Phylogenetic, Geographical, and Temporal Analysis of Female Reproductive Trade-Offs in Drosophilidae

  • William T. Starmer
  • Michal Polak
  • Scott Pitnick
  • Shane F. McEvey
  • J. Stuart F. Barker
  • Larry L. Wolf
Part of the Evolutionary Biology book series (EBIO, volume 33)


The fact that reproductive effort often shows trade-offs with other necessary functions and features of living organisms has been recognized for centuries. Darwin (1872, pg. 142) gives credit to Geoffroy St. Hilaire and Goethe for proposing the law of “Compensation or Balancement of Growth” and ascribes the following quote to Goethe, “In order to spend on one side, nature is forced to economize on the other side.” The essence of this law is captured in modern theories and syntheses (Lack, 1947; Cody, 1966; Smith and Fretwell, 1974; Stearns, 1976, 1977, 1992) that emphasize time, energy budgets, and physiological, genetic and phylogenetic associations that govern the form of compensation that results in a trade-off.


Clutch Size Larval Habitat North American Species Isofemale Line Reproductive Allocation 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • William T. Starmer
    • 1
  • Michal Polak
    • 2
  • Scott Pitnick
    • 1
  • Shane F. McEvey
    • 3
  • J. Stuart F. Barker
    • 4
  • Larry L. Wolf
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologySyracuse UniversitySyracuseUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA
  3. 3.Australian MuseumSydneyAustralia
  4. 4.Department of Animal ScienceUniversity of New EnglandArmidaleAustralia

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