Digital signal processing (DSP) and protection

  • C. Christopoulos
  • A. Wright
Chapter

Abstract

The development of digital computers in the 1960s led to investigations to establish the possibility of using them to implement some or all of the protection functions in a power system. In essence, developments in technology have gradually permitted the migration of the well established fundamental protection algorithms described in previous chapters to new hardware and software environments. The volume and speed of processing that can be implemented in modern hardware is increasing all the time. While the fundamental principles remain the same, as already mentioned, new ways of extracting relaying information from transducer signals are now possible. The first comprehensive survey of the application of computers to protection was published in 1969 [1]. Within three years, the application of these principles to distance protection was described in two publications [2, 3]. The first developments of digital relaying algorithms and therefore the beginning of numerical relays were described in [4, 5]. As regards hardware, developments were very rapid with basic discrete digital circuits being replaced by general purpose microprocessors and in the early 1990s by special Digital Signal Processors (DSPs). Further information to trace the development of microprocessor based protection may be found in [6, 7]. These developments continue to keep pace with very rapid technological change. The purpose of this chapter is to present the fundamentals of microprocessor based environments which involve a tight connection between hardware and software.

Keywords

Digital Signal Processing Digital Filter Central Processing Unit Infinite Impulse Response Finite Impulse Response Filter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Rockfeller, G. D. (1969) Fault protection with a digital computer, IEEE Trans. PAS-88, No. 4, pp. 438–464.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gilcrest, G. B., Rockfeller, G. D. and Udren, E. A. (1972) High-speed distance relaying using a digital computer, Part I: System description, IEEE Trans. PAS-91, pp. 1235–1243.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rockfeller, G. D. and Udren, E. A. (1972) High-speed distance relaying using a digital computer, Part II: Test results, IEEE Trans. PAS-91, pp. 1244–1258.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mann, B. I. and Morrison, I. F. (1971) Digital calculation of impedance for transmission line protection, IEEE Trans. PAS-90, pp. 270–279.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mann, B. I. and Morrison, I. F. (1971) Relaying a three-phase transmission line with a digital computer, IEEE Trans. PAS-90, pp. 742–750.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    IEEE Power Engineering Education Committee (1986) Microprocessor Relays with Protection Systems, IEEE Tutorial Course 88EH0260–1-PWR.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    IEEE Power Engineering Education Committee (1997) Advancements in Microprocessor Based Protection and Communication, IEEE Tutorial Course 97TP120–0.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Christopoulos, C. (1995) Principles and Techniques of Electromagnetic Compatibility, CRC Press, Boca Raton.MATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Leventhal, L. A. (1979) Z80 Assembly Language Programming,Osborne/ McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Horowitz, P., Hill, W. (1980) The Art of Electronics,Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rabiner, L. R. and Gold, B. (1975) Theory and Application of Digital Signal Processing, Prentice-Hall, NJ.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Poularikas, A. D. and Seely, S. (1988) Elements of Signals and Systems, PWS-Kent.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Phadke, A. G. and Thorp, J. S. (1988) Computer Relaying for Power Systems, Research Studies Press, Taunton.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Girgis, A. A. and Brown, R. G. (1981) Application of Kalman filtering in computer relaying, IEEE Trans. PAS-100, pp. 3387–3397.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Girgis, A. A. (1982) A new Kalman filtering based digital distance relay, IEEE Trans. PAS-101, pp. 3471–3480.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Johns, A. T. and Salman, S. K. (1995) Digital Protection for Power Systems, Peter Peregrinus.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sachdev, M. S. (ed.) (1997) Advancements in microprocessor based protection and communication, IEEE Tutorial Course, 97TP120–0, Chapter 5 on Algorithms.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sachdev, M. S. and Baribeau, M. A. (1979) A new algorithm for digital impedance relays, IEEE Trans. PAS-98, pp. 2232–2240.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Keeling, D. A. and Pickering, S. D. A. (1997) High speed numerical techniques for transmission line protection, Proc. 6th Int. Conf. On Developments in Power System Protection, 29–27 March 1997, University of Nottingham, UK, IEE Publication No. 434, pp. 14–17.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sachdev, M. S. and Giray, M. M. (1985) A least error square technique for determining power frequency system, IEEE Trans. PAS-104, pp. 437–444.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fromm, W., Halinka, A. and Winkler, W. (1997) Accurate measurement of wide range power system frequency changes for generator protection, Proc. 6th Int. Conf. On Developments in Power System Protection, 27–29 March 1997, University of Nottingham, UK, IEE Publication No. 434, pp. 53–57.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Phadke, A. G. and Thorp, J. S. (1983) A new computer relay flux-restraining current differential relay for power transformer protection, IEEE Trans. PAS-102, pp. 3624–3629.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Christopoulos
    • 1
  • A. Wright
    • 1
  1. 1.University of NottinghamNottinghamUK

Personalised recommendations