Xanthine Oxidase and Xanthine Dehydrogenase Inhibition by the Procyanidin-Rich French Maritime Pine Bark Extract, Pycnogenol®: A Protein Binding Effect

  • Hadi Moini
  • Qiong Guo
  • Lester Packer
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 505)


Polyphenolic compounds have recently attracted attention due to their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species. Therefore, flavonoids alone or as a part of a complex mixture of polyphenols have been used therapeutically in European countries and in the US as dietary supplement (Kottke, 1998). Pycnogenol®, an extract from French maritime pine bark (PBE), is an example of a highly standardized mixture of certain polyphenolic compounds. Procyanidins formed by catechin and epicatechin units with a degree of polymerization of up to heptamer are major constituents of PBE and constitute 75% of its weight. PBE also contains monomer flavonoids such as catechin and taxifolin and phenol-carbonic acids and their glycosides. Recently, various biochemical and pharmacological studies have revealed some interesting properties of PBE, both in vitro and in vivo (Packer et al., 1999).


Xanthine Oxidase Activity Ascorbate Oxidase Hydroxyl Radical Scavenge Activity Epicatechin Gallate Retarded Band 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hadi Moini
    • 1
  • Qiong Guo
    • 1
  • Lester Packer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, 251 Life Sciences AdditionUniversity of California at BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA

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