The major purposes of punishment historically have been retribution, expiation, deterrence, reformation, and social defense. Throughout history, an eye for an eye, the payment of one’s debt to society by expiation, general deterrence of crime by exemplary punishment and specific or special deterrence of an individual offender, reformation of the individual so that he or she will not commit further crime, and protection of society against criminality by detaining or imprisoning offenders have been the principal rationales for the disposition of criminal offenders.
KeywordsDeath Penalty Criminal Justice System Corporal Punishment Social Protection Social Defense
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