Advertisement

Endotoxin pp 641-652 | Cite as

Lipid a Precursors Protect Against Endotoxin Challenge

  • R. A. Proctor
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 256)

Abstract

Gram-negative bacteremia, when accompanied by shock, carried a 20–75 percent mortality (4, 23, 26). The advent of more active antibiotics and improved supportive therapy such as fluids, respirators and pressors have benefitted many patients, but the mortality rate remains high in spite of the best therapy (4, 23, 26). This has led to the search for further therapies such as high dose glucocorticoids (19, 20, 42, 43), narcotic antagonists (18, 21) and prostacycline infusion (11, 14). Although these approaches proved exciting in animal models, they have not come into widespread clinical use (13, 42, 43).

Keywords

Protective Efficacy Endotoxin Tolerance High Dose Glucocorticoid Monophosphoryl Lipid Endotoxin Challenge 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Appelmelk, B. J., 1987, “Antibodies to the LPS core region and their protective role in gram-negative sepsis,” Free Univ. Press, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Amano, F., Nishijima, M., and Akamatsu, Y., 1986, A monosaccharide precursor of Escherichia coli lipid A has the ability to induce tumorcytotoxic factor production by a murine macrophage-like cell line, J774.1. J. Immunol. 136: 4122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson, M. S., Bulawa, C. E., and Raetz, C. R. H., 1985, The biosynthesis of gram-negative endotoxin. Formation of lipid A precursors from UDP-GLcNAc in extracts of Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 260: 15536.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bryan, C. S., Reynolds, K. L., and Brenner, E. R., 1983, Analysis of 1,186 episodes of gram-negative bacteremia in non-university hospitals: the effects of antimicrobial therapy. Rev. Infect. Dis. 5: 629.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bulawa, C. E. and Raetz, C. R. H., 1984, The biosynthesis of gram-negative endotoxin and function of UDP-2,3-diacylglucosomine in Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 259: 4846.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Burhop, K. E., Proctor, R. A., Helegerson, R. B., Raetz, C. R. H., Starling, J. R., and Will, J. A., 1985, Pulmonary pathophysiological changes in sheep caused by endotoxin precursors, lipid X. J. Appl. Physiol. 59: 1726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Burhop, K. E., Proctor, R. A., Raetz, C. R. H., and Will, J. A., 1987, Pulmonary pressor responses in sheep to chemically-defined precursors of Escherichia coli endotoxin. J. Appl. Physiol. 62: 1141.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chase, J. J., Kubey, W., Dulek, M. H., Holmes, C. J., Salit, M. G., Pearson III, F. C., and Ribi, E., 1986, Effect of monophosphoryl lipid A on host resistance to bacterial infection. Infect. Immun. 53: 711.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chong, K.-T. and Huston, M., 1987, Implications of endotoxin contamination in the evaluation of antibodies to lipopolysaccharides in a murine model of gram-negative sepsis. J. Infect. Dis. 156: 713.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Coleman, J. and Raetz, C. R. H., 1988, First committed step of lipid A biosynthesis in Escherichia coli: sequence of the 1pxA gene, J. Bacteriol. 170: 1268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cook, J. A., Wise, W. C., and Habushka, P. V., 1980, Elevated thromboxane levels in rats during endotoxic shock. Protective effects of imidazole, 13-azaprostanoic acid, or essential fatty acid deficiency. J. Clin. Invest. 65: 227.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Crowell, D. N., Reznikoff, W. S., and Raetz, C. R. H., 1987, Nucleotide sequence of Escherichia coli gene for lipid A disaccharide synthase. J. Bacteriol. 169: 5727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    DeMaria, A., Heffernan, J. J., Grindlinger, G. A., Craven, D. E., McIntosh, T. K., McCabe, W. R., 1985, Naloxone versus placebo in treatment of septic shock. Lancet i: 1363.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Flynn, J. T., 1985, The role of arachidonic acid metabolites in endotoxin shock. II. Involvement of prostanoids and thromboxanes. Ch 10, in: “Handbook of Endotoxins, Vol. 2: Pathophysiology of Endotoxin,” R. A. Proctor, L. B. Hinshaw, eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York, Oxford, p. 237.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Freudenberg, M. A., Keppler, D., and Galanos, C., 1986, Requirements for lipopolysaccharide-responsive macrophages in galactosamine-induced sensitization to endotoxin, Infect. Immun. 51: 891.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Golenbock, D. T., Will, J. A., Raetz, C. R. H., and Proctor, R. A., 1987, Lipid X ameliorates pulmonary hypertension and protects sheep from death due to endotoxin. Infect. Immun. 55: 2471.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Golenbock, D. T., Leggett, J. E., Craig, W. A., Raetz, C. R. H., and Proctor, R. A., 1988, Lipid X protects mice against fatal Escherichia coli infection. Infect. Immun. 56: 779.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gurll, N. J., 1985, Endorphins in endotoxin shock, in: “Handbook of Endotoxins, Vol. 2: Pathophysiology of Endotoxin, Chapter 12,” R. A. Proctor, L. B. Hinshaw, eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York, Oxford, p. 299.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hinshaw, L. B., Archer, L. T., Beller-Todd, B. K., Benjamin, B., Flourney, D. J., and Passey, R., 1981, Survival of primates in lethal septic shock following delayed treatment with steroid. Circ. Shock 8: 291Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hinshaw, L. B., Beller-Todd, B. K., Archer, L. T., Benjamin, B., Flourney, D. J., Passey, R., and Wilson, M. F., 1981, Effectiveness of steroid/antibiotic treatment in primates administered LD100 Escherichia coli. Ann. Surg. 194: 51.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Holaday, J. W. and Faden, A. I., 1978, Naloxone reversal of endotoxin hypotension suggests role of endophins in shock. Nature 275: 450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Johnston, C. A. and Greisman, S. E., 1985, Mechanisms of endotoxin tolerance, in: “Handbook of Endotoxins, Vol. 2: Pathophysiology of Endotoxin,” L. B. Hinshaw, ed., Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York, Oxford,p. 359.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kreger, B. E., Craven, D. E., and McCabe, W. R., 1980, Gram-negative bacteremia, IV. Reevaluation of clinical features and treatment in 612 patients. Am. J. Med. 68: 344.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Madona, G. S., Peterson, J. E., Ribi, E. E., and Vogel, S. N., 1986, Early-phase endotoxin tolerance: induction by a detoxified lipid A derivative monophosphoryl lipid A. Infect. Immun. 52: 6.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Masihi, K. N., Lange, W., Brehmer, W., and Ribi, E., 1986, Immunobiological activities of nontoxic lipid A: enhancement of nonspecific resistance in combination with trehalose dimycolate against viral infection and adjuvant effects. J. Immunopharm. 8: 339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    McCabe, W. R. and Jackson, G. G., 1962, Gram-negative bacteremia, I. Etiology and ecology. Arch. Intern. Med. 110: 847.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Michalek, S. M., Moore, R. N., McGhee, J. R., Rosenstreich, D. L., and Mergenhagen, S. E., 1980, The primary role of lymphoreticular cells in the mediation of host responses to bacterial endotoxin. J. Infect. Dis. 141: 55.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Munford, R. S. and Hall, C. L., 1985, Uptake and deacylation of bacterial lipopolysaccharides by macrophages from normal and endotoxinhyporesponsive mice. Infect. Immun. 48: 464.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nishijima, M., Amano, F., Akamatsu, Y., Akagawa, K., Tokunaga, T., and Raetz, C. R. H., 1985, Macrophage activation by monosaccharide precursors of Escherichia coli lipid A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ( USA ) 82: 282.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nishijima, M., Bulawa, C., and Raetz, C. R. H., 1981, Two interesting mutations causing temperature-sensitive phosphatidylglcerol synthesis in Escherichia coli membranes. J. Bacteriol. 145: 113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nishijima, M., and Raetz, C. R. H., 1979, Membrane lipid biogenesis in Escherichia coli: identification of genetic loci for phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthetase and construction of mutants lacking phosphatidylglcerol. J. Biol. Chem. 254: 7837.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pohlman, T. H., Munford, R. S., and Harlan, J. M., 1987, Deacylated lipopolysaccharide inhibits neutrophil adherence to endothelial induced by lipopolysaccharide in vitro. J. Exp. Med. 165: 1393.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Proctor, R. A., Will, J. A., Burhop, K. E., and Raetz, C. R. H., 1986, Protection of mice against lethal endotoxemia by a lipid A precursor. Infect. Immun. 52: 905.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Qureshi, N., Takayama, K., and Ribi, E., 1982, Purification and structural determination of nontoxic lipid A obtained from the lipopolysaccharide of Salmonella typhimurium. J. Biol. Chem. 25: 11808.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Raetz, C. R. H., 1986, Molecular genetics of membrane phosphological synthesis. Annual Rev. Genet. 13: 319.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Raetz, C. R. H., Purcell, S., Meyer, M. V., Qureshi, N., and Takayama, K., 1985, Isolation of eight lipid A precursors from a 3-deoxy-d-monnooctylusonic acid-deficient mutant of Salmonella typhimurium. J. Biol. Chem. 260: 16080.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ray, B. L., Painter, G., and Raetz, C. R. H., 1984, The biosynthesis of gram-negative endotoxin. Formation of lipid A disaccharides from monosaccharide precursors in extracts of Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 259: 4852.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ray, B. L. and Raetz, C. R. H., 1987, The biosynthesis of gram-negative endotoxin. A novel kinase in Escherichia coli membranes that incorporate the 4’-phosphate of lipid A. J. Biol. Chem. 262: 1122.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ribi, E., 1984, “Advances in carriers and adjuvants for veterinary biologics,” Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ribi, E., 1984, Beneficial modification of the endotoxin molecule. J. Biol. Response Modif. 3: 1.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ribi, E., Cantrell, J. L., Takayama, K., Qureshi, N., Peterson, J., and Ribi, H. O., 1984, Lipid A and immunotherapy. Rev. Infect. Dis. 6: 567.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sheagren, J. D., 1981, Septic shock and corticosteroids, (editorial), New Engl. J. Med. 305: 456.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sprung, C. L., Caralis, P. V., Marcial, E. H., Pierce, M., Gelbard, M. A., Long, W. M., Duncan, R. C., Tendler, M. D., and Kardf, M., 1984, The effects of high-dose corticosteroids in patients with septic shock. N. Engl. J. Med. 311: 1137.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Strain, S. M., Armitage, I. M., Anderson, L., Takayama, K., Qureshi, N., and Raetz, C. R. H., 1985, Location of polar substitutes and fatty acyl chains on lipid A precursors from a 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid-deficient mutant of Salmonella typhimurium. J. Biol. Chem. 260: 16089.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Takayama, K., Qureshi, N., Mascagni, P., Anderson, L., and Raetz, C. R.H., 1983, Glucosamine-derived phospholipids in Escherichia coli. Structure and chemical modification of a triacylglucosamine-l-phosphate found in a phosphatidylglycerol-deficient mutant. J. Biol. Chem. 258: 14245.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Takayama, K., Qureshi, N., Mascagni, P., Nashed, M. A., Anderson, L., and Raetz, C. R. H., 1983, Fatty acyl derivatives of glucosamine-lphosphate in Escherichia coli and their structural relationship to lipid A. J. Biol. Chem. 258: 7379.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tomai, M. A., Johnson, A. G., and Ribi, E., 1988, Glycolipid induced proliferation of lipopolysaccharide hyporesponsive C3H/HeJ splenocytes. J. Leukocyte Biol. 43: 11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Tomai, M. A., Solem, L. E., Johnson, A. G., and Ribi, E., 1987, The adjuvant properties of a nontoxic monophosphoryl lipid A in hyporesponsive and aging mice. J. Biol. Response Modif. 6: 99.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tomasiewicz, H. G. and McHenry, C. S., 1987, Sequence analysis of the dnaE gene of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 169: 5735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ziegler, E. J., Douglas, H., Sherman, J. E., Davis, C. E., and Braude, A. I., 1973, Treatment of E. coli and Klebsiella bacteremia in agranulocytic animals with antiserum to a UDP-Gal-epimerase-deficient mutant. J. Immunol. 111: 433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ziegler, E. J., McCutchan, J. A., Douglas, H., and Braude, A. I., 1975, Prevention of lethal Pseudomonas bacteremia with epimerase-deficient E. coli antiserum. Trans. Assoc. Am. Physc. 88: 101.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ziegler, E. J., McCutchan, J. A., Fieker, J., Glauser, M. P., Sadoff, J. C., and Braude, A. I., 1982, Treatment of gram-negative bacteremia and shock with human antiserum to a mutant Escherichia coli. N. Engl. J. Med. 307: 1225.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. A. Proctor
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medical Microbiology and Department of MedicineUniversity of Wisconsin Medical SchoolMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations