Tidal Wetlands and Estuarine Coliform Bacteria

  • Paul Jensen
  • Andrew Rola
  • John Tyrawski
Part of the Marine Science book series (MR, volume 11)


High concentrations of indicator bacteria (total and fecal coliforms) are common in Delaware estuarine waters which have large areas of adjacent tidal wetlands. The relation between tidal wetlands and these high coliform bacteria levels is explored through direct observation and statistical analysis of possible causative factors. Statistical analyses are performed on two representative tidal rivers using data collected by the state as part of it’s water quality monitoring program. Statistical results are used to suggest possible mechanisms for wetland/coliform bacteria interactions and to identify those parameters which are most important in a predictive model of estuarine coliform bacteria concentrations.


Fecal Coliform Coliform Bacterium Indicator Bacterium Tidal Wetland Tide Stage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Axelrad, D. M. 1974. Nutrient flux through the salt marsh ecosystem. Ph.D. Dissertation, College of William and Mary. 133 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Bellaire, J. T., G. A. Parr-Smith and I. G. Wallis. 1977. Significance of diurnal variations in fecal coliform die-off rates in the design of ocean outfalls. Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation, 49, pp. 2022–2030.Google Scholar
  3. Canale, R. P., R. L. Patterson, J. J. Gannon, and W. F. Powers. 1973. Water quality models for total coliform. Journal Water Pollution Control Federation 8. pp. 325–336.Google Scholar
  4. Carlucci, A. F. and D. Pramer. 1960. An evaluation of factors affecting the survival of Escherichia coli in sea water. II — Salinity, pH, and nutrients. Applied Microbiology, 8, pp. 247–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Carney, J. F., C. E. Carty and R. R. Colwell. 1975. Seasonal occurrence and distribution of microbial indicators and pathogens in the Rhode River of the Chesapeake Bay. Applied Microbiology 30, pp. 771–780.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Daiber, F. C, V. A. Lotrich, and L. E. Hurd. 1976. Unpublished data from NOAA Project #04–5–158–22. Nutrient flux, energy flow production in salt marsh ecosystems in Delaware.Google Scholar
  7. deWitt, W., III. 1968. The Hydrography of the Broadkill River Estuary. Master’s Thesis, U. of Delaware.Google Scholar
  8. Faust, M. A. 1976. Coliform bacteria from diffuse sources as a factor in estuarine pollution. Water Research 10, pp. 619–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Faust, M. A., A. E. Aotaky and M. T. Hargardon. 1975. Studies on the survival of Escherichia coli MC-6 in diffusion chambers in an estuarine environment. Unpublished manuscript. Smithsonian institution, Edgewater, Maryland.Google Scholar
  10. Gameson, A. L. H. and D. J. Gould. 1974. Effects of solar radiation on the mortality of some terrestrial bacteria in sea water. Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Discharge of Sewage from Sea Outfalls. Aug. 127-Sept. 2. Pergamon Press. NY., pp. 209–219.Google Scholar
  11. Gerba, C. P. and J. S. McLeod, 1976. Effect of sediments on the survival of Escherichia coli in marine waters. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 32, pp. 114–120.Google Scholar
  12. Goyal, S. M., C. P. Gerba, and J. L. Melnick. 1977. Occurrence and distribution of bacterial indicators and pathogens in canal communities along the Texas coast. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 34. pp. 139–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hamon, R. W., L. L. Weiss and W. T. Wilson. 1954. Insolation as an empirical function of daily sunshine duration. Monthly Weather Review, 82.Google Scholar
  14. Heinle, D. R. and D. A. Flemer. 1976. Flows of materials from poorly flooded tidal marshes and an estuary. Marine Biology, 35(4), pp. 359–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jensen, P. A. and J. M. Tyrawski. 1978. Wetlands and water quality. Presented at the March 14–16, 1978 Coastal Zone 78 Conference held at San Francisco, California.Google Scholar
  16. Jensen, P. A., and J. M. Tyrawski. 1977. Water quality modeling and analysis. Report on Task 2359. For the Coastal Sussex Water Quality Program, by the College of Marine Studies, and College of Agricultural Science, Univ. of Delaware.Google Scholar
  17. Jensen, P. A., W. Ritter, and J. M. Tyrawski. 1977. Coliform bacteria loadings and dynamics. Report on 23596. The College of Marine Studies and Agricultural Sciences, Univ. of Delaware.Google Scholar
  18. Karpas, R. M. and P. A. Jensen. 1977. Hydrodynamics of Coastal Sussex County Estuaries. Report on Task 2331, by the College of Marine Studies and Agricultural Sciences, Univ. of Delaware.Google Scholar
  19. Matson, E. A., S. G. Horner, and J. D. Buck. 1978. Pollution indicators and other micro-organisms in river sediment. Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 50, pp. 13–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Maurer, D., L. Watling, and R. Keck. 1971. The Delaware oyster industry: a reality? Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 100, pp. 100–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mitchell, R. and C. Chamberlain. 1974. Factors influencing the survival of enteric micro-organisms in the sea: an overview. Proc. of the Int. Symp. on the Discharge of Sewage from Sea Outfalls. 27 Aug — 2 Sept. 1974. Pergamon Press, pp. 237–251.Google Scholar
  22. Orlob, T. G. 1956. Viability of sewage bacteria in seawater. Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 28. pp. 1147–1167.Google Scholar
  23. Rittenberg, S. C, T. Mittwer and D. Ivler. 1958. Coliform bacteria in sediments around three marine sewage outfalls. Limnology and Oceanography, 3, pp. 1010–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ritter, W. F. and G. Sheffler. 1977. Monitoring of Non-Point Source Pollution in Coastal Sussex County. Report on Task 2332 of the Coastal Sussex Water Quality Program. College of Marine Studies and College of Agricultural Sciences, University of Delaware.Google Scholar
  25. Standard Methods for the examination of Water and Wastewater. 1971. 13th Edition, APHA, Washington, D. C.Google Scholar
  26. Vaccaro, R. F., M. P. Briggs, C.L. Carey, and B. H. Ketchum. 1950. Viability of Escherichia coli in sea water. American Journal of Public Health, 40, pp. 1257–1266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Weiss, C. M. 1951. Adsorption of E. coli river and estuarine silts. Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 12, pp. 227–237.Google Scholar
  28. Won, W. D. and H. Ross. 1973. Persistence of virus and bacteria in sea water. Journ. of Env. Eng. Div., ASCE. 99(EE3), Proc. Paper 9781. pp. 205–211.Google Scholar
  29. Woodward, R. L. 1957. How probable is the most probable number? Journal American Water Works Association. (August), pp. 1060–1068.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Jensen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Andrew Rola
    • 3
  • John Tyrawski
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Espey, Huston and Assoc.USA
  2. 2.Delaware Sea Grant Marine Advisory ServiceUSA
  3. 3.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of DelawareUSA
  4. 4.USA
  5. 5.College of Marine Studies University of DelawareUSA

Personalised recommendations