Memory and Creativity

  • Barry S. Stein
Chapter
Part of the Perspectives on Individual Differences book series (PIDF)

Abstract

Although there are many ways to define creativity, creative behavior usually involves a product or response both novel and appropriate to the task at hand. Creative ideas and discoveries often provide new information and perspectives that were not apparent in the past. In contrast, the concept of memory is typically associated with ideas that are not novel or original. Indeed, the act of remembering is an attempt to recreate events and experiences that have occurred in the past. From this perspective, memory and creativity appear to involve very different kinds of activities.

Keywords

Transfer Task Creative Solution Radiation Problem Creative Problem Creative Behavior 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, J. L. (1979). Conceptual blockbusting ( 2nd ed. ). New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, L. T., Kasserman, J. E., Yearwood, A. A., Perfetto, G. A., Bransford, J. D., & Franks, J. J. (1988). Memory access: The effects of fact-oriented versus problem-oriented acquisition. Memory and Cognition, 16, 167–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amabile, T. M. (1983). The social psychology of creativity. New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, R. C., Reynolds, R. E., Schauert, D. L., & Goetz, E. T. (1977). Frameworks for comprehending discourse. American Educational Research Journal, 14, 367–382.Google Scholar
  5. Auble, P. M., Franks, J. J., & Soraci, S. A. (1979). Effort toward comprehension: Elaboration of “aha”? Memory and Cognition, 7 (6), 426–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barclay, J. R., Bransford, J. D., Franks, J. J., McCarrell, N. S., & Nitsch, K. E. (1974). Comprehension and semantic flexibility. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 13, 471–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bartlett, F. C. (1932). Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  8. Birch, H. G., & Rabinowitz, H. S. (1951). The negative effect of previous experience on productive thinking. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 41, 121–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bransford, J. D. (1979). Human cognition: Learning, under- standing, and remembering. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  10. Bransford, J. D., & Stein, B. S. (1984). The ideal problem solver: A guide for improving thinking, learning, and creativity. New York: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  11. Bransford, J. D., Sherwood, R. D., & Sturdevant, T. (1986). Teaching thinking and problem solving. In J. B. Baron & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Teaching thinking skills (pp. 162–181 ). New York: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  12. Brown, A. L., Bransford, J. D., Ferrara, R. A., & Campion, J. C. (1983). Learning, remembering and understanding. In J. H. Flavell & E. M. Markman (Eds.), Carmichael’s manual of child psychology (Vol. 1 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  13. Campbell, D. (1960). Blind variation and selective retention in creative thought as in other knowledge processes. Psychological Review, 67, 380–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chi, M. T. H., Glaser, R., & Rees, E. (1982). Expertise in problem solving. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Advances in the psychology of human intelligence (pp. 7–76 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  15. de Groot, A. D. (1965). Thought and choice in chess. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  16. Duncker, K. (1945). On problem solving. Psychological Monographs, 58, 270.Google Scholar
  17. Franks, J. J., Vye, N. J., Auble, P. M., Mezynski, K. J., Perfetto, G. A., Bransford, J. D., Stein, B. S., & Littlefield, J. (1982). Learning from explicit versus implicit texts, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 111, 414–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gentner, D., & Landers, R. (1985, November). Analogical access: A good match is hard to find. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  19. Getzels, J. W. & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). From problem solving to problem finding. In I. A. Taylor & J. W. Getzels (Eds.), Perspectives in creativity (pp. 90–116 ). Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  20. Gick, M. L., & Holyoak, K. J. (1980). Analogical problem solving. Cognitive Psychology, 12, 306–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gick, M. L., & Holyoak, K. J. (1983). Schema induction and analogical transfer. Cognitive Psychology, 15, 1–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hayes, J. R. (1981). The complete problem solver. Philadelphia: Franklin Institute Press.Google Scholar
  23. Holyoak, K. J., & Koh, K. (1987). Surface and structural similarity in analogical transfer. Memory and Cognition, 15, 332–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jenkins, J. J. (1974). Remember that old theory of memory? Well, forget it! American Psychologist, 29, 785–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jenkins, J. J. (1979). Four points to remember: A tetrahedral model of memory experiments. In L. S. Cermak & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Levels of processing and human memory (pp. 429–446 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  26. Johnson, M. K., Bransford, J. D., & Solomon, S. (1973). Memory use for tacit implications of sentences. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 98, 203–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lockhart, R. S., Lamon, M., & Gick, M. L. (1988). Conceptual transfer in simple insight problems. Memory and Cognition, 16, 36–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Loftus, G. R., & Palmer, J. C. (1974). Reconstruction of automobile destruction: An example of the interaction between language and memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 13, 585–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Luchins, A. S. & Luchins, E. H. (1950). New experimental attempts at preventing mechanization in problem solving. Journal of General Psychology, 42, 279–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Maier, N. R. F. (1931). Reasoning in humans. II. The solution of a problem and its appearance in consciousness. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 12, 181–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Morris, C. D., Bransford, J. D., & Franks, J. J. (1977). Levels of processing versus transfer appropriate processing. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 16, 519–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Newell, A., & Simon, H. (1972). Human problem solving. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  33. Novick, L. R. (1988). Analogical transfer, problem similarity, and expertise. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 14, 510–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Perfetto, G. A., Bransford, J. D., & Franks, J. J. (1983). Constraints on access in a problem solving context. Memory and Cognition, 11, 24–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pichert, J., & Anderson, R. C. (1977). Taking different perspectives on a story. Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 309–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Polya, G. (1957). How to solve it. Garden City, NY: Doubleday Anchor.Google Scholar
  37. Roediger, H. L., & Weldon, M. S. (1987). Reversing the picture superiority effect. In M. A. McDaniel & M. Pressley (Eds.), Imagery and related mnemonic processes; theories, individual differences, and application (pp. 151–176 ). New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  38. Rohwer, W. D., Jr. (1980). An elaborative conception of learner differences. In R. E. Snow, P. A. Frederico, & W. E. Montague (Eds.), Aptitude, learning, and instruction (pp. 23–46 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  39. Rosnow, R. L., & Georgoudi, M. (1986). The spirit of con-textualism. In R. L. Rosnow & M. Georgoudi (Eds.), Contextualism and understanding in behavioral science (pp. 3–24 ). New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  40. Ross, B. H. (1984). Remindings and their effects in learning a cognitive skill. Cognitive Psychology, 16, 371–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rumelhart, D. E., & Ortony, A. (1977). The representation of knowledge in memory. In R. C. Anderson, R. J. Spiro, & W. E. Montague (Eds.), Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge (pp. 99–135 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  42. Simon, H. A. (1980). Problem solving and education. In D. T. Tuma & F. Reif (Eds.), Problem solving and education: Issues in teaching and research (pp. 81–96 ). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  43. Spencer, R. M., & Weisberg, R. W. (1986). Context-dependent effects on analogical transfer. Memory and Cognition, 14, 442–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Stein, B. S. (1978). Depth of processing reexamined: The effects of precision of encoding and test appropriateness. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 17, 165–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Stein, B. S., & Hedgecough, C. A. (submitted) Differences between spontaneous and informed transfer in problem-solving tasks: The effects of set size and clue-problem similarity.Google Scholar
  46. Stein, B. S., & Moore, S. (1988). The effects of problem definitions on transfer in problem-solving tasks. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  47. Stein, B. S., Bransford, J. D., Franks, J. J., Owings, R. A., Vye, N. J., & McGraw, W. (1982). Differences in the precision of self-generated elaborations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 111, 399–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Stein, B. S., Way, K. R., Benningfield, S. E., & Hedgecough, C. A. (1986). Constraints on spontaneous transfer in problem solving tasks. Memory and Cognition, 14, 432–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Stein, B. S., Brock, K. F., Ballard, D. R., & Vye, N. J. (1987). Constraints on effective pictorial and verbal elaboration. Memory and Cognition, 15 (4), 281–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tulving, E., & Thomson, D. M. (1973). Encoding specificity and retrieval processes in episodic memory. Psychological Review, 80, 352–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Weisberg, R. W. (1986). Creativity: Genius and other myths. New York: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  52. Weisberg, R. W., DiCamillo, M., & Phillips, D. (1978). Transferring old associations to new situations: A nonautomatic process. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 17, 219–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry S. Stein
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Educational PsychologyTennessee Technological UniversityCookevilleUSA

Personalised recommendations