A Minimum Requirement for Police Corruption

  • Carl B. Klockars
  • Maria R. Haberfeld
  • Sanja Kutnjak Ivkovich
  • Aaron Uydess


Corruption is extremely difficult to study in a direct, quantitative, empirical manner. Because most corruption incidents are never reported or recorded, official data on corruption are better regarded as measures of police agency anti-corruption activity than as measures of the actual level of corruption. Moreover, police officers are unlikely to be willing to candidly report their own or other officers’ corrupt activities, even with assurances of confidentiality by researchers.


Police Officer Police Agency Police Integrity Corrupt Behavior Police Corruption 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl B. Klockars
    • 1
  • Maria R. Haberfeld
    • 2
  • Sanja Kutnjak Ivkovich
    • 3
  • Aaron Uydess
    • 1
  1. 1.University of DelawareUSA
  2. 2.John Jay College of Criminal JusticeUSA
  3. 3.Harvard UniversityUSA

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