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Seeking an Explanation

  • Marvin E. Wolfgang
Chapter

Abstract

Our society has witnessed remarkable scientific growth and change since the beginning of the century. Nearly half of us now marveling at landings on the moon were living before the first airplane was flown across the Atlantic. Yet social change is sluggish. The Supreme Court decision on school desegregation did not come about until nearly a hundred years after the Civil War and its intent is yet to be realized.

Keywords

Criminal Behavior Negro Student Genetic Theory Juvenile Delinquency Supreme Court Decision 
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Notes

  1. 1.
    Thorsten Sellin. “The Negro Criminal. A Statistical Note,” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (1928), 140:52–64, p. 64 cited.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. C. Sanborn, “Dr. W. C. George’s The Biology of the Race Problem: A Review,” New York: National Putnam Letters Committee, n.d.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arthur R. Jensen, “How Much Can We Boost I.Q. and Scholastic Achievement,” Harvard Educational Review,39:1 Winter 1969, pp. 1–123.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    As cited in Lee Edson, “jensenism…,” The New York Times Magazine,op. cit., p. 46.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jerome S. Kagan, Harvard Educational Review,Spring 1969, op. cit., p. 275.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ibid., p. 308.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Statement of George W. Albee et al., Council of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, May 2, 1969.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    See Martin Deutsch, Irwin Katz, and Arthur R. Jensen (eds.) Social Class, Race and Psychological Development,New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Inc., 1968, p. 345 and Harvard Educational Review,Spring 1969, op. cit., p. 355.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson, “Self-Fulfilling Prophecies in the Classroom: Teacher’s Expectations as Unintended Determinants of Pupil’s Intellectual Competence.” In Deutsch et al., op. cit., pp. 219–253, especially 234–35.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    I. I. Gottesman, “Biogenetics of Race and Class.” In Deutsch et al., op. cit., pp. 11–51. See especially pp. 27–28.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Harvard Educational Review,Spring 1969, op. cit., p. 275.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. M. Skeels and H. B. Dye, “A Study of the Effects of Differential Stimulation on Mentally Retarded Children,” Proceedings of the American Association on Mental Deficiency,1939, 44, pp. 114–136., Cited by Celia Stendler-LaVatelli, “Environmental Intervention in Infancy and Early Childhood.” In Deutsch et al., op. cit., p. 353.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Theodosius Dobzhansky, “Genetic Differences Between People,” Scientific Research,July 22, 1968, p. 33.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A Kind Word Said for XYY Men,“ The New York Times,May 6, 1969, p. 93.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    For the main themes of these authors, see the following works: Albert K. Cohen, Delinquent Boys, Glencoe, Ill.: The Free Press, 1955; Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin, Delinquency and Opportunity, Glencoe, Ill.: The Free Press. 1960; Walter B. Miller. “Lower Class Culture as a Generating Milieu of Gang Delinquency,” Journal of Social Issues (1959), 14:5–19; Frederic M. Thrasher, The Gang, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1936; Shaw and McKay, loc. cit., Talcott Parsons, The Social System, Glencoe. Ill.: The Free Press, 1951, especially Ch. VII; Robert K. Merton, Social Theory and Social Structure, Glencoe, III.: The Free Press. 1957.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    For discussions of many problems of delinquency among Negroes, see the entire issue of the Journal of Negro Education, (Summer 1959), vol. 28. Also see: Nathan Wright, Jr., Let’s Work Together, New York: Hawthorn Books, Inc., 1968.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Maude M. Craig and Selma J. Glick, “Ten Years’ Experience With the Glueck Social Prediction Table,” Crime and Delinquency, (1963), 9: 249–261.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Philadelphia’s Non-White Population 1960,Report No. 3, Socioeconomic Data, Philadelphia: Commission on Human Relations, December 1962.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    These data may be found in reports issued by the Bureau of the Census. See: “Social and Economic Conditions of Negroes in the U.S.,” October 1967, BLS Report #332, Current Population Reports, Series P-23, No. 24, Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, pp. 12, 39, 41 and 47; “Consumer Income: Income in 1967 of Families in the United States,” Current Population Reports, Series P-60, No. 59, April 18, 1969, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, p. 51. We are drawing also from the concise article by Philip M. Hauser, “More from the Census of 1960,” Scientific American, October 1962, pp. 30–37.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Herman P. Miller, “Is the Income Gap Closed? ‘No!”’ The New York Times Magazine,November 11, 1962. “Social and Economic Conditions of Negroes in the United States,” op. cit., p. 15.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kenneth B. Clark and Lawrence Plotkin, The Negro Student at Integrated Colleges, National Scholarship Service and Fund for Negro Students, 1963.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Social and Economic Conditions of Negroes in the U.S.“ op. cit., p.47.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lander, op. cit.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mozell Hill, “The Metropolis and Juvenile Delinquency Among Negroes,” Journal of Negro Education (1959), 28:277–285, p. 284 cited.Google Scholar

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

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  • Marvin E. Wolfgang

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