresa Morales
  • Roman Przybylski

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations