Neuropsychology of Child Psychopathology

  • Michael G. Tramontana
  • Stephen R. Hooper
Part of the Critical Issues in Neuropsychology book series (CINP)


In our chapter in the earlier edition of the Hand-book (Tramontana & Hooper, 1989), we began with a series of questions. We asked: What is the relationship between brain dysfunction and psychopathology in childhood? Does it depend on the extent or type of brain dysfunction? What about the age or other attributes of the child at the time of onset? How might environmental factors potentiate the child’s risk? Are certain forms of psychopathology more likely to arise than others? Does the form of psychopathology change over time? There were other questions raised, namely: Is brain dysfunction more likely in certain psychiatric disorders or behavioral syndromes than others? Does its presence explain the form of psychopathology manifested? How important is it relative to other factors contributing to the child’s disturbance?


Psychiatric Disorder Head Injury Conduct Disorder Brain Damage Child Psychiatry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ameli, R., Courchesne, E., Lincoln, A., Kaufman, A.,& Grillon, C. (1988). Visual memory processes in high-functioning individuals with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 18, 601 - 615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ( 4th ed. ). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Applebaum, E., Egel, A. L., Koegel, R. L.,& Imhoff, B. (1979). Measuring musical abilities of autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9, 279 - 285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnold, G.,& Schwartz, S. (1983). Hemispheric lateralization of language in autistic and aphasic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 13, 129 - 139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bakwin, H.,& Bakwin, R. M. M. (1966). Clinical management of behavior disorders in children ( 3rd ed. ). Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar
  6. Balottin, U., Bejor, M., Cecchini, A., Martelli, A., Palazzi, S.,& Lanzi, G. (1989). Infantile autism and computerized tomography brain-scan findings: Specific versus nonspecific abnormalities. Journal ofAutism and Developmental Disorders, 19, 109 - 117.Google Scholar
  7. Barkley, R. (1981a). Hyperactivity. In E. G. Mash& L. G. Terdal (Eds.), Behavioral assessment of childhood disorders (pp. 127 - 184 ). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  8. Barkley, R. (1981b). Hyperactive children: A handbook for di agnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  9. Barkley, R. A., Grodzinsky, G.,& Du Paul, G. J. (1992). Frontal lobe functions in attention deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity: A review and research report. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 20, 163 - 188.Google Scholar
  10. Bartak, L.,& Rutter, M. (1976). Differences between mentally retarded and normally intelligent autistic children. Journal ofAutism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 6, 109 - 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bartak, L., Rutter, M.,& Cox, A. (1975). A comparative study of infantile autism and specific developmental receptive language disorder. 1. The children. British Journal of Psychiatry; 126, 127 - 145.Google Scholar
  12. Bauman, M.,& Kemper, T. (1985). Histoanatomic observations of the brain in early infantile autism. Neurology; 35, 866 - 874.Google Scholar
  13. Behar, D., Rapoport, J. L., Berg, C. J., Denekla, M. B., Mann, L., Cox, C., Fedio, P., Zahn, T.,& Wolfman, M. G. (1984). Computerized tomography and neurological test measures in adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 14, 363 - 369.Google Scholar
  14. Berman, A.,& Siegal, A. (1976). Adaptive and learning skills in juvenile delinquents: A neuropsychological analysis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 9, 583 - 590.Google Scholar
  15. Bigler, E. D.,& Naugle, R. I. (1985). Case studies in cerebral plasticity. International Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 7, 12 - 23.Google Scholar
  16. Blackstock, E. (1978). Cerebral asymmetry and the development of early infantile autism. Journal ofAutism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 8, 339 - 353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blumberg, S.,& Izard, C. (1985). Affective and cognitive characteristics of depression in 10 and 11 year old children. Journal of Personality and School Psychology; 49, 194 - 202. ( Abstract)Google Scholar
  18. Boll, T.,& Barth, J. (1981). Neuropsychology of brain damage in children. In S. B. Filskov& T. J. Boll (Eds.), Handbook of clinical neuropsychology (pp. 418 - 452 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  19. Bremner, J. D., Randall, P., Scott, T. M., Bronen, R. A., Seibyl, J. P., Southwick, S. M., Delaney, R. C., McCarthy, G., Charney, D. S., & Innis, R. B. (1995). MRI-based mea surement of hippocampal volume in patients with combatrelated posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 973-981.Google Scholar
  20. Breslau, N.,& Marshall, I. A. (1985). Psychological disturbance in children with physical disabilities: Continuity and change in a 5-year follow-up. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13, 199 - 216.Google Scholar
  21. Brickman, A., McManus, M., Grapentine, W.,& Alessi, N. (1984). Neuropsychological assessment of seriously delinquent adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 453 - 457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brown, G., Chadwick, O., Shaffer, D., Rutter, M.,& Traub, M. (1981). A prospective study of children with head injuries. III. Psychiatric sequelae. PsychologicalMedicine, 11, 63 - 78.Google Scholar
  23. Brumback, R. A., Staton, R. D.,& Wilson, H. (1980). Neuropsychological study of children during and after remission of endogenous depressive episodes. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 50, 1163 - 1167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Campbell, M., Rosenbloom, S., Peery, R., George, A. E., Kricheff, I. I., Anderson, L., Small, A. M.,& Jennings, S. J. (1982). Computerized axial tomography in young children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 4, 510 - 512.Google Scholar
  25. Cannon, I., & Compton, C. (1980). School dysfunction in the ado lescent. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 27, 79-96.Google Scholar
  26. Cantor, D., Thatcher, R., Hrybyk, M.,& Kaye, H. (1986). Computerized EEG analyses of autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 16, 169 - 187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Caparulo, B. K., Cohen, D. J., Rothman, S. L., Young, G., Katz, J., Shaywitz, S.,& Shaywitz, B. (1981). Computed tomo-graphic brain scanning in children with developmental neuropsychiatrie disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 20, 338 - 357.Google Scholar
  28. Chadwick, O., Rutter, M., Brown, G., Shaffer, D.,& Traub, M. (1981). A prospective study of children with head injuries. II. Cognitive sequelae. Psychological Medicine, 11, 49 - 61.Google Scholar
  29. Chadwick, O., Rutter, M., Shaffer, D.,& Shrout, P. (1981). A prospective study of children with head injuries. IV. Specific cognitive deficits. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 3, 101 - 120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Coble, P., Taska, L., Kupfer, D., Kazdin, A., Unis, A.,& French, N. (1984). EEG sleep ‘abnormalities’ in preadolescent boys with a diagnosis of conduct disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 438 - 447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cohen, D. J., Caparulo, B.,& Shaywitz, B. (1976). Primary childhood aphasia and childhood autism: Clinical, biological, and conceptual observations. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry; 15, 604 - 645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cole, P. M., Usher, B. A.,& Cargo, A. P. (1993). Cognitive risk and its association with risk for disruptive behavior disorder in preschoolers. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22, 154 - 164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Coleman, P., Romano, J., Lapham, L.,& Simon, W. (1985). Cell counts in cerebral cortex of an autistic patient. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15, 245 - 255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Courchesne, E., Lincoln, A., Kilman, B.,& Galambos, R. (1985). Event-related brain potential correlates of the processing of novel visual and auditory information in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15, 55 - 76.Google Scholar
  35. Courchesne, E., Yeung-Courchesne, R., Press, G. A., Hesselink, J. R.,& Jernigan, T. L. (1988). Hypoplasia of cerebellar vernal lobules VI and VII in autism. New England Journal of Medicine, 318, 1349 - 1354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cox, C. S., Fedio, P.,& Rapoport, J. L. (1989). Neuropsychological testing of obsessive-compulsive adolescents. In J. L. Rapoport (Ed.), Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents (pp. 73 - 86 ). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Press.Google Scholar
  37. Damasio, A. R.,& Maurer, R. G. (1978). A neurological model for childhood autism. Archives of Neurology, 35, 777 - 786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Damasio, H., Maurer, R. G., Damasio, A. R.,& Chui, H. C. (1980). Computerized tomographic scan findings in patients with autistic behavior. Archives of Neurology, 37, 504 - 510.Google Scholar
  39. Dawson, G. (1983) Lateralized brain dysfunction in autism: Evidence from the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 13, 269 - 286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dawson, G., Finley, C., Phillips, S.,& Galpert, L. (1986). Hemispheric specialization and the language abilities of autistic children. Child Development, 57, 1440 - 1453.Google Scholar
  41. Decina, P., Kestenbaum, C., Farber, S., Kron, L., Gargan, M., Sackeim, H.,& Fieve, R. (1983). Clinical and psychological assessment of children of bipolar probands. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 548 - 553.Google Scholar
  42. DeMyer, M., Hingtgen, J.,& Jackson, R. (1981). Infantile autism reviewed: A decade of research. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 7, 388 - 451.Google Scholar
  43. Deykin, E.,& MacMahon, B. (1979). The incidence of seizures among children with autistic symptoms. American Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 1310 - 1312.Google Scholar
  44. Dorman, C. (1982). Personality and psychiatric correlates of the Halstead-Reitan tests in boys with school problems. Clinical Neuropsychology, 4, 110 - 114.Google Scholar
  45. Douglas, V. (1980). Higher mental processes in hyperactive children: Implications for training. In R. Knights& D. Bakker (Eds.), Treatment of hyperactive and learning disordered children (pp. 65 - 92 ). Baltimore: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  46. Douglas, V. (1983). Attention and cognitive problems. In M. Rutter (Ed.), Developmental neuropsychiatry (pp. 280 - 329 ). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  47. Elliott, F. A. (1982). Neurological findings in adult minimal brain dysfunction and the dyscontrol syndrome. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 170, 680 - 687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fein, D., Humes, M., Kaplan, E., Lucci, D.,& Waterhouse, L. (1984). The question of left hemisphere dysfunction in infantile autism. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 258 - 281.Google Scholar
  49. Fein, D., Waterhouse, L., Lucci, D.,& Snyder, D. (1985). Cognitive subtypes in developmentally disabled children: A pilot study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15, 77 - 95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ferrari, M. (1982). Childhood autism: Deficits of communication and symbolic development: I. Distinctions from language disorders. Journal of Communication Disorders, 15, 191 - 208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fletcher, J. M., Ewing-Cobbs, L., Miner, M. E., Levin, H. S.,& Eisenberg, H. M. (1990). Behavioral changes after closed head injury in children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 93 - 98.Google Scholar
  52. Folstein, S. E.,& Rutter, M. (1987). Autism: Familial aggregation and genetic implications. In E. Schopler& G. Mesibov (Eds.), Neurological issue in autism (pp. 83 - 105 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  53. Funk, J. B.,& Ruppert, E. (1984). Language disorders and behavioral problems in preschool children. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 5, 357 - 360.Google Scholar
  54. Gaffney, G. R., Kuperman, S., Tsai, L. Y.,& Minchin, S. (1988). Morphological evidence for brainstem involvement in infantile autism. Biological Psychiatry, 24, 578 - 586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gaffney, G. R., Tsai, L. Y., Kuperman, S.,& Minchin, S. (1987). Cerebellar structure in autism. American Journal of Diseases of Childhood, 141, 1330 - 1332.Google Scholar
  56. Garreau, B., Barthelemy, C., Sauvage, D., Leddet, I.,& LeLord, G. (1984). A comparison of autistic syndromes with and without associated neurological problems. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 14, 105 - 111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. George, M. S.,& Ballenger, J. C. (1992). The neuroanatomy of panic disorder: The emerging role of right parahippocampal region. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 6, 181 - 188.Google Scholar
  58. Gillberg, C.,& Svendsen, P. (1983). Childhood psychosis and computed tomographic brain scan findings. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 13, 19 - 32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Golden, C. J. (1981). The Luria-Nebraska Children’s Battery: Theory and formulation. In G. W. Hynd& J. E. Obrut (Eds.), Neuropsychological assessment and the school-age child (pp. 277 - 302 ). New York: Grune& Stratton.Google Scholar
  60. Green, W., Campbell, M., Hardesty, A., Grega, D., GadronGayol, M., Shell, J.,& Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L. (1984). A comparison of schizophrenic and autistic children. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 399 - 409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gualtieri, C. T., Koriath, U., Van Bourgondieu, M.,& Saleeby, N. (1983). Language disorders in children referred for psychiatric services. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 22, 165 - 171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Harcherik, D. F., Cohen, D. J., Ort, S., Paul, R., Shaywitz, B. A., Volkmar, E R., Rothman, S. L. G.,& Leckman, J. E (1985). Computed tomographic brain scanning in four neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 731 - 734.Google Scholar
  63. Haynes, J.,& Bensch, M. (1981). The PV sign on the WISCR and recidivism in delinquents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 480 - 481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hier, D. B., LeMay, M.,& Rosenberger, P. B. (1979). Autism and unfavorable left-right asymmetries of the brain. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9, 153 - 159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hoffman, W. L.,& Prior, M. R. (1982). Neuropsychological dimensions of autism in children: A test of the hemispheric dysfunction hypothesis. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 41, 27 - 41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hynd, G. W., Semrud-Clikeman, M., Lorys, A., Novey, E. S.,& Eliopulos, D. (1990). Brain morphology in developmental dyslexia and attention deficit and disorder/hyperactivity. Archives of Neurology, 47, 919 - 926.Google Scholar
  67. Ingram, T. T. S. (1973). Soft signs. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 15, 527 - 530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Jacobson, R., LeCouteur, A., Howlin, P.,& Rutter, M. (1988). Selective subcortical abnormalities in autism. Psychological Medicine, 18, 39 - 48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. James, A. L.,& Barry, R. J. (1983). Developmental effects in the cerebral lateralization of autistic, retarded and normal children. Journal ofAutism and Developmental Disorders, 13, 43 - 56.Google Scholar
  70. Jones, V.,& Prior, M. (1985). Motor imitation abilities and neurological signs in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15, 37 - 46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kagan, V. E. (1981). Nonprocess autism in children: A comparative etiopathogenic study. Soviet Neurology and Psychiatry, 14, 25 - 30.Google Scholar
  72. Kaslow, N., Rehm, L.,& Siegel, A. (1984). Social-cognitive and cognitive correlates of depression in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 12, 605 - 620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kendall, P., & Broswell, L. (1985). Cognitive-behavioral ther apy for impulsive children. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  74. Klonoff, H. (1971). Head injuries in children: Predisposing factors, accident conditions, and sequelae. American Journal of Public Health, 61, 2405 - 2417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Knott, V., Waters, B., Lapierre, Y.,& Gray, R. (1985). Neuro-physiological correlates of sibling pairs discordant for bipolar affective disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 248 - 250.Google Scholar
  76. Korhonen, T.,& Sillanpaa, M. (1976). MBD-like behavior and neuropsychological performances. Acta Paedopsychiatrica, 42, 75 - 87.Google Scholar
  77. Krynicki, V. E. (1978). Cerebral dysfunction in repetitively assaultive adolescents. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 166, 59 - 67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kuperman, S., Gaffney, G. R., Hamdan-Allen, G., Preston, D. F.,& Venkatesh, L. (1990). Neuroimaging in child and adolescent psychiatry. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 159 - 172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Strauss, A.,& Lehtinen, L. (1947). Psychopathology and education of the brain-injured child. New York: Grune& Stratton.Google Scholar
  80. Stuss, D.,& Benson, D. (1984). Neuropsychological studies of the frontal lobes. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 3 - 28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Tager-Flusberg, H. (1981). On the nature of linguistic functioning in early infantile autism. Journal of Autism and Development Disorders, 11, 45 - 56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tanguay, P. (1984). Toward a new classification of serious psychopathology in children. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 373 - 384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tarter, R. E., Hegedus, A. M., Alterman, A. I.,& Katz-Garnis, L. (1983). Cognitive capacities of juvenile violent, nonviolent, and sexual offenders. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 171, 564 - 567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Taylor, H. (1983). MBD: Meanings and misconceptions. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 5, 271 - 287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tramontana, M. G. (1983). Neuropsychological evaluation ofchildren and adolescents with psychopathological disorders. In C. J. Golden& P. J. Vincente (Eds.), Foundations of clinical neuropsychology (pp. 309 - 340 ). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tramontana, M. G.,& Hooper, S. R. (1987). Discriminating the presence and pattern of neuropsychological impairment in child psychiatric disorders. International Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 9, 111 - 119.Google Scholar
  87. Tramontana, M. G.,& Hooper, S. R. (1989). Neuropsychology of child psychopathology. In C. R. Reynolds& E. FletcherJanzen (Eds.), Handbook of clinical child neuropsychology (pp. 87 - 106 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  88. Tramontana, M. G., Hooper, S. R., Curley, A. D.,& Nardolillo, E. M. (1990). Determinants of academic achievement in children with psychiatric disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 265 - 268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Tramontana, M. G., Hooper, S. R.,& Nardolillo, E. M. (1988). Behavioral manifestations of neuropsychological impairment in children with psychiatric disorders. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 3, 369 - 374.Google Scholar
  90. Tramontana, M. G.,& Sherrets, S. D. (1985). Brain impairment in child psychiatric disorders: Correspondences between neuropsychological and CT scan results. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24, 590 - 596.Google Scholar
  91. Tramontana, M. G., Sherrets, S. D.,& Golden, C. J. (1980). Brain dysfunction in youngsters with psychiatric disorders: Application of Selz-Reitan rules for neuropsychological diagnosis. Clinical Neuropsychology, 2, 118 - 123.Google Scholar
  92. Tsai, L., Tsai, M., & August, G. (1985). Brief report: Implications of EEG diagnosis in the subclassification of infantile autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15, 339-344.Google Scholar
  93. Tucker, D. M. (1980). Lateral brain function, emotion, and con ceptualization. Psychological Bulletin, 89, 19-46.Google Scholar
  94. Vasterling, J. J., Roost, L., Brailey, K., Uddo, M.,& Sutker, P. B. (1994). Attention and memory performances in post-traumatic stress disorder. Paper presented at the 22nd Annual Meeting of the International Neuropsychological Society, Cincinnati, OH.Google Scholar
  95. Voeller, K. K. S., Alexander, A. W., Carter, R. L.,& Heilman, K. (1989). Motor impersistence in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder decreases in response to treatment with methylphenidate. Neurology, 39, 276.Google Scholar
  96. Voeller, K. K. S.,& Heilman, K. (1988). Attention deficit disorder in children: A neglect syndrome? Neurology, 38, 806 - 808.Google Scholar
  97. Voorhees, J. (1981). Neuropsychological differences between juvenile delinquents and functional adolescents. Adolescence, 16, 57 - 66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Wardell, D.,& Yeudall, L. (1980). A multidimensional approach to criminal disorders. The assessment of impulsivity and its relation to crime. Advances in Behavioral Research and Therapy, 2, 159 - 177.Google Scholar
  99. Wender, R. (1971). Minimal brain dysfunction in children. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  100. Wilson, H.,& Staton, R. D. (1984). Neuropsychological changes in children associated with tricyclic antidepressant therapy. International Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 307 - 312.Google Scholar
  101. Wing, L. (1971). Perceptual and language development in autistic children: A comparative study. In M. Rutter (Ed.), Infantile autism: Concepts, characteristics, and treatment. London: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  102. Woods, B. T.,& Eby, M. D. (1982). Excessive mirror movements and aggression. Biological Psychiatry, 17, 23 - 32.Google Scholar
  103. Zambelli, A. J., Stamm, J. S., Maitinsky, S.,& Loiselle, D. L. (1977). Auditory evoked potentials and selective attention in formerly hyperactive adolescent boys. American Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 742 - 747.Google Scholar
  104. Zinkus, R. W.,& Gottlieb, M. I. (1978). Learning disabilities and juvenile delinquency. Clinical Pediatrics, 17, 775 - 780.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael G. Tramontana
    • 1
  • Stephen R. Hooper
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryVanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry and the Clinical Center for the Study of Development and LearningUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA

Personalised recommendations