Permissive and Provocative Factors in FAS

  • Ernest L. Abel


The relatively low rate of occurrence of FAS among heavy drinkers means alcohol is a necessary, but not sufficient, cause of FAS. The fact that individuals differ in their responses to alcohol implies that they have inherent physiological susceptibilities to its effects. Unlike the simple concept of response which carries with it the expectation of a single causal agent, acknowledging that alcohol is not a sufficient cause for FAS implies that the concept of responsiveness—in the sense of a differential level of susceptibility and biological defense (Hart & Frame, 1996)—is much more apt.


Alcohol Exposure Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Prepregnancy Weight Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Blood Alcohol Level 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ernest L. Abel
    • 1
  1. 1.Wayne State University School of MedicineDetroitUSA

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