The protection of transformers

  • C. Christopoulos
  • A. Wright


It was stated in Chapter 2 that power transformers were first included in power supply systems in the last decade of the nineteenth century to enable electricity to be distributed from central stations at relatively high voltages to consumers spread over quite wide areas. This practice, which proved to be economically sound, has been continued around the world.


Power Transformer Current Transformer Fault Current Earth Fault Secondary Winding 
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  1. 1.
    BS171 Power Transformers, Parts 1 to 5: 1978,British Standards Institution (equivalent to IEC 76: 1976).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kennedy, L. F. and Hayward, C. D. (1938) Harmonic restrained relays for differential protection, Trans. A1EE, 57, 262–271.Google Scholar
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    Hayward, C. D. (1941) Prolonged inrush current with parallel transformers affect differential relays, Trans. A1EE, 60, 1096–1101.Google Scholar
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    Type DT92 three-phased biased differential relay, Asea Brown Boveri, Publication CH-ES 65–60,Vol. 1, Buyers Guide 1989–90. Google Scholar
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    Type GTT overfluxing relay, GEC Measurements, Publication R-5159C. Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Type RATUB 2 V/Hz overexcitation relay for transformers, Asea Brown Boveri, Publication B03–5011. Google Scholar
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    Winding temperature relay and indicator, Type TTT, GEC Measurements, Publication R-5074G. Google Scholar
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    Protective Relays Application Guide,GEC Measurements, (3rd edn), 1987, p. 282.Google Scholar
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    Ibid., pp. 94 and 296.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Phadke, A. G. and Thorp, J. S. (1988) Computer Relaying for Power Systems. RSP—J Wiley.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rahman, M. A. and Jeyasurya, B. (April 1988) A state of the art review of transformer protection algorithms, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, 3, (2), 534544.Google Scholar
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Further Reading

  1. IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, PD-3, 525–533.Google Scholar
  2. GEC Measurements, Transformer protection, Publication R-4025. Google Scholar
  3. Murty, Y. V. V. S. and Smolinski, W. J. (1988) Design and implementation of a digital differential relay for a three-phase power transformer based on Kalman filtering theory.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Christopoulos
    • 1
  • A. Wright
    • 1
  1. 1.University of NottinghamNottinghamUK

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