Advertisement

Family Abuse and Violence

  • JoAnn Langley Miller
  • Dean D. Knudsen

Abstract

At age 20 a thoughtful woman from a family with high social status began a lengthy period of enslavement to her father, a theologian. Claiming only that he loved his daughter, the father took possession of his daughter’s body, her sexuality, her emotional well-being, her social and family relationships, and nearly her life itself. Now an acclaimed young novelist, Kathryn Harrison quietly writes about the years of her own father—daughter incest experiences in The Kiss. Her memoirs tell about an ordinary case of family abuse. There were no repressed memories recovered, no failed social service agency, no murdered victim, and no falsely accused offender. There are, however, permanent and emotional scars resulting from an especially insidious form of family abuse and perplexing questions that can never be answered. The Kiss compels its readers to acknowledge a well-known social fact: A family member characterized by any socioeconomic group, any age, either gender, or any race or ethnicity can experience one or several forms of family abuse and violence. A highly educated mother can neglect her newborn infant, a university professor can kill his partner, an older sister can batter a young brother, a middle-aged husband can rape his wife, and a mother can exploit financially and physically abuse her own elderly mother.

Keywords

Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Child Abuse Child Sexual Abuse Physical Violence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aikten, L., & Griffin, G. (1996). Gender issues in elder abuse. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  2. Aiosa-Karpas, C. J., Karpas, R., Pelcovitz, D., & Kaplan, S. (1991). Gender identification and sex role attribution in sexually abused adolescent females. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 266–271.Google Scholar
  3. Alexander, P. C., & Lupfer, S. A. (1987). Family characteristics and longterm consequences associated with sexual abuse. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 16, 235–245.Google Scholar
  4. Alexander, P. C., Neimeyer, R. A., Follette, V. M., Moore, M. K., & Harter, S. (1989). A comparison of group treatments of women sexually abused as children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 479–483.Google Scholar
  5. Allers, C. T., Benjack, K. I., White, J. A., & Rousey, J. T. (1993). HIV vulnerability and the adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 17, 291–298.Google Scholar
  6. American Humane Association (AHA). (1988). Highlights of official child neglect and abuse reporting 1986. Denver CO: Author.Google Scholar
  7. American Medical Association. (1995). Diagnostic and treatment guidelines on mental health effects of family violence. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  8. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ( 4th ed. ). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  9. Anetzberger, G. J., Korbin, J. E., & Austin, C. (1994). Alcoholism and elder abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 9, 184–193.Google Scholar
  10. Ards, S., & Harrell, A. (1993). Reporting of child maltreatment: A secondary analysis of the national incidence surveys. Child Abuse and Neglect, 17, 337–344.Google Scholar
  11. Augustine, R. I. (1990–1991). Marriage: The safe haven for rapists. Journal of Family Law, 29, 559–590.Google Scholar
  12. Azar, S. T. (1991). Models of child abuse: A meta-theoretical analysis. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 18, 30–46.Google Scholar
  13. Azar, S. T., & Wolfe, D. A. (1989). Child abuse and neglect. In E. J. Mash & R. A. Barkely (Eds.), Treatment of child disorders (pp. 451–489 ). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  14. Bachman, R., & Coker, A. L. (1994). Police involvement in domestic violence: The interactive effects of victim injury, offender’s history of violence, and race. Violence and Victims, 10, 91–96.Google Scholar
  15. Bachman, R., & Saltzman, L. E. (1996). Violence against women: Estimates from the redesigned survey (Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report, NCJ no. 154348. Rockville, MD: US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  16. Bakan, D. (1971). Slaughter of the innocents: A study of the battered child phenomenon. Boston: Beacon.Google Scholar
  17. Bandura, A. (1971). Social learning theory. Morristown, NJ: General Learning.Google Scholar
  18. Barnett, I. W., Miller-Perrin, C., & Perrin, R. D. (1997). Family violence across the lifespan. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  19. Barrera, M., Palmer, S., Brown, R., & Kalaher, S. (1994). Characteristics of court-involved men and non-court-involved men who abuse their wives. Journal of Family Violence, 9, 333–345.Google Scholar
  20. Bath, H. I., & Haapala, D. A. (1993). Intensive family preservation services with abused and neglected children: An examination of group differences. Child Abuse and Neglect, 17, 213–225.Google Scholar
  21. Becker, J. V., and Hunter, J. A., Jr. (1992). Evaluation of treatment outcome for adult perpetrators of child sexual abuse. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 19, 74–92.Google Scholar
  22. Beitchman, J. H., Zucker, K. J., Hood, J. E., daCosta, G. A., & Akman, D. (1991). A review of the short-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 15, 537–556.Google Scholar
  23. Beitchman, J. H., Zucker, K. J., Hood, J. E., daCosta, G. A., Alcman, D., & Cassavia, E. (1992). A review of the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 101–118.Google Scholar
  24. Bellingham, B. (1983). The unspeakable blessing: Street children, reform rhetoric, and misery in early industrial capitalism. Politics and Society, 12, 303–330.Google Scholar
  25. Benjamin, M. (1980). Abused as a child, abusive as a parent: Practitioners beware. In R. Volpe, M. Breton, and J. Milton (Eds.), The maltreatment of the school-aged child (pp. 197–202 ). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  26. Benoit, J. L., and Kennedy, W. A. (1992). The abuse history of male adolescent sex offenders. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7, 543–548.Google Scholar
  27. Berk, R. A. (1993). What the scientific evidence shows: On average, we can do no better than arrest. In R. J. Gelles & D. R. Loseke (Eds.), Current controversies on family violence (pp. 323–336 ). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  28. Berk, R. A., Campbell, A., Klap, R., & Western, B. (1992). The deterrent effect of arrest: A Bayesian analysis of four field experiments. American Sociological Review, 57, 698–708.Google Scholar
  29. Berk, R., & Newton, P. (1985). Does arrest really deter wife battery? An effort to replicate the findings of the Minneapolis spouse abuse experiment. American Sociological Review, 50, 253–262.Google Scholar
  30. Berkeley Planning Associates. (1978). Evaluation of child abuse and neglect demonstration project, 1974–1977 (Vol. 1 and 2, Child Abuse and Neglect Treatment Programs: Final Report and Summary of Findings). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare.Google Scholar
  31. Berliner, L. (1990). Domestic violence: A humanist of feminist issue? Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 9, 209–228.Google Scholar
  32. Besharov, D. (1985). Right versus rights: The dilemma of child protection, Public Welfare, 43, 19–27.Google Scholar
  33. Bidwell, L., & White, P. (1986). The family context of marital rape. Journal of Family Violence, 1, 277–287.Google Scholar
  34. Bims, B. (1988). The mother-infant tie: Of bonding and abuse. In M. B. Straus (Ed.), Abuse and victimization across the life span (pp. 9–31 ). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Birns, B., Cascardi, M., & Meyer, S. (1994). Sex role socialization: Developmental influences on wife abuse. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 64, 50–59.Google Scholar
  36. Blackman, J. (1989). Intimate violence: A study of injustice. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Blakely, B. E., & Dolon, R. (1991). Area agencies on aging and the prevention of elder abuse: The results of a national study. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 3, 21–40.Google Scholar
  38. Bourg, S., & Stock, H. V. (1994). A review of domestic violence arrest statistics in a police department using a pro-arrest policy: Are pro-arrest policies enough? Journal of Family Violence, 9, 177–192.Google Scholar
  39. Bowker, L. H. (1983). Beating wife-beating. Lexington, MA: Heath.Google Scholar
  40. Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss: Loss, sadness and depression. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  41. Brand, P. A., & Kidd, A. H. (1986). Frequency of physical aggression in heterosexual and female homosexual dyads. Psychological Reports, 59, 1307–1313.Google Scholar
  42. Brassard, M. R., Germain, R., & Hart, S. N. (Eds.). (1987). Psychological maltreatment of children and youth. New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  43. Brassard, M. R., Hart, S. N., & Hardy, D. (1993). The psychological maltreatment rating scales. Child Abuse and Neglect, 17, 715–729.Google Scholar
  44. Breines, W., & Gordon, L. (1983). The new scholarship on family violence. Signs, 8, 490–531.Google Scholar
  45. Breire, J. (1992). Methodological issues in the study of sexual abuse. Effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 196–203.Google Scholar
  46. Beire, J. H., & Runtz, M. (1987). Post sexual abuse trauma. Data and implications for clinical practice. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 367–379.Google Scholar
  47. Breire, J., Henschel, D., & Smiljanich, K. (1992). Attitudes toward sexual abuse: Sex differences and construct validity. Journal of Research in Personality, 26, 398–406.Google Scholar
  48. Breire, J., Berliner, L., Bulkley, J., Jenny, C., & Reid, T. (1996). The APSAC handbook on child maltreatment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  49. Brown, P. D., & O’Leary, K. D. (1997). Wife abuse in intact couples: A review of couples treatment programs. In G. Kaufman Kantor & J. L. Jasinski (Eds.), Out of the darkness: Contemporary perspectives on family violence (pp. 194–207 ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  50. Browne, A., & Finkelhor, D. (1986). The impact of sexual abuse: A review of the research. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 66–77.Google Scholar
  51. Browne, K., & Saqi, S. (1988). Approaches to screening for child abuse and neglect. In K. Browne, C. Davies, and P. Stratton (Eds.), Early prediction and prevention of child abuse (pp. 57–85 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  52. Brush, L. C. (1993). Violent acts and injurious outcomes in married couples: Methodological issues in the National Survey of Families and Households. In P. B. Bart and E. G. Moran (Eds.), Violence against women: The bloody footprints (pp. 240–251 ). Newbury Park, CA; Sage.Google Scholar
  53. Burgess, R. L., & Youngblood, L. M. (1988). Social incompetence and the intergenerational transmission of abusive parental practices. In G. T. Hotaling, D. Finkelhor, J. T. Kirkpatrick, & M. A. Straus (Eds.), Family abuse and its consequences (pp. 38–60 ). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  54. Buzawa, E. S., Buzawa, C. G., & Inciardi, J. A. (Eds.). (1996). Domestic violence: The criminal justice response (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  55. Callahan, J., Jr. (1982). Elder abuse programming: Will it help the elderly? Urban and Social Change Review, 15, 15–16.Google Scholar
  56. Campbell, D. W., Campbell, J., King, C., Parker, B., & Ryan, J. (1994). The reliability and factor structure of the Index of Spouse Abuse with Alllcan-American women. Violence and Victims, 9, 259–274.Google Scholar
  57. Carney, R. M., & Williams, B. D. (1983). Premenstrual syndrome: A criminal defense. Notre Dame Law Review, 252, 2726.Google Scholar
  58. Carson, D. K. (1995). American Indian elder abuse: Risk and protective factors among the oldest Americans. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 7, 17–39.Google Scholar
  59. Cash, T., & Valentine, D. (1987). A decade of adult protective services: Case characteristics. Journal of Gerontological Work, 10, 7–60.Google Scholar
  60. Cazenave, N. A., & Straus, M. A. (1990). Race, class, network embeddedness, and family violence. In M. A. Straus & R. J. Gelles (Eds.), Physical violence in American families (pp. 321–339 ). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  61. Chaffin, M. (1992). Factors associated with treatment completion and progress among intrafamiliar sexual abusers. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 257–264.Google Scholar
  62. Chess, S., & Thomas, A. (1982). Infant bonding: Mystique and reality. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 52, 213–222.Google Scholar
  63. Chester, B., Robin, R. W., Koss, M. P., Lopez, J., & Goldman, D. (1994). Grandmother dishonored: Violence against women by male partners in American Indian communities. Violence and Victims, 9, 249–258.Google Scholar
  64. Cicchetti, D., & Barrett, D. (1991). Toward the development of a scientific nosology of child maltreatment. In D. Cicchetti and W. Grove (Eds.), Thinking clearly about psychology (pp. 346–377 ). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  65. Clarke, M. E., & Hornick, J. P. (1988). The child sexual abuse victim: Assessment and treatment issues and solutions. Contemporary Family Therapy, 10, 235–242.Google Scholar
  66. Cole, P., Woolger, C., Power, T. G., & Smith, K. D. (1992). Parenting difficulties among adult survivors of father-daughter incest. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 249–249.Google Scholar
  67. Coleman, D. H., & Straus, M. A. (1990). Marital power, conflict, and violence in a nationally representative sample of American couples. In M. S. Straus and R. J. Gelles (Eds.), Physical violence in American families (pp. 287–304 ). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  68. Coleman, V. E. (1994). Lesbian battering: The relationship between personality and the perpetration of violence. Violence and Victims, 9, 139–152.Google Scholar
  69. Collier, R. (1995). Masculinity, law, and the family. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  70. Collings, S. J. (1995). The long-term effects of contact and noncontact forms of child sexual abuse in a sample of university men. Child Abuse and Neglect, 19, 1–6.Google Scholar
  71. Conte, J., & Schuerman, J. R. (1987). Factors associated with an increased impact of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 11, 201–211.Google Scholar
  72. Conte, J., Wolfe, S., & Smith, T. ( 1987, July). What sexual offenders tell us about prevention: Preliminary findings. Paper presented at the Family Violence Conference, University of New Hampshire, Durham.Google Scholar
  73. Costin, L. B. (1991). Unraveling the Mary Ellen legend: Origins of the “cruelty” movement. Social Service Review, 65, 203–223.Google Scholar
  74. Craig, Y. (1994). Elder mediation: Can it contribute to the prevention of elder abuse and the protection of the rights of elders and their careers? Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 6, 83–96.Google Scholar
  75. Crystal, S. (1987). Elder abuse: The latest crisis. Public Interest, 88, 56–66.Google Scholar
  76. Cutler, S. E., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Accounting for sex difference in depression through female victimization: Childhood sexual abuse. Sex Roles, 24, 425–438.Google Scholar
  77. Daro, D. (1988). Confronting child abuse: Research for effective program design. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  78. Daro, D. (1991). Child sexual abuse prevention: Separating fact from fiction. Child Abuse and Neglect, 15, 1–4.Google Scholar
  79. Davidson, T. (1977). Wifebeating: A recurring phenomenon throughout history. In M. Roy (Ed.), Battered women: A psychosociological study of domestic violence (pp. 2–23 ). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  80. Davis, G. E., & Leitenberg, H. (1988). Adolescent sex offenders. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 417–427.Google Scholar
  81. Davis, L. V., & Carlson, B. E. (1987). Observation of spouse abuse: What happens to the children? Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 279–291.Google Scholar
  82. Dawson, J. M., & Langan, P. A. (1994). Murder in families (Bureau of Justice Statistics, Special Report, NCJ no. 143498. Rockville, MD: Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  83. Deitch, I. ( 1993, August). Alone, abandoned, assaulted: Prevention and intervention of elder abuse. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto.Google Scholar
  84. DeMaris, A., & Jackson, J. K. (1987). Batterers’ reports of recidivism after counseling. Social Casework, 68, 458–465.Google Scholar
  85. DeMause, L. (1974). The evolution of childhood. In L. de Mause (Ed.), The history of childhood (pp. 1–73). New York: Psychohistory Press. DeYoung, M., and Lowry, J. A. (1992). Traumatic bonding: Clinical implications in incest. Child Welfare, 71, 165–175.Google Scholar
  86. DiLalla, L. F., & Gottesman, I. (1991). Biological and genetic contributors to violence-Widom’s untold tale. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 125–129.Google Scholar
  87. Dobash, R. E., & Dobash, R. P. (1978). Wives: The “appropriate” victims of marital violence. Victimology, 2, 426–441.Google Scholar
  88. Dobash, R. E., & Dobash, R. P. (1980). Violence against wives: A case against the patriarchy. London: Open Books.Google Scholar
  89. Doerner, W. G. (1987). Child maltreatment seriousness and juvenile delinquency. Youth and Society, 19, 197–224.Google Scholar
  90. Doll, L., Joy, D., Bartholow, B., Harrison, J., Bolan, G., Douglas, J., Saltzman, L., Moss, P., & Delgado, W. (1992). Self reported childhood and adolescent sexual abuse among adult homosexual and bisexual men. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 855–864.Google Scholar
  91. Donnelly, A. H. C. (1991). What we have learned about prevention: What we should do about it. Child Abuse and Neglect, 15, 99–106.Google Scholar
  92. Downs, D. L. (1996). More than victims: Battered women, the syndrome society, and the law. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  93. Downs, W. R., Miller, B. A., Testa, M., & Panel, D. (1992). Long term effects of parent-to-child violence for women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7, 365–382.Google Scholar
  94. Dunford, E W., Huizinga, W. D., & Elliott, D. S. (1990). The role of arrest in domestic assault: The Omaha police experiment. Criminology, 28, 183–206.Google Scholar
  95. Dutton, D. G., Hart, S. D., Kennedy, L. W., & Williams, K. R. (1992). Arrest and the reduction of repeat wife assault. In E. S. Buzawa & C. G. Buzawa (Eds.), Domestic violence: The changing criminal justice response (pp. 11–128 ). Westport, CT: Auburn House.Google Scholar
  96. Dutton, D. G., Van Ginkel, C.,& Starzomski, A. (1995). The role of shame and guilt in the intergenerational transmission of abusiveness. Violence and Victims, 10, 121–131.Google Scholar
  97. Eckenrode, J., Laird, M., & Doris, J. (1993). School performance and disciplinary problems among abused and neglected children. Developmental Psychology, 29, 53–62.Google Scholar
  98. Edwards, J. J., and Alexander, P. C. (1992). The contribution of family background to the long-term adjustment of women sexually abused as children. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7, 306–320.Google Scholar
  99. Egeland, B. (1993). A history of abuse is a major risk factor for abusing in the next generation. In R. J. Gelles & D. R. Loseke (Eds.), Current controversies on family violence (pp. 197–208 ). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  100. Egley, L. C. (1991). What changes the societal prevalence of domestic violence? Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 3, 65–69.Google Scholar
  101. Ellison, C. G.,and Sherkat, D. E. (1993). Conservative Protestantism and support for corporal punishment. American Sociological Review, 58, 131–144.Google Scholar
  102. Erlinder, P. (1984). Paying the price for Vietnam: Post-traumatic stress disorder and criminal behavior. Boston College Law Review, 305, 308.Google Scholar
  103. Eyer, D. (1992). Infant bonding: A scientific fiction. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Faller, K. C. (1991). Possible explanations for child sexual abuse allegations in divorce. Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61, 86–91.Google Scholar
  105. Faller, K. C. (1988). Child sexual abuse. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  106. Fagin, J., & Wexler, S. (1987). Crime at home and in the streets: The relationship between family and stranger violence. Violence and Victims, 2, 5–23.Google Scholar
  107. Fatout, M. F. (1990). Consequences of abuse on the relationships of children. Families in Society, 71, 76–78.Google Scholar
  108. Ferraro, K. (1989). Policing woman battering. Social Problems, 36, 61–74.Google Scholar
  109. Ferraro, K. (1993). Cops, courts and women battering. In P. B. Bar and E. G. Moran (Eds.), Violence against women: The bloody footprints (pp. 165–176 ). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  110. Ferraro, K. J., & Johnson, J. M. (1983). How women experience battering: The process of victimization. Social Problems, 30, 325–339.Google Scholar
  111. Finkelhor, D. (1993). Epidemiological factors in the clinical identification of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 17, 67–70.Google Scholar
  112. Finkelhor, D. (1997). The homicides of children and youth: A developmental perspective. In G. Kaufman Kantor and J. L. Jasinski (Eds.), Out of the darkness: Contemporary perspectives on family violence (pp. 17–34 ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  113. Finkelhor, D., & Baron, L. (1986). Risk factors for child sexual abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1, 43–71.Google Scholar
  114. Finkelhor, D., & Dziuba-Leatherman, D. (1995). Victimization prevention programs: A national survey of children’s exposure and reactions. Child Abuse and Neglect, 19, 129–139.Google Scholar
  115. Finkelhor, D., & Yllo, K. (1985). License to rape: Sexual abuse of wives. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  116. Finkelhor, D., Hotaling, G. T., & Yllo, K. (1988). Stopping family violence. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  117. Finkelhor, D., Asdigian, N., & Dziuba-Leatherman, J. (1995). The effectiveness of victimization prevention instruction: An evaluation of children’s responses to actual threats and assaults. Child Abuse and Neglect, 19, 141–153.Google Scholar
  118. Fischer, E. (1979). Woman’s creation: Sexual evolution and the shaping of society. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  119. Follette, V. M., Alexander, P. C., & Follette, W. C. (1991). Individual predictors of outcome in group treatment for incest survivors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 150–155.Google Scholar
  120. Fontes, L. A. (1997). Conducting ethical cross-cultural research on family violence. In G. Kaufman Kantor and J. L. Jasinski (Eds.), Out of the darkness: Contemporary perspectives on family violence (pp. 296312 ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  121. Ford, D. A. (1991). Prosecution as a victim power resource: A note on empowering women in violent conjugal relationships. Law and Society Review, 25, 313–334.Google Scholar
  122. Forte, J. A., Franks, D. D., Forte, J. A., & Rigsby, T. (1996). Asymmetrical role-taking: Comparing battered and nonbattered women. Social Work, 41, 59–73.Google Scholar
  123. Fortune, M. M. (1995). The importance of religious issues: Roadblocks or resources? In Staff of Volcano Press (compilers). Family violence and religion: An interfaith resource guide (pp. 267–288 ). Volcano, CA: Volcano Press.Google Scholar
  124. Friedrich, W. N. (1993). Sexual victimization and sexual behavior in children: A review of recent literature. Child Abuse and Neglect, 17, 59–66.Google Scholar
  125. Friedrich, W. N., Luecke, W. J., Beilke, R. L., & Place, V. (1992). Psychotherapy outcome of sexually abused boys. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7, 396–409.Google Scholar
  126. Frieze, I. H. (1983). Investigating the causes and consequence of marital rape. Signs, 8, 552–553.Google Scholar
  127. Fromuth, M. E., & Burkhart, B. R. (1987). Childhood sexual victimization among college men: Definitional and methodological issues. Violence and Victims, 2, 244–253.Google Scholar
  128. Frude, N. (1989). Sexual abuse: An overview. Educational and Child Psychology, 6, 34–44.Google Scholar
  129. Gagne, R. L. (1992). Appalachian women: Violence and social control. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 20, 387–415.Google Scholar
  130. Gallup Organization. (1996). Disciplining children in America: A Gallup poll report. Princeton, NJ: Author.Google Scholar
  131. Garbarino, J., & Kostelny, K. (1992). Child maltreatment as a community problem. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 455–464.Google Scholar
  132. Garbarino, J., Guttmann, E., & Seeley, J. W. (1986). The psychologically battered child. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  133. Garrett, K. (1982). Child abuse: Problems of definition. In P. H. Rossi & S. L. Nock (Eds.), Measuring social judgments: The factoral survey approach (pp. 177–203 ). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  134. Garrity-Rokous, E. E. (1994). Punitive legal approaches to the problem of prenatal drug exposure. Infant Mental Health Journal, 15, 218–237.Google Scholar
  135. Gartner, R. (1993). Methodological issues in cross-cultural large-survey research on violence. Violence and Victims, 8, 199–215.Google Scholar
  136. Geffner, R., Rosenbaum, A., & Hughes, H. (1988). Research issues concerning family violence. In V. B. Van Hasselt, R. L. Morrison, A. S. Bellack, & M. Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of family violence (pp. 457–481 ). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  137. Gelles, R. J. (1974). The violent home. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  138. Gelles, R. J. (1982). Problems in defining and labeling child abuse. In R. H. Starr, Jr. (Ed.), Child abuse prediction: Policy implications (pp. 1–30 ). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  139. Gelles, R. J. (1983). An exchange/social control theory. In D. Finkelhor, R. J. Gelles, G. T. Hotaling, & M. A. Straus (Eds.), The dark side of families: Current family violence research (pp. 151–165 ). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  140. Gelles, R. J. (1987). Family violence. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  141. Gelles, R. J. (1990a). The medical and psychological costs of family violence. In M. A. Straus and R. S. Gelles (Eds.), Physical violence in American families (pp. 425–430 ). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  142. Gelles, R. J. (1990b). Violence and pregnancy. In M. A. Straus and R. J. Gelles (Eds.), Physical violence in American families (pp. 279–286 ). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  143. Gelles, R. J. (1996). The book of David: How preserving families can cost children’s lives. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  144. Gelles, R. J., & Cornell, C. P. (1990). Intimate violence in families. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  145. Gelles, R. J., & Straus, M. A. (1979). Determinants of violence in the family: Toward a theoretical integration. In W. R. Burr, R. Kill, F. I. Nye, and I. L. Reiss (Eds.), Contemporary theories about the family (pp. 549–581 ). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  146. Gelles, R. J., & Straus, M. A. (1988). Intimate violence. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  147. Gelles, R. J., & Cornell, C. R (1987). Elder abuse: The status of current knowledge. In A. J. Gelles (Ed.), Family violence (pp. 168–182 ). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  148. Gerber, G. L. (1991). Gender stereotypes and power: Perceptions of roles in violent marriages. Sex Roles, 24, 439–458.Google Scholar
  149. Gielen, A. C., O’Campo, P. J., Faden, R. R., Kass, N. E., & Xue, X. (1994). Interpersonal conflict and physical violence during the childbearing year. Social Science and Medicine, 39, 781–787.Google Scholar
  150. Gilgun, J. E, & Connor, T. M. (1989). How perpetrators view child sexual abuse. Social Work, 361, 249–251.Google Scholar
  151. Giovannoni, J. M., & Becerra, R. M. (1979). Defining child abuse. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  152. Godkin, M. A., Wolf, R. S., & Pillemer, K. A. (1989). A case comparison analysis of elder abuse and neglect. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 28, 207–225.Google Scholar
  153. Godkin, M. A., Wolf, R. S., & Pillemer, K. A. (1989). A case comparison analysis of elder abuse and neglect. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 28, 207–225.Google Scholar
  154. Goldkamp, J. S. (1996). Role of drug and alcohol abuse in domestic violence treatment: Dade County’s domestic violence court experiment: Final report. Rockville, MD: Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  155. Gondolf, E. W. (1995). Alcohol abuse, wife assault, and power needs. Social Service Review, 69, 274–284.Google Scholar
  156. Gondolf, E. W. (1997). Expanding batterer program evaluation. In G. Kaufman Kantor and J. L. Jasinski (Eds.), Out of the darkness: Contemporary perspectives on family violence (pp. 208–218 ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  157. Gondolf, E. W., & McFerron, J. R. (1989). Handling battering men: Police action in wife abuse cases. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 16, 429–439.Google Scholar
  158. Gondolf, E. W., Yllo, K., & Campbell, J. (1997). Collaboration between researchers and advocates. In G. Kaufman Kantor and J. L. Jasinski (Eds.), Out of the darkness: Contemporary perspectives on family violence (pp. 255–267 ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  159. Goode, W. J. (1971). Force and violence in the family. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 33, 624–636.Google Scholar
  160. Goolkasian, G. A. (1986). Confronting domestic violence: A guide for criminal justice agencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  161. Gordon, M. (1989). The family environment of sexual abuse: A comparison of natal and stepfather abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 13, 121–130.Google Scholar
  162. Grad, S. (1997, August 29). Abuse case handling debated. Los Angeles Times, A3.Google Scholar
  163. Grasmick, H. G., Bursik, R. J., & Kimpel, M. (1991). Protestant fundamentalism and attitudes toward corporal punishment of children. Violence and Victims, 6, 273–298.Google Scholar
  164. Gray, E. (1988). The link between child abuse and juvenile delinquency: What we know and recommendations for policy and research. In G. Hotaling, D. Finkelhor, J. Kirkpatrick, and M. A. Straus (Eds.), Family abuse and its consequences (pp. 108–123 ). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  165. Graziano, A. M., Lindquist, C. M., Kunce, L. J., & Munjal, K. (1992). Physical Punishment on Childhood and Current Attitudes. Journal of the Interpersonal Violence, 7, 147–155.Google Scholar
  166. Greenberg, J. R., McKibben, M., & Raymond, J. A. (1990). Dependent adult children and elder abuse. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 2, 73–86.Google Scholar
  167. Greven, P. (1990). Spare the child: The religious roots of physical punishment and the psychological impact of physical abuse. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  168. Griffin, L. W. (1994). Elder maltreatment among rural African-Americans. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 6, 1–27.Google Scholar
  169. Hall, G. C. (1989). WAIS-R and MMPI profiles of men who have sexually assaulted children: Evidence of limited utility. Journal of Personalty Assessment, 53, 404–412.Google Scholar
  170. Hall, G. C., & Hirschman, R. (1992). Sexual aggression against children: A conceptual perspective of etiology. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 19, 8–23.Google Scholar
  171. Hall, G. C. N., Shondrick, D. D., & Hirschman, R. (1993). Conceptually derived treatment for sexual aggressors. Professional psychology: Research and practice, 24, 62–69.Google Scholar
  172. Hamberger, L., & Hastings, J. E. (1990). Recidivism following spouse abuse abatement counseling: Treatment program implications. Violence and Victims, 5, 157–170.Google Scholar
  173. Hampton, R. L., Gelles, R. J., & Harrop, J. (1991). Is violence in black families increasing? A comparison of 1975 and 1985 national survey rates. In R. L. Hampton (Ed.), Black family violence (pp. 3–18 ). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  174. Hanneke, C. R., Shields, N. M., & McCall, G. J. (1986). Assessing the prevalence of marital rape. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1, 350–362.Google Scholar
  175. Hanson, R. K., & Slater, S. (1988). Sexual victimization in the history of sexual abusers: A review. Annals of Sex Research, 1, 485–499.Google Scholar
  176. Hanson, R. K., Gizzarelli, R., & Scott, H. (1994). The attitudes of incest offenders. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 21, 187–202.Google Scholar
  177. Harris, S. B. (1996). For better or for worse: Spouse abuse grown old. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 8, 1–33.Google Scholar
  178. Harrison, K. (1997). The kiss: A memoir. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  179. Hart, S. N., & Brassard, M. R. (1991). Psychological maltreatment: Progress achieved. Development and Psychopathology, 3, 61–70.Google Scholar
  180. Haskett, M. E., & Kistner, J. A. (1991). Social interactions and peer perceptions of young physically abused children. Child Development, 62, 979–990.Google Scholar
  181. Haugaard, J. J., & Emery, R. E. (1989). Methodological issues in child sexual abuse research. Child Abuse and Neglect, 13, 89–100.Google Scholar
  182. Haugaard, J. J.,& Reppucci, N. D. (1988). The sexual abuse of children. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  183. Hazzard, A., & Rupp, C. (1986). A note on the knowledge and attitudes of professional groups toward child abuse. Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 219–223.Google Scholar
  184. Heisler, C. J. (1991). The role of the criminal justice system in elder abuse cases. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 3, 5–33.Google Scholar
  185. Herbert, T., Silver, R. C., & Ellard, J. H. (1991). Coping with an abusive relationship: How and why do women stay? Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53, 311–325.Google Scholar
  186. Hinrichsen, G. A., Hernandez, N. A.,and Pollack, S. (1992). Difficulties and rewards in family care of depressed older adults. Gerontologist, 32, 486–492.Google Scholar
  187. Hirschel, J. D., Hutchinson, I. W. III, & Dean, C. W. (1992). The failure of arrest to deter spouse abuse. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 29, 7–33.Google Scholar
  188. Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  189. Hoff, L. A. (1988). Collaborative feminist research and the myth of objectivity. In K. Yllo and M. Bograd (Eds.), Feminist perspectives on wife abuse (pp. 269–281 ). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  190. Holden, W., & Edwards, L. E. (1989). Parental attitudes toward child rearing: Instruments, issues and implications. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 29–58.Google Scholar
  191. Hotte, J., & Rafman, S. (1992). The specific effects of incest on prepubertal girls from dysfunctional families Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 273–283.Google Scholar
  192. Hugman, R. (1995). The implications of the term “elder abuse” for problem definition and response in health and social welfare. Journal of Social Policy, 24, 493–507.Google Scholar
  193. Hutchinson, E. D. (1990). Child maltreatment: Can it be defined? Social Service Review, 64, 60–78.Google Scholar
  194. Interdisciplinary glossary on child abuse and neglect: Legal, medical, and social work terms. (1978). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare.Google Scholar
  195. Island, D., & Letellier, P. (1991). Men who beat the men who love them: Battered gay men and domestic violence. New York: Haworth.Google Scholar
  196. Jackson, H., & Nuttal, D. (1993). Clinician responses to sexual abuse allegations. Child Abuse and Neglect, 17, 127–143.Google Scholar
  197. Jason, J. M. (1991). Abuse, neglect, and the HIV-infected child. Child Abuse and Neglect, 15, 79–88.Google Scholar
  198. Johnson, B. K., & Kenkel, M. E. (1991). Stress, coping and adjustment in female adolescent incest victims. Child Abuse and Neglect, 15, 293–305.Google Scholar
  199. Johnson, I. M. (1992). Economic, situational, and psychological correlates of the decision making process of battered women. Families in Society, 73, 168–176.Google Scholar
  200. Johnson, I. M. (1995). Family members’ perceptions of and attitudes towards elder abuse. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary and Human Services, 76, 220–229.Google Scholar
  201. Joseph, J. (1997). Woman battering: A comparative analysis of black and white women. In G. Kaufman Kantor and J. L. Jasinski (Eds.), Out of the darkness: Contemporary perspectives on family violence (pp. 161169 ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  202. Kalichman, S. C. (1991). Psychopathology and personality characteristics of criminal sexual offenders as a function of victim age. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 20, 187–197.Google Scholar
  203. Kalichman, S. C., & Henderson, M. (1991). MMPI profile subtypes of nonincarcerated child molesters: A cross-validation study. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 18, 379–396.Google Scholar
  204. Kalichman, S. C., Craig, M. E., & Follingstad, D. R. (1988). Mental health professionals and suspected cases of child abuse: An investigation of factors influencing reporting. Community Mental Health Journal, 24, 43–51.Google Scholar
  205. Kalmuss, D. S. (1982). Wife’s marital dependency and wife abuse. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 44, 227–286.Google Scholar
  206. Kalmuss, D. S., & Straus, M. A. (1990). Wife’s marital dependency and wife abuse. In M. A. Straus and R. J. Gelles (Eds.), Physical violence in American families (pp. 369–382 ). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  207. Kantor, G. K., & Straus, M. A. (1990). The “drunken bum” theory of wife beating. In M. A. Straus and R. J. Gelles (Eds.), Physical violence in American families (pp. 203–224 ). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  208. Kantor, G. K., Jasinski, J. L., & Aldarondo, E. (1994). Sociocultural status and incidence of marital violence in Hispanic families. Violence and Victims, 9, 207–222.Google Scholar
  209. Kaplan, S. J., and Davidson, H. A. (Eds.). (1996). Family violence: A clinical and legal guide. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  210. Kashani, J. H., Daniel, A. E., Dandoy, A. C., & Holcomb, W. R. (1992). Family violence: Impact on children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 181–189.Google Scholar
  211. Katz, J. (1995). Reconstructing masculinity in the locker room: The Mentors in Violence Prevention Project. Harvard Educational Review, 65, 163–174.Google Scholar
  212. Kaufman, J. (1991). Depressive disorders in maltreated children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 257–265.Google Scholar
  213. Kaufman, J., & Zigler, E. (1993). The intergenerational transmission of abuse is overstated. In R. J. Gelles & D. R. Loeske (Eds.), Current controversies in family violence (pp. 209–221 ). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  214. Kempe, C. H., Silverman, F. N., Steele, B. E, Droegemueller, W., & Silver, H. K. (1962). The battered child syndrome. Journal of the American Medical Association, 181, 107–112.Google Scholar
  215. Kendall-Tackett, K. A., Williams, L. M., & Finkelhor, D. (1993). Impact of sexual abuse on children. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 164–180.Google Scholar
  216. Knudsen, D. D. (1988). Child positive services: Discretion, decisions, di- lemmas. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  217. Knudsen, D. D. (1992). Child maltreatment: Emerging perspectives. Dix Hills, NY: General Hall.Google Scholar
  218. Kratcoski, P. C., & Kratcoski, L. D. (1983). The relationship of victimization through child abuse to aggressive delinquent behavior. Victimology, 7, 199–203.Google Scholar
  219. Kurz, P. D., Gaudin, J. M., Howling, P. T., & Wodarski, J. S. (1993). The consequences of physical abuse and neglect on the school age child: Mediating factors. Children and Youth Services Review, 15, 85–104.Google Scholar
  220. Kurz, D. (1993). Social science perspectives on wife abuse. In P. B. Bart and E. G. Moran (Eds.), Violence against women: The bloody footprints (pp. 252–269 ). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  221. Lackey, C., & Williams, K. R. (1995). Social bonding and the cessation of partner violence across generations. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 295–305.Google Scholar
  222. Lanktree, C., Briere, J., & Zaidi, L. (1991). Incidence and impact of sexual abuse in a child outpatient sample: The role of direct inquiry. Child Abuse and Neglect, 15, 447–453.Google Scholar
  223. Laroritz, S. (1990). Whatever happened to Mary Ellen? Child Abuse and Neglect, 14, 143–149.Google Scholar
  224. Leonard, K. E., & Jacob, T. (1988). Alcohol, alcoholism, and family violence. In V. B. Van Hasselt, R. L. Morrison, A. S. Bellack, & M. Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of family violence (pp. 383–406 ). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  225. Lemon, N. K. D. (Ed.). (1996). Domestic violence laws: A comprehensive overview of cases and sources. Bethesda, MD: Austin and Winfield.Google Scholar
  226. Letellier, P. (1994). Gay and bisexual male domestic violence victimization: Challenges to feminist theory and responses to violence. Violence and Victims, 9, 95–106.Google Scholar
  227. Lie, G. Y., & Gentlewarrior, S. (1991). Intimate violence in lesbian relationships: Discussion of survey findings and practice implications. Journal of Social Service Research, 15, 41–49.Google Scholar
  228. Lie, G. Y., Schilit, R., Bushy, J., Montague, M., & Reyes, L. (1991). Lesbians in currently aggressive relationships: How frequently do they report aggressive past relationships? Violence and Victims, 6, 121–135.Google Scholar
  229. Lloyd, R. M. (1992). Negotiating child sexual abuse: The interactional character of investigative practices. Social Problems, 39, 109–124.Google Scholar
  230. Lockhart, L. L. (1987). A reexamination of the effects of race and social class on the incidence of marital violence: A search for reliable differences. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 49, 603–610.Google Scholar
  231. Lockhart, L. L. (1991). Spousal violence: A cross-racial perspective. In R. L. Hampton (Ed.), Black family violence (pp. 85–101 ). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  232. Lockhart, L. L., White, B. W., & Causby, V. (1994). Letting out the secret: Violence in lesbian relationships. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 9, 469–492.Google Scholar
  233. Loseke, D. R. (1991). Reply to Murray A. Straus: Readings on “Discipline and deviance.” Social Problems, 38, 162–165.Google Scholar
  234. Loseke, D. R. (1992). The battered woman and shelters: The social construc- tion of wife abuse. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  235. Luntz, B. K., & Widom, C. S. (1994). Antisocial personality disorder in abused and neglected children grown up. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 670–674.Google Scholar
  236. Lutzker, J. R., & Rice, J. M. (1987). Using recidivision data to evaluate Project 12-Ways: An ecobehavioral approach to the treatment and prevention of child abuse and neglect. Journal of Family Violence, 2, 283–290.Google Scholar
  237. Macionis, J. J. (1989). Sociology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  238. Madonna, P. G., Van Scoyk, S., & Jones, D. P. H. (1991). Family interactions within incest and nonincest families. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 46–49.Google Scholar
  239. Mann, S., & Kelley, L. R. (1997). Standing at the crossroads of modernist thought: Collins, Smith, and the new feminist epistemologies. Gender and Society, 11, 391–408.Google Scholar
  240. Margolies, L. & Leeder, E. (1995). Violence at the door: Treatment of lesbian batterers. Violence Against Women, 1, 139–157.Google Scholar
  241. Margolin, G., Sibner, L. G., & Gleberman, L. (1988). Wife battering. In V. B. Van Hasselt, R. L. Morrison, A. S. Bellack, and M. Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of family violence (pp. 89–117 ). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  242. Marshall, W. W., & Barbaree, H. (1988). The long-term evaluation of a behavioral treatment program for child molesters. Behavioral Research and Therapy, 26, 499–511.Google Scholar
  243. Marshall, W. W., Barbaree, H. E., & Butt, J. (1988). Sexual offenders against male children: Sexual preferences. Behavioral Research and Therapy, 26, 338–391.Google Scholar
  244. Martin, J. A., & Elmer, E. (1992). Battered children grown up: A follow-up study of individuals severely maltreated as children. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 75–87.Google Scholar
  245. Martin, J., Anderson, J., Romans, S., Mullen, P., & O’Shea, M. (1993). Asking about child sexual abuse: Methodological implications of a two stage survey. Child Abuse and Neglect, 17, 383–392.Google Scholar
  246. Mash, E. J., & Wolfe, D. A. (1991). Methodological issues in research on physical child abuse. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 18, 8–29.Google Scholar
  247. McCurdy, K., & Daro, D. (1994). Child maltreatment: A national survey of reports and fatalities. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 9, 75–94.Google Scholar
  248. McIvor, D. L., & Duthie, B. (1986). MMPI profiles of incest offenders: Men who molest younger children and men who molest older children. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 13, 450–452.Google Scholar
  249. Melton, G. B., & Flood, M. F. (1994). Research policy and child maltreatment: Developing the scientific foundation for effective protection of children. Child Abuse and Neglect, 18 (Suppl.), 1–27.Google Scholar
  250. Miller, J. L. (1991). Family violence research: Some basic and applied questions. In D. D. Knudsen and J. L. Miller (Eds.), Abused and battered: Social and legal responses to family violence (pp. 3–16 ). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  251. Miller, J. L., & Krull, A. C. (1977). Controlling domestic violence: Victimization resources and police intervention. In G. G. Cantor and J. L. Jasinki (Eds.), Out of the darkness: Contemporary perspectives on family violence (pp. 235–254 ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  252. Milner, J. S., & Chilamkurti, C. (1991). Physical child abuse perpetrator characteristics: A review of the literature. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 6, 345–366.Google Scholar
  253. Milner, J. S., & Robertson, K. R. (1989). Development of a random response scale for child abuse potential inventory. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41, 639–643.Google Scholar
  254. Mixon, P. M. (1995). An adult protective seryices perspective. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 7, 60–87.Google Scholar
  255. Morrison, S., & Greene, E. (1992). Juror and expert knowledge of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 595–613.Google Scholar
  256. Mullender, A. (1996). Rethinking domestic violence: The social work and probation response. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  257. Muller, R. T., Caldwell, R. A., & Hunter, J. E. (1993). Child provocativeness and gender as factors contributing to the blaming of victims of physical child abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 17, 249–260.Google Scholar
  258. Murphy, W. D., & Peters, J. M. (1992). Profiling child sexual abusers: Psychological considerations. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 19, 24–37.Google Scholar
  259. Nash, M. R., Zivney, O. A., & Hulsey, T. A. (1993). Characteristics of sexual abuse associated with greater psychological impairment among children. Child Abuse and Neglect, 17, 401–408.Google Scholar
  260. National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges. (1994). Model code on domestic and family violence. Drafted by the Advisory Committee of the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation Model Code Project. San Diego, CA: National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges.Google Scholar
  261. National Institute of Justice Research Preview Series. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  262. National Research Council, Panel on Research on Child Abuse and Neglect, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. (1993). Understanding child abuse and neglect. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  263. Nelson, B. J. (1984). Making an issue of child abuse: Political agenda setting for social problems. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  264. Newman, E., Kaloupek, D. G., Keane, T. M., & Folstein, S. F. (1997). Ethical issues in trauma research: The evolution of an empirical model for decision making. In G. Kaufman Kantor and J. L. Jasinski (Eds.), Out of the darkness: Contemporary perspectives on family violence (pp. 271281 ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  265. Newmark, L., Harrell, A., & Adams, W. P. (1995). Evaluation of police training conducted under the family violence prevention and services act.Google Scholar
  266. New York State Senate. (1996). Albany, NY: Senate Bill No. S06260: Senate Bill No. S06260. “Domestic Violence.” Passed April 2, 1997.Google Scholar
  267. NIS. (1981). Executive summary: National Study of the Incidence and Severity of Child Abuse and Neglect. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  268. NIS. (1988). Study findings: Study of national incidence and prevalence of child abuse and neglect. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  269. Nurius, P., Furrey, I., & Berliner, L. (1992). Coping capacity among women with abusive partners. Violence and Victims, 7, 229–243.Google Scholar
  270. Oates, R. K., & Bross, D. C. (1995). What have we learned about treating child physical abuse? A literature review of the last decade. Child Abuse and Neglect, 19, 463–473.Google Scholar
  271. O’ Donohue, W. T., & Elliott, A. N. (1992). Treatment of the sexually abused child: A review. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 21, 218–228.Google Scholar
  272. O’Donohue, W., & Letoumeau, E. (1993). A brief group treatment for the modification of denial in child sexual abusers: Outcome and follow-up. Child Abuse and Neglect, 17, 299–304.Google Scholar
  273. O’Donovan, K. (1993). Family law matters. London: Pluto Press. O’Hagan, K. P. (1995). Emotional and psychological abuse: Problems of definition. Child Abuse and Neglect, 19, 449–461.Google Scholar
  274. Okami, P. (1991). Self-reports of “positive” childhood and adolescent sexual contacts with older persons: An exploratory study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 20, 437–457.Google Scholar
  275. Okami, R, & Goldberg, N. (1992). Personality correlates of pedophilia: Are they reliable indicators? Journal of Sex Research, 29, 297–328.Google Scholar
  276. O’Keefe, M. (1994). Linking marital violence, mother-child/father-child aggression, and child behavior problems. Journal of Family Violence, 9, 63–78.Google Scholar
  277. Olafson, E., Corwin, D. L., & Summit, R. C. (1993). Modern history of child sexual abuse awareness: Cycles of discovery and suppression. Child Abuse and Neglect, 17, 7–24.Google Scholar
  278. Osborne, Y. H., Hinz, L. D., Rappaport, N., and Williams, H. (1988). Parent social attractiveness, parent sex, child temperament and socioeconomic status as predictors of the tendency to report child abuse. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 6, 69–76.Google Scholar
  279. Ostfeld, B. M., & Feldman, M. D. (1996). Factitious disorder by proxy: Clinical features, detection, and management. In M. D. Feldman and S. J. Eisendrath (Eds.), The spectrum of factitious disorders (pp. 83–108 ). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  280. O’Toole, R., Turbett, J. P., Sargent, J., & O’Toole, A. (1987, July). Recognizing and reacting to child abuse: Physicians, nurses, teachers, social workers, law enforcement officers, and community residents. Paper presented at the Family Violence Conference, University of new Hampshire, Durham.Google Scholar
  281. Pagelow, M. D. (1984). Family violence. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  282. Pagelow, M. D. (1989). The incidence and prevalence of criminal abuse of other family members. In L. Ohiin & M. Tonry (Eds.), Family violence (pp. 263–313 ). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  283. Pagelow, M. D. (1992). Adult victims of domestic violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7, 87–120.Google Scholar
  284. Panel on Research on Child Abuse and Neglect. (1997). Understanding child abuse and neglect. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  285. Parker, H., & Parker, S. (1986). Father-daughter sexual abuse: An emerging perspective. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 56, 531–549.Google Scholar
  286. Pate, A. M., & Hamilton, E. E. (1992). Formal and informal deterrents to domestic violence: The Dade County spouse assault experiment. American Sociological Review, 57, 691–697.Google Scholar
  287. Paveza, G. J. (1988). Risk factors in father-daughter child sexual abuse: A case-control study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 3, 290–306.Google Scholar
  288. Pawlak, A. E., Boulet, J. R., & Bradford, J. M. W. (1991). Discriminant analysis of a sexual functioning inventory with intrafamilial and extra-familial child molesters. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 20, 27–34.Google Scholar
  289. Pence, E., & Paymar, M. (1986). Power and control tactics of men who batter. Duluth: Minnesota Program Development.Google Scholar
  290. Penhale, B. (1993). The abuse of elderly people: Considerations for practice. British Journal of Social Work, 23, 95–112.Google Scholar
  291. Perilla, J. L., Bakeman, R., & Norris, F. H. (1994). Culture and domestic violence: The ecology of abused Latinas. Violence and Victims, 9, 325–339.Google Scholar
  292. Peters, S. D., Wyatt, G. E., and Finkelhor, D. (1986). Prevalence. In D. Finkelhor (Ed.), Sourcebook on child sexual abuse (pp. 15–59 ). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  293. Pfohl, S. J. (1977). The “discovery” of child abuse. Social Problems, 24, 310–323.Google Scholar
  294. Pillemer, K., & Prescott, D. (1989). Psychological effects of elder abuse: A research note. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 1, 65–73.Google Scholar
  295. Pillemer, K., & Suitor, J. (1988). Elder abuse. In V. B. Van Hasselt, R. L. Morrison, A. S. Bellack, and M. Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of family violence (pp. 247–270 ). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  296. Pleck, E. (1987). Domestic tyranny: The making of American social policy against family violence from colonial times to the present. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  297. Pleck, E. (1989). Criminal approaches to family violence, 1640–1980. In L. Ohlin and M. Tonry (Eds.), Family violence (pp. 19–57 ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  298. Plowman, W. B. (1996). Domestic violence transcends social groups. Domestic Violence Prevention, 2, 3–5.Google Scholar
  299. Poertner, J. (1986). Estimating the incidence of abused older persons. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 9, 3–15.Google Scholar
  300. Pollock, V. E., Briere, J., Schneider, L., Knop, J., Mednick, S. A., & Goodwin, D. W. (1990). Childhood antecedents of antisocial behavior: Parental alcoholism and physical abusiveness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 1290–1293.Google Scholar
  301. Polsby, D. D. (1992). Suppressing domestic violence with law reforms. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 83, 250–253.Google Scholar
  302. Radbill, S. X. (1968). A history of child abuse and infanticide. In R. E. Helfer H. Kempe (Eds.), The battered child (pp. 3–17 ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  303. Ramsey-Klawsnik, H. (1991). Elder sexual abuse: Preliminary findings. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 3, 73–90.Google Scholar
  304. Reis, S. D., & Heppner, P. P. (1993). Examination of coping resources and family adaptation in mothers and daughters of incestuous versus non-clinical families. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 40, 100–108.Google Scholar
  305. Renzetti, C. (1988). Violence in lesbian relationships: A preliminary analysis of causal factors. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 3, 381–399.Google Scholar
  306. Renzetti, C. (1992). Violent betrayal: partner abuse in lesbian relationships. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  307. Rice, M. E., Quinsey, V. L., & Harris, G. T. (1991). Sexual recidivism among child molesters released from a maximum security psychiatric institution. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 381–386.Google Scholar
  308. Rivera, B., & Widom, C. S. (1990). Childhood victimization and violent offending. Violence and Victims, 5, 19–35.Google Scholar
  309. Roscoe, B. (1990). Defining child maltreatment: Ratings of parental behavior. Adolescence, 25, 517–529.Google Scholar
  310. Ross, C. J. (1980). The lessons of the past: Defining and controlling child abuse in the United States. In G. Gerbner, C. J. Ross, and E. Zigler (Eds.), Child abuse: An agenda for action (pp. 63–81 ). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  311. Rossi, P. H. (1992). Assessing family preservation programs. Children and Youth Services Review, 14, 75–95.Google Scholar
  312. Rouse, L. P. (1997). Domestic violence: Hitting us where we live. In D. Dunn and D. V. Walker (Eds.), Analyzing social problems: Essays and exercises (pp. 17–22 ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  313. Russell, D. E. H. (1982). Rape in marriage. New York: Collier Books.Google Scholar
  314. Russell, D. E. H. (1983). The incidence and prevalence of intrafamilial and extrafamilial sexual abuse of female children. Child Abuse and Neglect, 7, 133–146.Google Scholar
  315. Russell, D. E. H. (1986). The secret trauma: Incest in the lives of girls and women. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  316. Rust, J. O., & Troupe, P. A. (1991). Relationship of treatment of child sexual abuse with school achievement and self concept. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11, 420–429.Google Scholar
  317. Sabourin, T. C. (1991). Perceptions of verbal aggression in interspousal violence. In D. D. Knudsen and J. L. Miller (Eds.), Abused and battered: Social and legal responses to family violence (pp. 135–145 ). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  318. Salzinger, S., Feldman, R. S., Hammer, M., & Rosario, M. (1991). Risk of physical child abuse and personal consequences for its victims. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 18, 64–81.Google Scholar
  319. Saunders, B. E., Villeponteaux, L. A., Lipovsky, J. A., Kilpatrick, D. G., & Veronen, L. J. (1992). Child sexual assault as a risk factor for mental disorders among women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7, 189–204.Google Scholar
  320. Scarf, M. (1988). Battered Jewish wives: Case studies in the response to rage. Lexington, NY: Edwin Mellen Press.Google Scholar
  321. Schilit, R., Lie, G. Y., v Montagne, M. (1990). Substance use as a correlate of violence in intimate lesbian relationships. Journal of Homosexuality, 19, 51–65.Google Scholar
  322. Schilit, R., Lie, G. Y., Montagne, M. & Reyes, L. (1992). Intergenerational transmission of violence in lesbian relationships. Affilia, 6, 72–87.Google Scholar
  323. Schneider, C. J. (1982). The Michigan screening profile of parenting. In R. H. Starr, Jr. (Ed.), Child abuse prediction: Policy implications (pp. 157174 ). Cambridge, MA: Bellinger.Google Scholar
  324. Seaver, C. (1996). Muted lives: Older battered women. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 8, 3–21.Google Scholar
  325. Sedlak, A. J. (1988). Prevention of wife abuse. In V. B. Hasselt, R. L. Morrison, A. S. Bellack, and M. Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of family violence (pp. 319–358 ). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  326. Shapiro, J. P., Leifer, M., Martone, M. W., & Kassem, L. (1992). Cognitive functioning and social competence as predictors of maladjustment in sexually abused girls. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7, 159–164.Google Scholar
  327. Shepard, M. (1992). Predicting batterer recidivism five years after community intervention. Journal of Family Violence, 7, 167–178.Google Scholar
  328. Sherman, L. W., & Berk, R. A. (1984). The specific deterrent effects of arrest for domestic assault. American Sociological Review, 49, 261–272.Google Scholar
  329. Sherman, L. W. (1992). Policing domestic violence: Experiments and dilemmas. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  330. Sherman, L. W., & Smith, D. A. (1992). Crime, punishment, and stake in conformity: Legal and informal control of domestic violence. American Sociological Review, 57, 680–690.Google Scholar
  331. Shornstein, S. L. (1997). Domestic violence and health care: What every professional needs to know. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  332. Shorter, E. (1975). The making of the modern family. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  333. Showers, J. (1992). “Don’t Shake the Baby”: The effectiveness of a prevention program. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 11–18.Google Scholar
  334. Sigler, R. T. (1989). Domestic violence in context: An assessment of community attitudes. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  335. Silverman, R. A., & Kennedy, L. W. (1988). Women who kill their children. Violence and Victims, 3, 113–127.Google Scholar
  336. Singer, K. I. (1989). Group work with men who experienced incest in childhood. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 59, 468–472.Google Scholar
  337. Snyder, J. C., & Newberger, E. H. (1986). Consensus and differences among hospital professionals in evaluating child maltreatment. Violence and Victims, 1, 125–139.Google Scholar
  338. Spatt, M. (1995, January 24). Same-sex domestic violence cases now covered by state law. OutNOW, 1–2.Google Scholar
  339. Stacey, W. A., Hazelwood, L. R., & Shupe, A. (1994). The violent couple. Westport, CT: PraegerGoogle Scholar
  340. Stark, E., & Flitcraft, A. (1995). Killing the beast within: Woman battering and female suicidality. International Journal of Health Services, 25, 43–64.Google Scholar
  341. Stark, E., & Flitcraft, A. (1996). Women at risk: Domestic violence and women’s health. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  342. Steinmetz, S. K. (1981, January/February). Elder abuse. Aging,6–10. Steinmetz, S. K. (1987). Family violence: past, present, and future. In M. B.Google Scholar
  343. Sussman & S. K. Steinmetz (Eds.), Handbook of marriage and the family (pp. 725–765). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  344. Steinmetz, S. K. (1988a). Duty bound: Elder abuse and family care. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  345. Steinmetz, S. K. (1988b). Elder abuse by family caretakers: Processes and intervention strategies. Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal, 10, 256–261.Google Scholar
  346. Steinmetz, S. K. (1993). The abused elderly are dependent: Abuse is caused by the perception of stress associated with providing care. In R. J. Gelles and D. R. Loeske (Eds.), Current controversies in family violence (pp. 222–236 ). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  347. Steinmetz, S. K., & Lucca, J. A. (1988). Husband battering. In V. B. Van Hasselt, R. L. Morrison, A. S. Bellack & M. Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of family violence (pp. 233–246 ). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  348. Sternberg, K. J., Lamb, M. E., Greenbaum, C., Cicchetti, D., Dawud, S., Cortes, R. M., Knspin, O. & Lorey, F. (1993). Effects of domestic violence on children’s behavior problems and depression. Developmental Psychology, 29, 44–52.Google Scholar
  349. Stets, J. E. (1988). Domestic violence and control. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  350. Stets, J. E. (1991). Cohabiting and marital aggression: The role of social isolation. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53, 669–680.Google Scholar
  351. Stets, J. E., & Straus, M. A. (1990). Gender differences in reporting marital violence and its medical and psychological consequences. In M. A.Google Scholar
  352. Straus and R. J. Gelles (Eds.), Physical violence in American families (pp. 151–165). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  353. Straton, J. C. (1994). The myth of the “battered husband syndrome.” Masculinities, 9, 70–82.Google Scholar
  354. Straus, M. A. (1976). Social inequality, cultural norms, and wife beating. Victimology, 1, 54–76.Google Scholar
  355. Straus, M. A. (1990). Societal stress and marital violence in a national sample of American families. In F. Wright, C. Bahn, and R. W. Rieber (Eds.), Annals of the new York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 347: Forensic psychology and psychiatry (pp. 229–250 ). New York: New York Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  356. Straus, M. A. (1990a). How violent are American families? Estimates from the National Family Violence Resurvey and other studies. In M. A. Straus and R. J. Gelles (eds.), Physical violence in American families (pp. 95–112 ). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Press.Google Scholar
  357. Straus, M. A. (1990b). Ordinary violence, child abuse, and wife beating: What do they have in common? In M. A. Straus and R. J. Gelles (Eds.), Physical violence in American families (pp. 403–424 ). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  358. Straus, M. A. (1990c). Social stress and marital violence in a national sample of American families. In M. A. Straus and R. J. Gelles (Eds.), Physical violence in American families (pp. 181–201 ). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  359. Straus, M. A. (1991a). Physical violence in American families: Incidence rates, causes, and trends. In D. D. Knudsen and J. L. Miller (Eds.), Abused and battered: Social and legal responses to family violence (pp. 17–34 ). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  360. Straus, M. A. (1991b). Discipline and deviance: Physical punishment and violence and other crime in adulthood. Social Problems, 38, 180–197.Google Scholar
  361. Straus, M. A. (1994). Beating the devil out of them: Corporal punishment in American families. New York: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  362. Straus, M. A., & Gelles, R. J. (1986). Societal change in family violence from 1975 to 1985 as revealed by two national surveys. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48, 465–479.Google Scholar
  363. Straus, M. A., & Gelles, R. J. (1990). Physical violence in American Families: Risk Factors and adaptions to violence in 8,145 families. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  364. Straus, M. A., Gelles, R. J., & Steinmetz, S. K. (1980). Behind closed doors: Violence in the American family. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  365. Straus, M. A., Kantor, G. G., & Moore, D. W. (1997). Change in cultural norms approving marital violence from 1968 to 1994. In G. G. Kantor and J. L. Jasinski, (Eds.), Out of the darkness: Contemporary perspectives on family violence (pp. 3–16 ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  366. Straus, M., & Mathur, A. K. (1996). Social change and trends in approval of corporal punishment by parents from 1968 to 1994. In D. Frehsee, W. Horn, & K. Bussman (Eds.), Violence against children (pp. 91–105 ). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  367. Straus, M. A., & Sweet, S. (1992). Verbal symbolic aggression in couples: Incidence rates and relationships to personal characteristics. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 54, 346–357.Google Scholar
  368. Straus, M. A., Gelles, R. J., & Steinmetz, S. (1980). Behind closed doors: Violence in the American family. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press.Google Scholar
  369. Straus, M. A., Kantor, G. K., & Moore, D. W. (1997). Change in cultural norms approving marital violence from 1968–1994. In G. Kaufman Kantor and J. L. Jasinski (Eds.), Out of the darkness: Contemporary perspectives on family violence (pp. 3–16 ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  370. Straus, M. A., Sugarman, D. B., & Giles-Sims, J. (1997). Spanking by parents in subsequent anti-social behavior of children. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 151, 761–767.Google Scholar
  371. Syers, M.,and Edleson, J. L. (1992). The combined effects of coordinated criminal justice intervention in woman abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7, 490–502.Google Scholar
  372. Tifft, L. L. (1993). Battering of women: The failure of intervention and the case for prevention. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  373. Tolman, R. M., & Bhosley, G. (1991). The outcome of participation in a shelter-sponsored program for men who batter. In D. Knudsen and J. Miller (Eds.), Abused and battered (pp. 113–122 ). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  374. Tomlin, S. S. (1991). Stigma and incest survivors. Child Abuse and Neglect, 15, 557–566.Google Scholar
  375. Trickett, P. K., Aber, J. L., Carlson, V., & Cicchetti, D. (1991). Relationship of socioeconomic status to the etiology and development sequelae of physical child abuse. Developmental Psychology, 27, 148–158.Google Scholar
  376. Tracy, E. M., Haapala, D. A., & Pecora, J. (Eds.). (1991). Intensive family preservation services: An instructional sourcebook. Cleveland, OH: Case Western Reserve University.Google Scholar
  377. Tutty, L. M. (1990). Preventing child sexual abuse: A review of current research and theory. In M. Rothery and G. Cameron (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Expanding our concept of helping (pp. 259–275 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  378. Ucko, L. G. (1994). Culture and violence: The interaction of Africa and America. Sex Roles, 31, 185–204.Google Scholar
  379. Urquiza, A. J., Wyatt, G. E., & Root, M. P. P. (1994). Introduction: Violence against women of color. Violence and Victims, 9, 203–206.Google Scholar
  380. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1994). Child maltreatment 1993: Reports from the states to the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect.Google Scholar
  381. Utech, M. R., & Garrett, R. R. (1992). Elder and child abuse: Conceptual and perceptual parallels. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7, 418–428.Google Scholar
  382. Vinton, L. (1992). Battered women’s shelters and older women: The Florida experience. Journal of Family Violence, 7, 63–72.Google Scholar
  383. Vissing, Y. M., Straus, M. A., Gelles, R. J., & Harrop, J. W. (1991). Verbal aggression by parents and psychosocial problems of children. Child Abuse and Neglect, 15, 223–238.Google Scholar
  384. Vitanza, S., Vogel, L. C. M., & Marshall, L. L. (1995). Distress and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in abused women. Violence and Victims, 10, 23–34.Google Scholar
  385. Walker, L. (1979). The battered woman. New York. Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  386. Wallace, H. (1996). Family violence: legal, medical, and social perspectives. Lexington, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  387. Warner, I. E., & Hansen, D. J. (1994). The identification and reporting of physical abuse by physicians: A review and implications for research. Child Abuse and Neglect, 18, 11–25.Google Scholar
  388. Waterman, C.,Dawson, L., & Bologna, M. J. (1989). Sexual coercion in gay male and lesbian relationships: Predictors and implications for support services. Journal of Sex Research, 26,118–124.Google Scholar
  389. Webster, R. L., Goldstein, J., & Segall, A. (1985). A test of the explanatory value of alternative models of child abuse. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 16, 295–317.Google Scholar
  390. Webster, S. W. (1991). Variations in defining family mistreatment: A community survey. In D. D. Knudsen and J. Miller (Eds.), Abused and battered: Social and legal responses to family violence (pp. 49–61). new York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  391. Weise, D., & Daro, D. (1995). Current trends in child abuse reporting and fatalities: The results of the 1994 annual fifty state survey. Chicago: National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse.Google Scholar
  392. Weitzman, L. (1981). The marriage contract: Spouses, lovers, and the law. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  393. Whitcomb, D. (1992). When the victim is a child ( 2nd ed. ). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  394. Whiteman, M., Fanshel, D., & Grundy, I. F. (1987). Cognitive-behavioral interventions aimed at anger of parents at risk of child abuse. Social Work, 32, 469–474.Google Scholar
  395. Whittaker, T. (1996). Violence, gender, and elder abuse. In B. Fawcett, B. Featherstone, J. Hearn, and C. Toft (Eds.), Violence and gender relations: Theories and interventions (pp. 147–160 ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  396. Widom, C. S. (1988). Sampling biases and implications for child abuse research. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 58, 260–270.Google Scholar
  397. Widom, C. S. (1989). Does violence beget violence? A critical examination of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 3–28.Google Scholar
  398. Williams, L. M. (1994). Recall of childhood trauma. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 1167–1176.Google Scholar
  399. Williamson, I. M., Borduin, C. M., & Howe, B. A. (1991). The ecology of adolescent maltreatment: A multilevel examination of adolescent physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 449–457.Google Scholar
  400. Wilson, S. K., Cameron, S., Jaffe, P., and Wolfe, D. (1989). Children exposed to wife abuse: An intervention model. Social Casework, 70, 180–184.Google Scholar
  401. Wolfe, D. A. (1985). Child-abusive parents: An Empirical Review and Analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 97, 462–782.Google Scholar
  402. Wolfe, D. A. (1987). Child abuse: Implication for child development and psychopathology. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  403. Wolfe, D. A., & Jaffe, R. (1991). Child abuse and family violence as determinants of child psychopathology. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 23, 282–299.Google Scholar
  404. Wolf, R. S. (1996). Elder abuse and family violence: Testimony presented before the U.S. Senate Special Committee on Aging. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 8, 81–96.Google Scholar
  405. Wolfgang, M. E. (1958). Patterns of criminal homicide. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  406. Wurtele, S. K., & Miller, C. L. (1987). Children’s conceptions of sexual abuse. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 16, 184–191.Google Scholar
  407. Yllo, K. (1984). The status of women, marital equality, and violence against wives. Journal of Family Issues, 5, 307–320.Google Scholar
  408. Yllo, K. (1993). Through a feminist lens: Gender, power, and violence. In R. J. Gelles and D. R. Loseke (Eds.), Current controversies on family violence (pp. 47–62 ). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  409. Yllo, K., & Straus, M. A. (1990). Patriarchy and violence against wives: The impact of structural and normative factors. In M. A. Straus and R. J. Gelles (Eds.), Physical violence in American families (pp. 383–399 ). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  410. Zelizer, V. (1985). Pricing the priceless child: The changing social value of children. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • JoAnn Langley Miller
    • 1
  • Dean D. Knudsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Sociology and AnthropologyPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

Personalised recommendations