Liquid Refrigerants

  • A. J. Croft
Part of the The International Cryogenics Monograph Series book series (INCMS)


The fundamental requirement for cryogenic work is a means of absorbing heat at a low temperature. This can be achieved in two distinct ways: a bath of liquid can be used which takes up heat as heat of evaporation (or in the case of subcooled liquid by rise of temperature), or heat can be transferred to a fluid medium — usually a gas — which is refrigerated in a continuous cycle. Sometimes it is convenient to combine both types of system: a quantity of liquid, for instance, can be used as a buffer for a refrigeration system.


Latent Heat Liquid Helium Refrigeration System Liquid Hydrogen Liquid Oxygen 
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    see also Farkas, A., Ortho-Para Hydrogen and Heavy Hydrogen, Cambridge University Press, London and New York (1935).Google Scholar
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  9. International Institute of Refrigeration, Proceedings of 1965 conference at Boulder, Colorado, Liquid Helium Technology, Pergamon, 1966. A collection of articles by world authorities — some general and some specific — covering liquid-helium technology at CEL, Boulder, physical properties of liquid helium-4 and liquid helium-3 of technological interest, various aspects of heat transfer, control of temperature in cryostats, calibration of germanium thermometers, thermoacoustic oscillations, helium liquefiers and refrigerators, large-scale distribution of liquid helium, a 670-litre light-weight liquid helium vessel, applications to nuclear physics and space technology, and devices exploiting superconductivity.Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1970

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. J. Croft
    • 1
  1. 1.Clarendon LaboratoryUniversity of OxfordUK

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