Applications

  • Wolfram Boucsein
Part of the The Springer Series in Behavioral Psychophysiology and Medicine book series (SSBP)

Abstract

The third part of this book is dedicated to various applications of EDA measurement. The aim is to provide a theoretical framework for the use of the different EDA parameters described in Part 2 as psychophysiological indicators in the appropriate fields. Since there are thousands of articles reporting EDA results (Sect. 1.1.3), their comprehensive description would go far beyond the limits of the present volume. Instead, the focus will be on giving more detailed information especially for studies which enlighten either methodological issues or provide support for interpretation of results in light of psychophysiological theories related to EDA. The scope of applications will be mainly restricted to those areas where considerable developments in the use of EDA measurement have taken place during the last two decades.119

Keywords

Conditioned Stimulus Standard Methodology Express Emotion Orient Response Amplitude Criterion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Reference

  1. 119.
    For summaries of older results see Prokasy and Raskin (1973) and Edelberg (1972a). More recent summaries are referred to within the specific sections.Google Scholar
  2. 120.
    Below-zero habituation represents a continuation of stimulus presentation after reaching an individ¬ual habituation criterion, e.g., two subsequent “zero” reactions (Sect. 3.1.1.3).Google Scholar
  3. 121.
    In steps of 10 dB, each stimulus applied five times in a balanced design, SR recording with 50 pA constant current using 2 cm2 Ag electrodes from two fingers of the right hand, transformed to SC.Google Scholar
  4. 122.
    ín steps of 20 dB; SCR recorded with standard electrodes and voltage, however, unipolar thenar against a neutral forearm side and with KY-gel (Experiment 3).Google Scholar
  5. 123.
    Recorded AC-coupled (Sect. 2.1.3) with a 5 sec time constant volar from the left hand’s fingers. 124Rotenberg and Vedenyapin (1985) in a study with 15 subjects who were presented a series of tones, a subset of whom had to react, found some evidence of SPR amp. to these tones being more dependent on decision making than on motor preparation. ‘uRecorded as SRR palmar,.5–5.0 sec after stimulus onset, and subjected to a logarithmic SCR transformation.Google Scholar
  6. 126.
    Measured with stainless steel 2 by 3 cm electrodes from the volar surface of the left hand’s fingers with Biocom Inc. Biogel as contact medium; 1–5 sec following stimulus onset was the time window used.Google Scholar
  7. 127.
    Stimuli were either one-word (name of an occupation) or two-word stimuli (occupation name com¬bined with name of a hobby), both kinds used as standard and as test stimuli as well. The subjects had to recall as many words as possible. For evaluation, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were generated by comparing the distributions of standardized responses to test stimuli vs. standard stimuli. 128A name of a hobby instead of a certain number, as used in an earlier experiment (Ben-Shakar Lieblich, 1982) having had a clear common component shared with the standard stimuli (which were also numbers).Google Scholar
  8. 129.
    Recorded bilaterally from the hypothenar eminence with standard methodology, using Beckman-miniature electrodes, logarithmically transformed.Google Scholar
  9. 130.
    Bundy’s “X” (Sect. 2.5.2.5, Equation 46) and SCR rec.t/2 were significantly correlated for 3 of the 10 subjects. “’Recorded between an active palmar and an inactive wrist site with Ag electrodes 2.6 cm in diameter. 132Between 40 and 120 dB in steps of 20 dB, with independent groups of 25 subjects each. Endosomatic EDA was recorded from left thenar against treated forearm sites, while exosomatic measures were taken as SR from the right hand palmar vs. dorsal, with 40 pA, being transformed to SC values, using Beckman Ag/AgCI electrodes with NaCI paste for both measures.Google Scholar
  10. 133.
    Recorded with 32 Hz and 8 pA via 1 cm2 Ag electrodes, using paper soaked with.5% NaCI as an electrolyte, dorsal from the 1st and 3rd finger, and palmar from the 2nd and 4th finger of the nondominant hand.Google Scholar
  11. 134.
    In 15 dB steps, 30 msec stimulus rise time, and 2 sec duration; EDA recorded with standard method¬ology, using KY-gel.Google Scholar
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    Hz tones between 80 and 120 dB in steps of 10 dB.Google Scholar
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    For example, the studies being conducted to develop the theory of the “neuronal model” (Sect. 3.1.1) used EDR as the main physiological indicator (e.g., Sokolov, 1963).Google Scholar
  14. 137.
    Providing such an amplitude criterion is also of fundamental significance for investigations into the so-called below-zero habituation (Thompson Spencer, 1966), which also requires consideration of the sensitivity of the physiological system in question (Stephenson Siddle, 1976 ). However, there is only weak evidence from human studies for an influence of the duration of below-zero habituation on the spontaneous recovery of an OR after being habituated (i.e., OR reinstatement; Siddle et al., 1983b). 13tThere are only few data from human studies supporting the Groves-Thompson theory, which has been developed by research on decerebrated cats. Hölz1 et al. (1975, Fig. 12), in their study described in Section 2.6.5, observed three types of SCR courses in their 28 subjects. Most of them showed an exponential decrease over trials, a few “sensitizers” showed a slight increase, and some other “initial sensitizers” showed an increase followed by a considerable decrease.Google Scholar
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    This result gives rise to the hitherto unanswered question of the adequate unit of measurement in EDR habituation studies (Sect. 2.6.5). However, the habituation effects in this study may have been obscured by the fact that a permuted presentation of different stimulus intensities was used. This is different from standard habituation series, and may have contributed to the marked dishabituation effects observed with the high-intensity stimuli. trialGoogle Scholar
  16. 141.
    For example, if significantly smaller values for a as well as for b are observed in a group with older subjects as compared to a younger group, and if the age effects on the ordinate value a and on the gradient b are independent from each other as well as from the correlation between a and b, the correction of the gradient b according to Equation (51), taking regard of the ordinate value a, will lead to a reduction of the “independent” age effect on gradient b. In general, it must be regarded as difficult to determine the relative influence of experimental conditions or organismic variables like age on values of a and b. Therefore, if those conditions have a significant influence on a, corrections according to Equation (51) should be avoided.Google Scholar
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    SCR measured with standard methodology during the presentation of 1 kHz tones (70 or 90 dB). The signs from Siddle and Heron’s (1976) Table 2 were inverted to make the directions of correlations comparable to each other.Google Scholar
  18. 144.
    Three subsequent SCRs recorded with standard methodology below.02 µS.Google Scholar
  19. 144.
    EDA recording has been described as being taken from the left index finger and the right palm with a Fels dermohmeter.Google Scholar
  20. 147.
    Formerly abbreviated as FAR and SAR, respectively.Google Scholar
  21. 148.
    EDRs were recorded as SRRs using standard methodology, with KY-gel.Google Scholar
  22. 149.
    Recorded from the fingers as SR with 2 cm2 Ag electrodes, NaC1 paste, and 45 µA current strength, changed to SC values and square-root transformed. 2-sec white noise of 100 dB served as UCS, while the CS was 80, 90, or 98 dB, varying between 2 and 10 sec, in 2 sec increments.Google Scholar
  23. 150.
    Recorded from the fingers as SR with 2.5 cm2 Ag electrodes, using 45 µA current, changed to SC and square-root transformed.Google Scholar
  24. 151.
    Recorded as SR from the medial phalanges using standard methodology. SRRs exceeding an am¬plitude criterion of.05 k.f2 were transformed to SCRs and additionally square-root transformed. 152Recorded after each UCS presentation by means of a seven-point Likert scale via micro-keys.Google Scholar
  25. 153.
    Recorded from the 1st and 2nd left-hand fingers with constant current.Google Scholar
  26. 154.
    Measured as SR with a Fels dermohmeter, using 70 µA current, with Zn/MnO2 electrodes from the left palm and upper arm. Contact was made with a 5% saline-soaked cotton ball.Google Scholar
  27. 155.
    Recorded with Ag/AgCI electrodes and Beckman paste from ethanol-cleaned volar finger sites using 20 µA constant current. Red and green lights were used to signal that either an increase or a decrease of SRL would be reinforced by a flashing white light.Google Scholar
  28. 156.
    Two SR channels with different sensitivity were used to avoid loss of SRR data in the high-sensitivity channel (Sect. 2.1.3) which allowed the detection of 500-Q changes (amplitude criterion). Eight-mm diameter zinc electrodes together with a zinc-sulfate paste were placed on the fingers of the subjects. Spontaneous EDRs were defined as not occurring within 6 sec following any bservable event which could give rise to an EDR (see Fig. 42, Sect. 2.3.2.2.). ’“Roberts, Lacroix, and Wright (1974) could not observe instrumental conditioning of spontaneous SPRs in curarized rats. They used an electric shock as reinforcer, which was applied when SPRs appeared exceeding either 10%, 35%, 60%, or 75% of the greatest reaction during the baseline. As compared to a yoked control group, no differences in SPR frequency appeared. Neither variation of shock intensity, or of curare dosage, had an effect.Google Scholar
  29. Recorded palmar versus dorsal with 2 cm’ zinc electrodes filled with NaCI paste, transformed to log units.Google Scholar
  30. 159.
    T here authors measured skin resistance with constant voltage (which normally gives conductance values) from the first and second fingers of the subject’s nondominant hands, using 20 by 25 mm electrodes.Google Scholar
  31. 160.
    Stern (1972) showed that SRR biofeedback training had only a small effect on the subject’s ability to detect whether or not they reacted electrodermally to a low buzz. Furthermore, prior EDA biofeedback training was more effective for the detection of large EDRs than small ones.Google Scholar
  32. 162.
    Despite this component being labelled as “tonic” by Pribram and McGuinness (1975), the prepara¬tory EDA is often clearly phasic in nature, as in the case of the SIR (Sect. 3.1.2.1). Additionally, the CNV, which is regarded by those authors as the appropriate paradigm for testing preparatory activation, is mostly tested within S1–S2, with intervals of less than 6 sec. “Tonic” cannot be used here in the sense of longer-lasting shifts of arousal level, therefore “phasic” is more suitable. Since the sudorisecretory pathway used here is clearly connected to CNS structures preparing distinct motor actions (see Fig. 6, Sect. 1.3.4.1), the label “phasic” for this component is preferred here.Google Scholar
  33. Measured as SR unipolar between a 2 cm2 electrode at the middle finger and a 75 cm2 electrode on the upper arm with starch-paste and 8 pA/cm2 constant current, transformed into SC scores.Google Scholar
  34. 166.
    The autonomic OR component is regarded as being elicited by “preattentive” mechanisms in Neisser’s (1967) sense.Google Scholar
  35. 167.
    Recorded as SR with standard methodology, using an additional abraded forearm site for grounding, changes in SCRs, range-corrected with respect to the EDR following a 1 sec, 100 dB white noise stimulus at the end of the experiment (Sect. 2.3.3.4.2), and square root transformed.Google Scholar
  36. 168.
    Experiment 1 with two independent groups (12 subjects each of both genders) with and without omission in the 16th trial, either light-tone (1 kHz, 75 dB) or tone-light pairing as S1–S2, SCR recorded with standard methodology. Results were subjected to a range-correction using a 100 dB stimulus at the end of the experiment to elicit SCR max, and a square root transformation.Google Scholar
  37. 169.
    Experiment 3 with 48 subjects, presenting light circles or tones as RT probes 1,300 msec following S2 omission and S2 representation.Google Scholar
  38. 170.
    Similar stimulation and the same recording and evaluation techniques were applied as by Siddle and Packer (1987). A vibratory stimulus was used in addition to tone and light stimuli, all of them occurring equally often as Si, S2, and S3 in a latin square design.Google Scholar
  39. 171.
    The various filter theories and those of channel capacity are summarized elsewhere (e.g., Broadbent, 1971; Massaro, 1975). inRecorded as SR (without reporting current density) from the fingertips of the left hand with Beckman Ag/AgCI electrodes and KY-gel, transformed to square-root conductance values. SCR amplitudes were evaluated quantitatively within 1–3 sec following each critical word, in contrast to the Corteen group, which used an all-or-none amplitude criterion of 1 kfl for an EDR appearing within a 13 sec window. 173Recorded from the left-hand’s fingers with 1 cm2 Ag/AgCI electrodes and KY-gel, within 1–4 sec following stimulus onset. Two subsequent intervals without an SCR exceeding.02 pS were used as the habituation criterion (Sect. 3.1. 1. 3 ).Google Scholar
  40. 175.
    Recorded as SR by the use of a Wheatstone bridge, presumably using AC, transformed into log SCR. Ag/AgCI electrodes, saturated with 3% NaC1 solution, were screwed into the armrest of the subject’s chair, fitting to the palm of the right hand.Google Scholar
  41. 176.
    Recorded with standard methodology using Beckman miniature electrodes and KY-gel, within 1¬5 sec following stimulus onset, using an amplitude criterion of.024 trS, and squareroot transformed. 177Method of recording not reported. A range-correction was performed.Google Scholar
  42. 178.
    Measured between the distal phalanges of two fingers from both hands using standard methodology. 179In sinistrals, lateralization is not as prominent as in dextrals (Dean, 1981).Google Scholar
  43. 180.
    Measured from medial phalanges of both hands as SR with standard methodology, transformed to SC and square-root transformed.Google Scholar
  44. 181.
    Recorded as SR using standard methodology (except a current density as high as 20 pA/cm2) from the distal phalanges of two fingers of each hand, transformed into SC values. Unfortunately the EDA values reported in the results section remain ambiguous with respect to their unity and magnitude. The tasks were: visual-imagery (15 slides, 9 of them with sexual content, with subsequent imaging); verbal-analytic (series of words, from which numbers had to be selected for calculation); auditory; and light stimulation.Google Scholar
  45. 182.
    ít is, however, questionable whether geometric figures are really typical for right-hemisphere pro¬cessing, since cognitive representation of abstract material may be more prone for left-hemisphere processing.Google Scholar
  46. 183.
    Recorded as SR (9.66 µA/cm2) with Ag/AgCI cup electrodes and.05 molar NaCI paste from the pretreated (rubbing with isopropyl alcohol and drying) volar middle phalanges of the first and middle finger of both hands, transformed to SC.Google Scholar
  47. S4 Recorded from five male subjects with two Fels dermohmeters using a constant current of 70 µA each, with zinc/zinc sulphate electrodes and electrode jelly (unspecified). Electrode positions were the center of each palm and the midline of the chest. Separate measures of SRL and mean NS.SRR amp. were taken during rest and during a serial learning task (as an appreciable stressor) on each of 24 or 36 days.Google Scholar
  48. 185.
    Recorded during three consecutive nights as NS.SPRs with standard methodology and Beckman paste, with an unusually low time constant of.6 sec (Sect. 2.1.4). Monophasic and diphasic SPRs (Sect.Google Scholar
  49. 196.
    Ií is recommended that the same values as for the amplitude criterion (Sect. 2.3.1.2.3) be usedGoogle Scholar
  50. S7 Older results in the area of EDA and arousal can be found in Duffy (1972) as well as in Raskin (1973). More recent descriptions of activational, attentional, and cognitive phenomena with respect to their phys¬iological concomitants can be found in the second volume from Gale and Edwards (1983). A method¬ologically oriented, strongly generalized integrative presentation of psychophysiological paradigms is given by Fahrenberg (1988).Google Scholar
  51. 188.
    n these experiments, EDA was taken as SR from the soles of the feet with 2 x 4 cm lead electrodes and KY-gel on acetone cleaned sites.Google Scholar
  52. 189.
    Recorded with lead electrodes without electrode paste from the inner sides of the fingers against the forearm. A bipolar parieto-occipital EEG was recorded in parallel to the SR measurement. This study, though often cited, was performed with only one subject.Google Scholar
  53. 190.
    However, Haider (1969) did not use the NS.EDR freq. but slow SP changes as an example of tonic EDA.Google Scholar
  54. 191.
    Furthermore, considerations of a differentiated view of the role of the RF in the elicitation of EDA were made by Sharpless and Jasper (1956), which could complement the neurophysiological concepts of EDA origins described in Section 1.3.4.1, if confirmed empirically. Those authors regarded the caudal (deeper) structures as the neurophysiological correlates of tonic EDA, while the rostra) (higher) com¬ponents of the RF were regarded as mainly contributing to phasic EDA phenomena, which indicate orienting or attentional processes (Sect. 3.1.1.1 and 3.1.3).Google Scholar
  55. 192.
    Fundamentally different neuronal trigger mechanisms of cardiovascular and electrodermal reactions were also found in rat experiments of Roberts and Young (summarized by Roberts, 1974). In a series of investigations into the effect of aversive stimuli upon approach behavior, consistent connections between the heart rate and physical movement of rats were found, which decreased over the trials, while both the SC and the negative SP component showed an ascending progress during the course of the trials. Roberts (1974) excluded all possibilities of a somatic coupling of EDA, as in, for example, overall muscular tension or breathing, and he therefore presumed motivational and/or attentional processes (Sect. 3.1.3) as causative factors in the increase of electrodermal activity.Google Scholar
  56. 193.
    ín his 1971 revision of his theory, Routtenberg was more careful with respect to the neuroanatomical structures that may underlie “System II,” which was, in turn, more related to motor components of behavior.Google Scholar
  57. 194.
    The close connections of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic fibers to motor behavior via the basal ganglia matches well with the slightly changed view of Routtenbezg (1971) concerning his “System II” (see Footnote 193).Google Scholar
  58. 195.
    This is in accordance with Sokolov’s (1960) view of arousal within the OR (Sect. 3.1.1), insofar as its concomitants are an RF-mediated EEG desynchronization, together with hypothalamic ANS action patterns.Google Scholar
  59. 196.
    From Latin cornu ammonis, which is another name for hippocampus. The hippocampus theta which is generated in the medial septal area, as already outlined by Routtenberg (1968), is transmitted to the CA3 field in the hippocampus for the sake of quantifying time within the system. Gray (1982) suggests a feedback loop from the subiculum to the medial septal area, the anatomical confirmation of which is, however, lacking. Therefore it is not included in Figure 48.Google Scholar
  60. 197.
    Gray (1982) explains the anxiolytic properties of tranquilizers as well as hypnotics via their facil¬itating properties on the inhibitory action of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) on noradrenergic and serotonergic synaptic transmission. Tranquilizers of the benzodiazepine type act directly via a specific postsynaptic receptor, while hypnotics like barbiturates and alcohol act indirectly through a blockade of picrotoxine-receptors, a substance which inhibits GABA.Google Scholar
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    Gray (1987, p. 226) pointed to the difference between his own view and Panksepp’s (1982) concern¬ing fear and anxiety (Sect. 3.4.1.1), Panksepp identifying them largely with the activity of the fight/flight system, while Gray identified them with BAS activity.Google Scholar
  62. 199.
    Those neurons, which are not depicted in Figure 48, receive afferent impulses from the medial hypothalamic decision center (Gray, 1987, p. 265).Google Scholar
  63. 200.
    Directional fractionation” is a term employed by Lacey (1967) with respect to the observation that different parts of the autonomous nervous system may show opposite reactions with respect to general arousal, which is a strong argument against an unidimensional arousal theory (Sect. 3.2.1.1).Google Scholar
  64. 201.
    Fowles (1988) reported data from a doctoral dissertation performed by Fisher in 1985, examining the effects of 10, 50, and 100% success using 20 subjects per group. In contrast to a feedback-only condition, a monetary incentive condition, holding the amount of money earned constant across the different success groups, yielded significantly greater HRs regardless of the amount of success. On the other hand, NS.SCR freq. was significantly heightened in the 10% group as compared to the other ones, regardless of monetary incentive, which supports EDA not being influenced by appetitive motivational states during task performance. Sosnowski, Nurzynska, and Polec (1991) could not find an influence of manipulating monetary reinforcement on both HR and SCR amp. (measured with standard methodology) in 60 student women randomly assigned to reward, frustation, and control groups performing a problem solving task. Subjects were run in pairs; the active subject solved the problem, being observed by the passive one. During the task, SCR amplitudes decreased significantly in active subjects while being markedly increased in passive subjects. The authors interpreted this result as being in accordance with Fowles’s EDA-BIS hypothesis since EDA was increased in what they called passive coping.Google Scholar
  65. 202.
    Recorded with Ag/AgCI sponge electrodes from the fingers of the right hand with an “inert” elec¬trolyte and 21 pA/cm2 for SR, and from the left middle finger to the scrubbed left forearm with Redux paste, and 1 sec time constant, for SP. Amplitude criteria: 50 f2 and 100 pV (positive or negative), respectively.Google Scholar
  66. 2°.
    Recorded with silver cup electrodes and EEG paste from acetone-cleaned sites, each pair having inter-electrode distances of 5–6 cm. They were placed palmar/dorsal; at the dorsal forearm; and over the frontal, trapezius, deltoid, biceps, extensor digiti, or other muscles, approximately along the neuraxis and peripheral nerves.Google Scholar
  67. 204.
    Recorded with Beckman electrodes, time constant.6 sec, low-pass filtered with 15 Hz, amplitude criterion 200 pV. Results were log transformed.Google Scholar
  68. 205.
    Recorded from comparable unipolar right and left sites (thenar against forearm) with Ag/AgCI sponge electrodes; amplitude criteria 200µV and 1009, respectively.Google Scholar
  69. 206.
    SRL and SRRs measured from different washed volar sites at two fingers, with Ag electrodes, 5 mm in diameter contact area. An AC-coupling circuit was used that resulted in biphasic SRRs. 207DC-recorded thenar and dorsal against a skin-drilled forearm site with Ag/AgCI electrodes and.05 molar NaC1 agar-agar paste. Amplitude criterion for SPRs (negative, diphasic, and positive waves) was 250 AV.Google Scholar
  70. 208.
    Recorded from the left middle finger by Ag/AgCI electrodes, NaC1 paste, and 10 pA/cm2 constant current. Amplitude criterion for NS.SRRs: 509.Google Scholar
  71. 209.
    Recorded with Beckman Ag/AgCI electrodes as SR, from the fingers of the right hand using 40 µA, and as SP between left index finger and forearm with.24 sec time constant. A time window of 1–3 sec following stimulus onset was used to determine EDR; SRP amp. was measured as the total biphasic amplitude (Sect. 2.3.1.2.1); SRR amp. was transformed to log SCR amp.Google Scholar
  72. 2101.
    kHz, 30 dB tones presented over a loudspeaker for 45 sec. Amplitude criteria: 125 t2 for SRRs and 100 mV for SPRs, within a time window of 1–5 sec after stimulus onset.Google Scholar
  73. 211.
    Recorded between scrubbed volar forearm and thenar sites with a.3 sec time constant. A 1 kHz, 1 sec tone was presented over loudspeakers with 70 dB at the subject’s head, using three regular (10, 20, and 30 sec) and three randomized irregular ISI conditions (8, 10, or 12; 16, 20, or 24; and 24, 30, or 36 sec).Google Scholar
  74. 212.
    Hz, 75 dB, 1 or 2 sec duration, at 30, 45, and 60 sec ISIs. SRRs were obtained by dividing the prestimulus SRL by the maximum poststimulus resistance change occurring within 7 sec after stimulus onset, log transformed.Google Scholar
  75. 213.
    A similar result was reported by Ottmann, Rutenfranz, Neidhart, and Boucsein (1987), in their study described in Section 3.5.1.1. They recorded EDA intermittently, with standard methodology during five consecutive days and nights in the laboratory, from 24 subjects performing vigilance tasks with additional STM strain. Half of the subjects who received 80 dB white noise during work showed a significant increase of NS.SCR freq. during the subsequent nights as compared to a control group with 50 dB noise. Unfortunately, no EEG recordings were made so that results differentiating sleep states are not available. 214With respect to the theories of the psychobiology of emotions in general, the reader is referred to appropriate comprehensive reviews (e.g., Grings Dawson, 1978; Plutchik, 1980; Panksepp, 1986; Schwartz, 1986 ).Google Scholar
  76. 215.
    Recorded with 600 Hz, 1 V, using a RC bridge (Sect. 2.1.5) and metal electrodes of 1 cm diameter. SZR amp. were subjected to log transformation with respect to a suggested validity of Fechner’s law for EDR.Google Scholar
  77. 216.
    Recorded with 60 Hz AC and a bridge from volar finger surfaces, evaluated as SY, using 1 pS as amplitude criterion.Google Scholar
  78. 217.
    Ax (1953) did not obtain measures of catecholamines but concluded that the ANS pattern under anger resembled the expected response to adrenaline and noradrenaline injections, while the ANS pattern under fear resembled the response had adrenaline been injected.Google Scholar
  79. 218.
    Fear was induced by tape presentation of a fear-evoking short story accompanied by an unannounced darkening of the room; anger was induced by presenting a series of anagrams developed by Boucsein and Frye (1974), most of which were unsolvable; the insoluble nature of the anagrams was not detected by the subjects during their presentation; pleasure was induced by positive reinforcement and the announcement of increased payment at the end of the study.Google Scholar
  80. 219.
    Recorded with standard methodology from the left-hand’s fingers. To obtain an additional objective measure of the “forehead anxiety sweat,” another EDA recording was taken from the forehead. Elec¬trodes were fixed by means of histoacryl (Sect. 2.2.2.1); the evaluation of EDA followed Thom’s (1988) method (Sect. 2.2. 4. 2 ).Google Scholar
  81. 220.
    A further domain is animal research, about which Panksepp (1982, p. 410) states that brain research in this area seems to regard the study of emotional expression as the only credible scientific approach.Google Scholar
  82. As inferred from another article of the Lanzetta group (Kleck et al., 1976), EDA was probably recorded with 3.14 cm2 zinc electrodes using a zinc sulphate electrode paste and a Fels dermohmeter with 70 µA constant current. SRL values recorded from palmar sites were transformed to SCL values. The anticipatory EDR was computed as an increase from the average SCL 2 min before and at the beginning of shock application to the average SCL from 2 min before and at the beginning of the slide projection. The latter SCL was used as a reference for the EDR to shock application, thus being subtracted from the average SCL 6 and 8 min after its application.Google Scholar
  83. 222.
    EDA was measured as SR via palmar Ag/AgC1 electrodes, transformed into SC, and individually standardized. essiveness ratings as measures of shock painfulness, thus reflecting the intensity dimension of affectiveGoogle Scholar
  84. 223.
    Unipolar recordings with zinc electrodes and a zinc sulphate electrode paste from palmar against forearm sites, using a “low” constant current, transformed into SC values.Google Scholar
  85. 224.
    This social learning should have appeared early in life, since Buck (1977) found comparable neg¬ative correlations between SCR and communication accuracy even in preschoolers, giving nonverbal messages via spontaneous facial expressions and gestures to their mothers.Google Scholar
  86. 226.
    An attempt to determine an individual’s most reactive ANS channel (EDA or HR) was made by Levis and Smith (1987), using the balloon-burst test to preclassify their subjects as high SC responders, high HR responders, high responders in both channels, or low responders in both channels. In a subsequent presentation of a fear-eliciting slide (a man who died in an accident), those subjects defined as high responders on a given channel showed greater reactivity on that channel as compared to low responders. 227Seligman (1975), in an explorative study with six subjects, obtained differential effects of pleas¬ant and released vs. unpleasant and inhibited feelings (as reported on a Mood Adjective Check List) on negative vs. positive SPR waves respectively, during 10 counselling sessions of 50 min duration each. However, Edelberg (1972a) had already pointed to results with respect to the emotional valence of different SP wave forms being equivocal in general.Google Scholar
  87. 230.
    Recorded with 10 µA constant current from thenar/hypothenar sites, using Ag/AgC1 electrodes of 1 cm diameter with KY-gel, amplitude criterion 80 Q. Responses in 10-sec intervals were averaged and transformed to log SC.Google Scholar
  88. 231.
    Measured with Ag/AgCI sponge electrodes (other details of recording missing) as SRL values, av¬eraged for every 10 sec and transformed to SCL values.Google Scholar
  89. 232.
    Crude surgical operations on the male genitals of a primitive native culture in Australia. EDA has been recorded from both hands as SR with zinc electrodes of 2 cm diameter, using an agar zinc electrode paste, and a 40µA constant current. SR values were transformed to log SC changes (differences between pre-and postaccident SCLs).Google Scholar
  90. 233.
    Recorded as SR with dry 2 cm2 lead electrodes from acetone-cleaned finger sites, transformed to values of pS/cm2.Google Scholar
  91. 234.
    Measured unipolar from left middle finger against forearm sites with electrodes (metal not specified) of.32 cm2 and 3 x 4 inches, respectively, starch-paste, and 20 pA constant current. 100,fl were used as amplitude criterion.Google Scholar
  92. 235.
    Recorded unipolar thenar vs. forearm with 5 cm2 and 58 cm2 Ag/AgC1 electrodes, respectively, filled with.5 molar NaCI (probably liquid), using 10 pA/cm2. Amplitude criterion for NS.SRRs was 100 S2.Google Scholar
  93. 236.
    Measured with Ag/AgC1 electrodes of 4 mm diameter, KCl paste (.67 molar) in agar, and.5 V, evaluated as log SC change from pretreatment level.Google Scholar
  94. 237.
    Recorded as SR with 10 p constant current, Beckman Ag/AgCI electrodes, and KY-gel pal¬mar/dorsal. Separate channels were used for SRL and SRRs (sensitivity 50 (1). SRL values were trans¬formed to SCL, and SCRs were computed as differences between logarithmized SCLs before and the maximum within 6 sec after stimulus onset.Google Scholar
  95. 238.
    Recorded as SR between palm and forearm with Beckman electrodes and paste, transformed to square-root SCR. lime window for SCRs:.5–3 sec after stimulus onset; amplitude criterion for NS.SRR freq.: 200 Q.Google Scholar
  96. 239.
    This was shown by Overmier (1985) with animals, using completely different experimental condi¬tions, and plasma cortisol as a stress indicator.Google Scholar
  97. 241.
    Eysenck discussed his inhibition concept with respect to Pavlov’s “transmarginal inhibition” or “pro¬tective inhibition,” the neurophysiology of which he regarded as unrealistic, though the phenomenon itself (which is also in accordance with the so-called Yerkes-Dodson law, and the inverse U-shaped re¬lationship between arousal and performance; Sect. 3.2.1.1) has been observed many times (Eysenck, 1983, p. 18). However, Eysenck’s attempt to include various aspects of inhibition into a unitary CNS inhibition concept may have contributed to various differences between theoretical concepts and experi¬mental results (Nebylitsyn, 1972, p. 21; Strelau, 1983, p. 145), thus being in part responsible for pitfalls in establishing reliable psychophysiological correlates of extraversion/introversion.Google Scholar
  98. 242.
    Measured by the use of zinc electrodes of 25 mm diameter with 1% zinc sulphate paste, current density not reported.Google Scholar
  99. 243.
    Recorded with 2 cm2 Ag/AgCI electrodes,.5% KCI in Unibase, and 1.0 V constant current.Google Scholar
  100. a4Recorded with Ag/AgCI electrodes of 1 cm diameter,.05 molar NaCI paste, and 9.55 pA/cm2 current density. SR values transformed into SC values, SCRs were obtained, square-root transformed, and range-corrected.Google Scholar
  101. Individual ANS reactivity was obtained using the higher of either HR or SC standardized scores. However, since SC, not HR, was used in all six studies, individual reactivity might have been mainly expressed within the electrodermal system.Google Scholar
  102. 28.
    The authors usually performed SR recordings with an active palmar and an inactive forearm elec¬trode, Beckman standard electrodes and paste, and 20 pA constant current. SR scores were transformed to SC, and SCR amplitudes were square-root transformed.Google Scholar
  103. 249.
    Recorded as SR with Ag/AgC1 electrodes and NaCI paste from Beckman, unipolar palmar against forearm, using 20 pA/cm2 current, performing transformation to SC and logarithmization. The amplitude criterion for NS.EDRs during rest was 100 Q.Google Scholar
  104. u°Measu red with nonpolarizing Ag/AgCI sponge electrodes between the palm and an alcohol-cleaned forearm site, AC-coupling (Sect. 2.1.3) with.45 sec time constant, amplitude criterion:.1 mV. Several fluctuations within a 6 sec window were regarded as a single SPR.Google Scholar
  105. 252.
    Further uses of EDA in therapeutic contexts are in biofeedback (Sect. 3.1.2.2), as well as in system¬atic densitization (summarized by Katkin Deitz, 1973).Google Scholar
  106. Lader and Wing’s research has been continued by Chattopadhyay et al. (1975, 1980, 1981, 1983).Google Scholar
  107. 254.
    Recorded with 10 pA constant current using lead electrodes filled with.05 molar NaCI paste, from the distal phalanx of the right thumb against an inactive (rubbed) site on the lateral aspect of the arm above the elbow. SR was converted to log SC, and a SCR of.003 log pS was used as an amplitude criterion.Google Scholar
  108. u7Recorded with 7-mm diameter zinc electrodes and zinc sulphate electrolyte, using a Wheatstone bridge. The polarity of the 1.5 V reference reversed every 1.2 sec.Google Scholar
  109. 258.
    Bilateral measurements with Ag/AgCI electrodes of 4.5 mm diameter, filled with.5% KCl in agar-agar paste, using.5 V constant voltage. Amplitude criterion:.05 S.Google Scholar
  110. 259.
    EDA was recorded with Ag/AgCI electrodes of 9 mm diameter with.9% NaCI paste from ethanolGoogle Scholar
  111. (75%.
    acetone (25%) cleaned sites of the left hand’s second and third fingers. The authors used a com¬bined current density (9 pA/cm2)/voltage (2.7 V) limiting system. If necessary, the SCR rec.t/2 values were extrapolated by the method of curve matching (Sect. 2.3.1.3.2). Since the mean recovery time of the EDR to the first tone was conspicuously longer than those following the other tones, the latter ones were averaged, and analyses were made separately for the first recovery and the mean of the others. Amplitude criterion for NS.SCR:.0043 logpS.Google Scholar
  112. 260.
    Recorded as SR with a constant current of 6.4 pA/cm2, using Beckman Ag/AgCI electrodes filled with KY-gel. Measurements were performed during 5 min rest, a free word-association test, stimulation with moderate intense tones and bells, a differential classical conditioning, and an RT task. EDA was expressed in terms of SC parameters.Google Scholar
  113. Recorded with 9.5 mm diameter double-element lead electrodes unipolarly (abraded arm site above the elbow vs. thumb), using a.05 molar NaC1 electrolyte, and 14 µAJcm2 constant current.Google Scholar
  114. 2621.
    kHz, 1 sec tones of either 85 or 105 dB; 10 and 12 stimuli, respectively; ISI 20 — 40 sec. SC was recorded bilaterally with standard methodology; SCL measured immediately before each tone and averaged; SCR was obtained within 1— 3 sec after stimulus onset, with an amplitude criterion of.05 pS.Google Scholar
  115. An interesting hypothesis on the difference between nonresponding in depressives and schizophre¬nics has been developed by Bernstein, Riedel, Graae, Seidman, Steele, Connolly, and Lubowsky (1988) who found similar patterns in SCR nonresponding but differences in finger pulse volume between both groups. Since depressives showed intact ORs in the finger pulse measre, their deficit in electroderrnal responsivity may be due to its cholinergic mediation, thus having a different origin as in schizophrenics.Google Scholar
  116. 165.
    Venables (1983) mentioned some critical points in the investigations of the Mednick group. Firstly the ISIs in their classical conditioning paradigm may have been too short to allow separation of the different kinds of EDRs with respect to their latencies (Sect. 3.1.2.1). Secondly, the differences found in SCR lat. may have been confounded with different absolute auditory thresholds for different frequency ranges, as can be observed in schizophrenics.Google Scholar
  117. 266.
    Mednick (1978) pointed to different selection procedures: the New York study excluded subjects from nonintact families, while the Copenhagen study did not.Google Scholar
  118. 267.
    Patterson (1976) found among 31 male chronic schizophrenics 11 nonresponders (Sect. 3.4.2.2). The remaining 20 subjects showed a bimodal distribution with respect to SCR rec.t/2, and the fast re¬covery subjects showed significantly slower pupillary constriction in the light/dark reflex as compared to the slow recovery subjects, which was discussed by the author as possibly due to a greater adrenergic outflow in the first group. In addition, these results also question the generality of the results that shorter EDR recoveries appear in schizophrenics.Google Scholar
  119. 268.
    As can be inferred from other publications of the Zahn group, zinc/zinc sulphate electrodes with.79 cm2 area were attached to palmar sites.Google Scholar
  120. 269.
    It could be further speculated that different EDA parameters are related to different pathogenetic fac¬tors. Cannon, Fuhrmann, Mednick, Machon, Pamas, and Schulsinger (1988), using a subsample from the Copenhagen study, found that subjects with enlarged third ventricles (which may point to hypothala¬mic and/or amygdala deficits) showed significant overall reductions in EDR amp. and in percentage of EDRs in OR and conditioning trials.Google Scholar
  121. Results on habituation speed are largely dependent on the method used (Sect. 3.1.1.3). The trials-to¬habituation criterion disregards initial amplitude differences, thus bearing the danger of misclassifying subjects showing a high amplitude to the first stimulus with subsequent borderline but not below-criterion EDRs as slow habituators. Zahn et al. (1968, 1981a), who defined habituation in terms of the EDR amp. decline relative to the trial block with the largest mean EDR amp., found schizophrenics to be slower habituators than normals.Google Scholar
  122. 273.
    At variance with these results are those of Schnur, Bernstein, Mukherjee, Loh, Degreef, and Reidel (1989), who found significantly wider third ventricles (by means of computed tomography) in 9 schizo¬phrenic responders as compared to 15 nonresponders (SCRs and finger pulse reactions to three 60 dB, 1 kHz tones).Google Scholar
  123. 274.
    Recorded in a series of 15 tones (1 kHz, 70 dB) with standard methodology, using a time window of.5–4 sec after stimulus onset (Olbrich Mussgay, 1987).Google Scholar
  124. 275.
    ít has been noted that depressive patients (Sect. 3.4.1.3) tend to show the reverse pattern (Venables, 1983 ). However, Iacono and Tuason (1983) could not find consistent bilateral asymmetries in EDA in a one-year follow up with 26 unipolar and 24 bipolar depressives.Google Scholar
  125. 277.
    The presumed specifity of benzodiazepine receptors for the pharmacopsychological influence on anxiety has been questioned by Janke and Netter (1986). Firstly, those receptors also appear frequently in various systems that are not directly tied to anxiety (e.g., in motor systems or in the spinal cord), which gives rise to the conclusion that they are involved in anticonvulsive rather than in antianxiety actions of benzodiazepines. Secondly, specific endogenous substances that are produced to counteract anxiety states (similar to endogenous opiates during pain), could not be detected until now. In addi¬tion, the development of experimental benzodiazepine antagonists like the beta-carbolines did not yield systematic results with respect to evoking anxiety (Rommelspacher, 1981 ).Google Scholar
  126. Despite the specificity of the benzodiazepine-GABA link as a mechanism underlying anxiolytic effects of those drugs, it needs further empirical support, from both human as well as animal studies. The theoretical approach provided by Gray (1982) may be included as one element of a general framework of tranquilizer-action upon anxiety influencing information processing. Hypnotics like barbiturates as well as alcohol are also primary-acting antianxiety agents since they also enhance GABA-ergic inhibition of monoaminergic fibers that facilitate anxiety reactions in the limbic system. They do not directly increase the production of GABA, being instead indirectly acting GABA-mimetics, because of their property to bind to the picrotoxine receptors, thus preventing picrotoxine from acting as a GABA-antagonist. So GABA seems to be the common transmitter in the CNS for all primary-acting antianxiety agents. However, this could not be directly proved since the application of GABA did not show anxiolytic effects in animal studies (Koella, 1986 ).Google Scholar
  127. 278.
    Measured with AC from the left hand’s fingers, using a Wheatstone bridge.Google Scholar
  128. 279.
    Recorded with AC (65 Hz), using 10 pA/cm2 average current density, from the subject’s fingers, data transformed into conductance changes.Google Scholar
  129. 280.
    Recorded volar/dorsal from the left foot with 1 cm diameter electrodes filled with a paste from bentonite, glycerin, and Ringer’s salt solution, using constant current of 5 pA/cm2 and a Wheatstone bridge.Google Scholar
  130. 281.
    Beckman Ag/AgCI electrodes and.1 N chloride concentration were used to record from the dorsal side of the hand with 12 ieA/cm2 constant current. For evaluation, psychophysiological responses were moved one sec earlier, in order to compensate for their time delay.Google Scholar
  131. 282.
    AC recordings with a 5.25 Hz constant voltage (1 V) source between two Ag/AgCI electrodes filled with Heilige isotonic paste, attached according to Fig. 28 (Sect. 2.2.1.1) to the medial side of the left foot. EDA was recorded on tape with PCM electronics (Sect. 2.2.4.2). EDRs were classified into four groups: more than 10%; 8–10%; 5–7%; and 2–4% change with respect to EDL, forming arbitrary units that were averaged per min.Google Scholar
  132. 283.
    Measured with Beckman Ag/AgCI electrodes and Beckman paste from palmar/dorsal sites with.5 V constant voltage. The highest SCR amp. within every 5-min section was evaluated.Google Scholar
  133. 284.
    ín fact, the visibility of EDA electrodes raises problems of compliance in pilots, which may explain some of its infrequent use in that field.Google Scholar
  134. g5 Recorded with AC from the ankle, using the methodology of Faber (1983), see Footnote 288. 286Measured with 500 Hz, 1 kHz, and 10 kHz at constant voltage (1 V) (SYL transformed to SZL) using 3 by 4 cm V2A nets as electrodes at the backside of the lower legs while working at the punching machine, and at the inside lower arm during bicycle ergometer task (performed 10 times each with zero, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mkp/sec, and 6 times with 25 mkp/sec, with 7.5 min duration).Google Scholar
  135. 287.
    Recorded as means of 30 sec intervals, and transformed exponentially with respect to resting values. 288Measured with a 10 Hz and.5 V constant voltage system, using dry electrodes made from silver-plated nylon tissue (3.2 cm2 area), taken from palmar finger sites, and monitored telemetrically. 289Recorded with nonpolarizing electrodes palmar/dorsal from the left hand, amplified by an EEG coupler. The number of SPRs was individually related to productivity, in order to reduce interindividual differences.Google Scholar
  136. 290.
    The highest amount of EDA was, however, recorded during speaking, which must be regarded as being mainly due to an artifact (Sect. 2.2.5.2).Google Scholar
  137. 291.
    Goldstein and Shapiro (1988) have found that cardiovascular parameters are more sensitive to pos¬tural changes during laboratory performance tests (mental arithmetic and isometric handgrip) than EDA. However, there was also a marked increase in SCL as a transient reaction during standing up.Google Scholar
  138. 292.
    Measured five times successively at 2-sec intervals with 10 mA constant current, from the first and second finger of the left hand, using 1 cm2 aluminium electrodes.Google Scholar
  139. 293.
    A comparison of the estimated numbers of polygraph examiners is provided by Barland ( 1988, Table 7. 1 ).Google Scholar
  140. 294.
    In pre-or postemployment screening situations, a slightly different question format is employed, labelled the “relevant control test” by Lykken (1981).Google Scholar
  141. 295.
    Despite this superiority of the GKT over the CQT, the GKT requires details of the crime that are normally kept secret by the police; this is regarded as a major reason for its infrequent use by current polygraphers (Furedy Heslegrave, 1988).Google Scholar
  142. 296.
    Taken from an U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment Report in 1983. Steller (1987) summarized results from laboratory studies, 11 performed with the CQT, and 7 with the GKT. According to these, the CQT correctly classified 15.8%-90% of the innocent subjects, with false positives ranging from 4.2%-31.6%. On the other hand, five of the GKT studies made 100% correct classifications, the remaining two studies yielding 88% correct innocents and 12% false positives. With respect to correct classifications of guilty subjects, both methods did not differ considerably (between 60% and 100% correct classifications).Google Scholar
  143. 297.
    Raskin (1979, p. 597) recommended a time window for EDR evaluation between.5 sec after the beginning of the question and 5 sec after the subject’s answer, and to express the amplitude in terms of mm of chart deflection, which had been regarded by him as producing more reliable results as compared to increases in S.Google Scholar
  144. 295.
    n addition to various proofs that EDA is the most sensitive variable for detection of deception in comparison with other measures (as found for example by Dawson, 1980, in his study described below comparing EDA with cardiovascular and respiratory variables), a comparison of an univariate with a multivariate statistical evaluation of CQT data performed by Kircher and Raskin (1988) also yielded superiority of SCR amp. over blood pressure, respiratory, and vasomotor responses in both methods of evaluation.Google Scholar
  145. 299.
    The ease of detecting psychophysiological correlates of emotion-relevant thoughts by phasic EDA is also used in obscure religious practice, where so-called E-meters (simple SR monitoring devices) are used as a “scientific” tool to uncover hidden information in examinees.Google Scholar
  146. o2 Recorded with 2.5 x 2.5 cm stainless steel electrodes from the palmar fingertips of the left hand, using 10 µA constant current. For the CQT form with immediate response, the largest decrease in SR which occurred between 1 sec following the question onset and 5 sec following the verbal answer was measured. For the delayed-response CQT form, a time window between 1 sec following the question onset and 1 sec following completion of the question was used for the question SRR, while the largest deflection within 1 and 5 sec following the verbal answer was taken as the answer SRR.Google Scholar
  147. 303.
    Recorded as SRL with 10 mA constant current using Beckman Ag/AgCI electrodes from palmar finger sites, converted into SC units. SCL data was reported from 2 sec after the question (where the subject answered “no”) to 14 sec after the question.Google Scholar
  148. 304.
    Recorded with standard methodology, however, using KY-gel and.74 V constant voltage. Ampli¬tude criterion =.05 pS. For detection of deception, amplitude criterion was lowered to.025 pS. The time windows began at 1.5 sec, ending at 9 sec for the CQT and at 5 sec for the GKT, after stimulus onset.Google Scholar
  149. o5 Recorded as the highest deflection from prestimulus level with standard methodology (using Beck¬man NaCI paste) from the palmar finger sites of the left hand (previously cleaned with soap and water), within 1–5 sec following question onset. SCR amp. were expressed in mm (using.5 mm as amplitude criterion) and converted to pS response magnitudes.Google Scholar
  150. tn Measured with liquid electrolytes made from polyethylene glycol with.9% NaC1 (Sect. 2.2.6.3), the active electrode made from platinum, and the reference electrode made from Ag/AgCl. A frequency range of 5 Hz to 500 kHz was used.Google Scholar
  151. os EDA was recorded in the laboratory with 100 Hz constant current less than 8 pA, using.5 cm’ gold cup electrodes with standard NaCI Unibase paste, from alcohol-scrubbed left-hand sites. In the field part of the study, finger tip electrodes, which consisted of silver fiber applied to velcro pads, were used for EDA biofeedback. SZLs were transformed to log SYLs for evaluation.Google Scholar
  152. 309.
    A single case study of successful EDA biofeedback was published by Moan (1979), who trained a 28-year-old female urticaria patient for eight weeks with acoustic/optic EDA biofeedback combined with a relaxation training. Her mean SCL could be reduced from 12 to 7 pS (during the relaxation even to 4 pS), and the skin disease disappeared. An eight month follow-up yielded no recidivism.Google Scholar
  153. o aschka (1979) reported an increase in the mitotic index by a factor of 20 two days after 30 using Scotch tape strips, returning slowly to baseline from the third day on.Google Scholar
  154. 311.
    Measured with a liquid electrode made from a syringe, combining Ag/AgCI with physiological saline in sodium methylcellulose; the inactive electrode placed in the mouth.Google Scholar
  155. 312.
    Measured with 1.6 kHz, using 3 mm steel electrodes together with 4 mm diameter filter paper, soaked with.9% NaCI solution.Google Scholar
  156. 313.
    From isopropyl alcohol cleaned sites. The electrolyte for SP consisted of.05 molar NaC1 in a mixture of 50% Unibase and 50% polyethylene glycol, to keep the stratum comeum minimally hydrated (Sect. 2.2.6.1).Google Scholar
  157. 314.
    Recorded with 1.6 kHz and 1 mA current density, using metal electrodes of 6 mm diameter, and a 5 mm diameter filter paper soaked with.9% NaCI solution, from the inner aspect of the forearm.Google Scholar
  158. 315.
    Recorded with an active roller electrode without paste, and an EKG electrode with hypertonic paste as reference at the leg or arm, by use of a dermohmeter.Google Scholar
  159. 316.
    Using pre-gelled Ag/AgC1 electrodes, the indifferent electrode attached to the wrist or ankle.Google Scholar
  160. 317.
    The usability of EDA for the diagnosis of peripheral sympathetic nerve functioning was also demon¬strated by Lidberg and Wallin (1981), who recorded sympathetic cutaneous nerve action potentials in the median nerve of five healthy subjects, while palmar SRRs were measured in parallel, following sudden unexpected loud noises. SP was recorded with Beckman Ag/AgC1 electrodes with a contact area of 5 mm2, using Cambridge Medical Instruments gel, 5 pA current density, and.3 sec time constant. One electrode was placed as close as possible to the median nerve innervation zone, the other one 3 cm away. The mean correlation between the amplitude of the sympathetic nerve burst and the SRR amp. was.68 (with a range from.47 to.90).Google Scholar
  161. t8Recorded with 3 mm2 electrodes from skin washed with soap and water, followed by rubbing with alcohol.Google Scholar
  162. Recorded with lead coated stainless steel electrodes by the use of a digital ohmmeter.Google Scholar
  163. 32°.
    Recorded with 10 mm diameter stainless steel electrodes and commercial electrode paste from pal-mar vs. dorsal hand as well as foot sites, from anterior vs. posterior surfaces of the upper arm, and from patella vs. popliteal fossa sites.Google Scholar
  164. 321.
    Recorded with standard methodology, using Helligepaste; time window 1–5 sec after stimulus onset; amplitude criterion = 500 Q.Google Scholar
  165. 322.
    Recorded with 9 mm diameter Ag/AgCI electrodes filled with commercial electrode paste from pal¬mar/dorsal sites previously washed with acetone. When laterality of the damage was known, recording was performed at the ipsilateral hand.Google Scholar
  166. Recorded with 10 mm2 gold-plated electrodes from palmar finger sites. SCR amp. was calculated as the square root of the difference between previous SCL and the maximum SCL within 5 sec following stimulus onset.Google Scholar
  167. ung, healthy subjects. As predicted, SCR amp. as recorded with standard methodology during an habituation series of 20 tones (1 kHz, 60 dB)Google Scholar
  168. 324.
    Based on the results of an experiment with 20 healthy subjects, Tranel et al. (1985) advocated the usability of EDRs in the detection of the ability to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar faces of prosopagnosic patients, who have lost the ability to recognize faces.Google Scholar
  169. 325.
    Recorded as SR with 10 constant current unipolarly (thumb-upper arm), using 15 mm diameterGoogle Scholar
  170. Ag/AgCI electrodes, transformed to log SC values. Amplitude criterion for NS.SCRs =.003 log pSGoogle Scholar
  171. 326.
    Recorded bilaterally as SCRs with standard methodology, using.5 KCI agar paste. Time window: 3 sec after stimulus onset; amplitude criterion = .05 pS.Google Scholar
  172. 327.
    Recorded with standard methodology using hypertonic paste. Time window: 1–5 sec after stimulus onset. Habituation criterion: three consecutive SRRs below 500 !2 (Sect. 3.1. 1. 3 ).Google Scholar
  173. 328.
    Recorded bilaterally with standard methodology during three series of acoustic stimuli (eight 85 dB tones, twelve 105 dB tones, and two familiar sounds).Google Scholar
  174. 329.
    The stimulus conditions were: listening to classic music; a word association task (5 neutral words and 5 with a high emotional content).Google Scholar
  175. 330.
    Recorded with 8 mm diameter Ag/AgCI electrodes filled with isotonic KCl paste from palmar finger sites. Amplitude criterion = .05 pS.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolfram Boucsein
    • 1
  1. 1.University of WuppertalWuppertalGermany

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