• William Spelman
Part of the The Plenum Series in Crime and Justice book series (PSIC)


Collective incapacitation is a gamble. The direct benefits are much less than the direct costs, but if crime reduction produces significant indirect benefits— reductions in anxiety, avoidance, protection, and insurance—it may pay off.


Criminal Justice System Deterrent Effect Arrest Rate Offense Rate Criminal Justice Agency 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • William Spelman
    • 1
  1. 1.Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public AffairsUniversity of TexasAustinUSA

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