Neutrophil Degranulation

  • Ira M. Goldstein
Part of the Contemporary Topics in Immunobiology book series (CTI, volume 14)


Metchnikoff (1883) is credited with formulating the concept that acute inflammation in virtually all multicellular organisms occurs largely as a consequence of a coordinated series of events whereby phagocytic cells attempt to defend the host against foreign invaders. This concept and Metchnikoff’s remarkable insight are illustrated by the following quotation (Metchnikoff, 1905):

But it is not micro-organisms only which set up this inflammatory reaction accompanied by the emigration and accumulation of leucocytes. The introduction of inert bodies and of aseptic fluids brings about the same result. The phagocytes are, as a matter of fact, endowed with a special susceptibility, which enables them to perceive exceedingly small changes in the chemical or physical composition of the medium that surrounds them.

The leucocytes, having arrived at the spot where the intruders are found, seize them after the manner of the Amoebae and within their bodies subject them to intracellular digestion. This digestion takes place in the vacuoles in which usually is a weakly acid fluid which contains digestive ferments; of these a very considerable number are now recognised.


Lysosomal Enzyme Human Neutrophil Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Chronic Granulomatous Disease Arachidonic Acid Metabolism 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allison, A. C., Harrington, J. S., and Birbeck, M., 1968, An examination of the cytotoxic effects of silica on macrophages, J. Exp. Med. 124:141.Google Scholar
  2. Atkinson, J. P., Sullivan, T. J., Kelly, J. P., and Parker, C. W., 1977, Stimulation by alcohols of cyclic AMP metabolism in human leukocytes. Possible role of cyclic AMP in the antiinflammatory effects of ethanol, J. Clin. Invest. 60:284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Atkinson, J. P., Simchowitz, L., Mehta, J., and Stenson, W. F., 1982,5,8,11,14-eicosatetray-noic acid (ETYA) inhibits binding of Aformyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) to its receptor on human granulocytes. A note of caution, Immunopharmacology 4:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Avila, J. L., and Convit, J., 1973, Studies on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte enzymes. II. Comparative study of the physical properties of primary and specific granules, Bio-chim. Biophys. Acta 293:409.Google Scholar
  5. Babior, B. M., 1978, Oxygen-dependent microbial killing by phagocytes, N. Engl. J. Med. 298:659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Babior, B. M., Kipnes, R. S., and Curnutte, J. T., 1973, Biological defense mechanisms: The production by leukocytes of superoxide, a potential bactericidal agent, J. Clin. Invest. 52:741.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baehner, R. L., Karnovsky, M. J., and Karnovsky, M. L, 1969, Degranulation of leukocytes in chronic granulomatous disease, J. Clin. Invest. 48:187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baggiolini, M., Hirsch, J. G., and de Duve, C., 1969, Resolution of granules from rabbit heterophil leukocytes into distinct populations by zonal sedimentation, J. Cell. Biol. 40:529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bainton, D. F., 1973, Sequential degranulation of the two types of polymorphonuclear leukocyte granules during phagocytosis of microorganisms, J. Cell. Biol. 58:249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bainton, D. F., and Farquhar, M. G., 1966, Origin of granules in polymorphonuclear leukocytes: Two types derived from opposite faces of the Golgi complex in developing granulocytes, J. Cell. Biol. 28:277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bainton, D. F., and Farquhar, M. G., 1968a, Differences in enzyme content of azurophil and specific granules of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. I. Histochemical staining of bone marrow smears. J.Cell. Biol. 39:286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bainton, D. F., and Farquhar, M. G., 1968b, Differences in enzyme content of azurophil and specific granules of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. II. Cytochemistry and electron microscopy of bone marrow cells, J. Cell. Biol. 39:299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bainton, D. F., Ullyot, J. L., and Farquhar, M. G., 1971, The development of neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes in human bone marrow. Origin and content of azurophil and specific granules, J. Exp. Med. 134:907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Barthélemy, A., Paridaens, R., and Schell-Frederick, E., 1977, Phagocytosis-induced 45calcium efflux in polymorphonuclear leucocytes, FEBS Lett. 82:283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Becker, E. L., 1976, Some interrelationships of neutrophil Chemotaxis, lysosomal enzyme secretion, and phagocytosis as revealed by synthetic peptides, Am. J. Pathol. 85:385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Becker, E. L., and Showell, H. J., 1974, The ability of chemotactic factors to induce lysosomal enzyme release. II. The mechanism of release, J. Immunol. 112:2055.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Becker, E. L., Showell, H. J., Henson, P. M., and Hsu, L. S., 1974, The ability of chemotactic factors to induce lysosomal enzyme release. I. The characteristics of the release, the importance of surfaces and the relation of enzyme release to chemotactic responsiveness, J. Immunol. 112:2047.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bentwood, B. J., and Henson, P. M., 1980, The sequential release of granule constituents from human neutrophils, J. Immunol. 124:855.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Berlin, R. D., and Fera, J. P., 1977, Changes in membrane microviscosity associated with phagocytosis: Effects of colchicine, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci (USA) 74:1072.Google Scholar
  20. Bokoch, G. M., and Reed, P. W., 1980, Stimulation of arachidonic acid metabolism in the polymorphonuclear leukocyte by an N-formylated peptide. Comparison with ionophore A23181, J. Biol. Chem. 255:10223.Google Scholar
  21. Bokoch, G. M., and Reed, P. W., 1981, Effect of various lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid on degranulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, J.Biol. Chem. 256:5317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Borgeat, P., and Samuelsson, B., 1979a, Transformation of arachidonic acid by rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Formation of a novel dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, J. Biol Chem. 254:2643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Borgeat, P., and Samuelsson, B., 1979b, Arachidonic acid metabolism in polymorphonuclear leukocytes: Unstable intermediate in formation of a dihydroxy acids, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 76:3213.Google Scholar
  24. Borgeat, P., Hamberg, M., and Samuelsson, B., 1976, Transformation of arachidonic acid and homo-γ-linolenic acid by rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Monohydroxy acids from novel lipoxygenases, J. Biol. Chem. 251:7816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bretz, U., and Baggiolini, M., 1974, Biochemical and morphological characterization of azurophil and specific granules of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, J. Cell. Biol. 63:251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bryant, R. E., DesPrez, R. M., VanWay, M. H., and Rogers, D. E., 1966, Studies on human leucocyte motility. I. Effects of alterations in pH, electrolyte concentration, and phagocytosis on leucocyte migration, adhesiveness, and aggregation, J. Exp. Med. 124:483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Carter, S. B., 1967, Effects of cytochalasin on mammalian cells, Nature 213:261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Castranova, V., Jones, G. S., Phillips, R. M., Peden, D., and Vandyke, K., 1981, Abnormal responses of granulocytes in chronic granulomatous disease, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 645:49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cohen, H. J., and Chovaniec, M. E., 1978, Superoxide generation by digitonin-stimulated guinea pig granulocytes. A basis for a continuous assay for monitoring superoxide production for the study of the activation of the generating system, J. Clin. Invest. 61:1081.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cohn, Z. A., and Fedorko, M. E., 1969, The formation and fate of lysosomes, in: Lysosomes in Biology and Pathology, Vol. 1 (J. Dingle and H. Fell,eds.), pp. 43–63, North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  31. Cohn, Z. A., and Hirsch, J. G., 1960a, The isolation and properties of the specific cytoplasmic granules of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes, J. Exp. Med. 112:983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cohn, Z. A., and Hirsch, J. G., 1960b, The influence of phagocytosis on the intracellular distribution of granule-associated components of polymorphonuclear leucocytes, J. Exp. Med. 112:1015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cost, H., Gespach, C., and Abita, J.-P., 1981, Effect of indomethacin on the binding of the chemotactic peptide formyl-met-leu-phe on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, FEBS Lett. 132:85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Curnutte, J.T., and Babior, B. M., 1974, Biological defense mechanisms. The effect of bacteria and serum on superoxide production by granulocytes, J. Clin. Invest. 53:1662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Curnutte, J.T., and Babior, B. M., 1975, Effects of anaerobiosis and inhibitors on (math) production by human granulocytes, Blood 45:851.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Davis, A. T., Estensen, R., and Quie, P. G., 1971, Cytochalasin B. III. Inhibition of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytosis, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 137:161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. DeChatelet, L. R., 1975, Oxidative bactericidal mechanisms of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, J. Infect. Dis. 131:295.Google Scholar
  38. DeChatelet, L. R., 1978, Initiation of the respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils: A critical review, J. Reticuloendothel. Soc. 24:73.Google Scholar
  39. DeChatelet, L. R., Shirley, P. S., and Johnston, R. B., Jr., 1976, Effect of phorbol myristate acetate on the oxidative metabolism of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, Blood 47:545.Google Scholar
  40. de Duve, C., and Wattiaux, R., 1966, Functions of lysosomes, Annu. Rev. Physiol. 28:435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. de Duve, C., Pressman, B. C., Gianetto, R., Wattiaux, R., and Applemans, F., 1955, Tissue fractionation studies, 6. Intracellular distribution patterns of enzymes in rat liver tissue, Biochem.J. 60:604.Google Scholar
  42. Densen, P., and Mandell, G. L., 1978, Gonococcal interactions with polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Importance of the phagosome for bactericidal activity, J. Clin. Invest. 62:1161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Dewald, B., Bretz, U., and Baggiolini, M., 1982, Release of gelatinase from a novel secretory compartment of human neutrophils, J. Clin. Invest. 70:518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Edelson, H. S., Kaplan, H. B., Korchak, H. M., Smolen, J. E., and Weissmann, G., 1982, Dissociation by Piroxicam of degranulation and superoxide anion generation from decrements in Chlortetracycline fluorescence of activated human neutrophils, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 104:247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Ehlenberger, A. G., and Nussenzweig, V., 1977, The role of membrane receptors for C3b and C3d in phagocytosis, J. Exp. Med. 145:357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Estensen, R. D., White, J. G., and Holmes, B., 1974, Specific degranulation of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, Nature 248:347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Folds, J. D., Welsh, I. R. H., and Spitznagel, J. K., 1972, Neutral proteases confined to one class of lysosomes of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 139:461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Gallin, E. K., and Gallin, J. I., 1977, Interaction of chemotactic factors with human macrophages. Induction of transmembrane potential changes, J. Cell. Biol. 75:277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Gallin, J. I., and Rosenthal, A. S., 1974, The regulatory role of divalent cations in human granulocyte Chemotaxis. Evidence of an association between calcium exchanges and microtubule assembly, J. Cell. Biol. 62:594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Gallin, J.I., Bujak, J. S., Patten, E., and Wolff, S. M., 1974, Granulocyte function in Chediak-Higashi syndrome of mice, Blood 43:201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Gallin, J., Durocher, J., and Kaplan, A., 1975, Interaction of leukocyte chemotactic factors with the cell surface. I. Chemotactic factor-induced changes in human granulocyte surface charge, J. Clin. Invest. 55:967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gillespie, E., and Lichtenstein, L. M., 1972, Histamine release from human leukocytes: Studies with deuterium oxide, colchicine and cytochalasin B, Br. J. Clin. Invest. 51:2941.Google Scholar
  53. Goetzl, E. J., and Austen, K. F., 1974, Stimulation of human neutrophil leukocyte aerobic glucose metabolism by purified chemotactic factors, J. Clin. Invest. 53:591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Goetzl, E. J., and Pickett, W. C., 1980, The human PMN leukocyte chemotactic activity of complex hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), J. Immunol. 125:1789.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Goetzl, E. J., and Sun, F. F., 1979, Generation of unique monohydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids from arachidonic acid by human neutrophils, J. Exp. Med. 150:406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Goldstein, I. M., 1973, Lysosomal hydrolases and inflammatory materials, in: Mediators of Inflammation (G. Weissmann, ed.), pp. 51–84, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  57. Goldstein, I. M., 1976, Polymorphonuclear leukocyte lysosomes and immune tissue injury, Prog. Allergy 20:301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Goldstein, I. M., Brai, M., Osler, A. G., and Weissmann, G., 1973a, Lysosomal enzyme release from human leukocytes: Mediation by the alternate pathway of complement activation, J. Immunol. 111:33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Goldstein, I., Hoffstein, S., Gallin, J., and Weissmann, G., 1973b, Mechanisms of lysosomal enzyme release from human leukocytes: Microtubule assembly and membrane fusion induced by a component of complement, Proc. Natl. Acad, Sci. (USA) 70:2916.Google Scholar
  60. Goldstein, I. M., Horn, J. K., Kaplan, H. B., and Weissmann, G., 1974, Calcium-induced lysozyme secretion from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 60:807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Goldstein, I. M., Roos, D., Weissmann, G., and Kaplan, H., 1975a, Complement and immunoglobulins stimulate superoxide production by human leukocytes independently of phagocytosis, J. Clin. Invest. 56:1155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Goldstein, I. M., Hoffstein, S. T., and Weissmann, G., 1975b, Mechanisms of lysosomal enzyme release from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Effects of phorbol myri-state acetate, J. Cell. Biol. 66:647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Goldstein, I. M., Hoffstein, S. T., and Weissmann, G., 1975c, Influence of divalent cations upon complement-mediated enzyme release from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, J. Immunol. 115:665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Goldstein, I. M., Feit, F., and Weissmann, G., 1975c?, Enhancement of nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction by leukocytes exposed to a component of complement in the absence of phagocytosis, J. Immunol. 114:516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Goldstein, I. M., Kaplan, H. B., Radin, A., and Frosch, M., 1916a, Independent effects of IgG and complement upon human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function, J. Immunol. 117:1282.Google Scholar
  66. Goldstein, I. M., Roos, D., Weissmann, G., and Kaplan, H. B., 1976b, Influence of corticosteroids on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function in vitro. Reduction of lysosomal enzyme release and superoxide production, Inflammation 1:305.Google Scholar
  67. Goldstein, I. M., Cerqueira, M., Lind, S., and Kaplan, H. B., 1977a, Evidence that the superoxide generating system of human leukocytes is associated with the cell surface, J. Clin. Invest. 59:249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Goldstein, I. M., Lind, S., Hoffstein, S. T., and Weissmann, G., 1977b, Influence of local anesthetics upon human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function in vitro. Reduction of lysosomal enzyme release and superoxide anion production, J. Exp. Med. 146:483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Goldstein, I. M., Malmsten, C. L., Kindahl, H., Kaplan, H. B., Radmark, O., Samuelsson, B., and Weissmann, G., 1978, Thromboxane generation by human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, J. Exp. Med. 148:787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Haak, R. A., Ingraham, L. M., Baehner, R. L., and Boxer, L. A., 1979, Membrane fluidity in human and mouse Chediak-Higashi leukocytes, J. Clin. Invest. 64:138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Hartwig, J. H., and Stossel, T. P., 1976, Interactions of actin, myosin, and an actin-binding protein of rabbit pulmonary macrophages, III. Effects of cytochalasin B, J. Cell. Biol. 71:295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Hatch, G. E., Nichols, W. K., and Hill, H. R., 1977, Cyclic nucleotide changes in human neutrophils induced by chemoattractants and chemotactic modulators, J. Immunol. 119:450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hawkins, D., 1971, Biopolymer membrane. A model system for the study of the neutrophilic leukocyte response to immune complexes, J. Immunol. 107:344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Hawkins, D., 1972, Neutrophilic leukocytes in immunological reactions. Evidence for the selective release of lysosomal constituents, J. Immunol. 108:310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hawkins, D., 1973, Neutrophilic leukocytes in immunologic reactions in vitro. Effect of cytochalasin B, J. Immunol. 110:294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Hawkins, D., 1974, Neutrophilic leukocytes in immunologic reactions in vitro. III. Pharmacologic modulation of lysosomal enzyme release, Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 2:141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Henson, P. M., 1977a, Interaction of cells with immune complexes. Adherence, release of constituents, and tissue injury, J. Exp. Med. 134:114s.Google Scholar
  78. Henson, P. M., 1971b, The immunologic release of constitutents from neutrophil leukocytes. I. The role of antibody and complement on nonphagocytosable surfaces or phagocytos-able particles, J. Immunol. 107:1535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Henson, P. M., 1972, Pathologic mechanisms in neutrophil-mediated injury, Am. J. Pathol. 68:593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Henson, P. M., and Oades, Z. G., 1975, Stimulation of human neutrophils by soluble and insoluble immunoglobulin aggregates. Secretion of granule constituents and increased oxidation of glucose, J. Clin. Invest. 56:1053.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Henson, P. M., Johnson, H. B., and Spiegelberg, H. L., 1972, The release of granule enzymes from human neutrophils stimulated by aggregated immunoglobulins of different classes and subclasses, J. Immunol. 109:1182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Herlin, T., Petersen, C. S., and Esmann, V., 1978, The role of calcium and cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate in the regulation of glycogen metabolism in phagocytizing human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 542:63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Higgs, G. A., Bunting, S., Moncada, S., and Vane, J. R., 1976, Polymorphonuclear leukocytes produce thromboxane A2-like activity during phagocytosis, Prostaglandins 12:749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Hirata, F., Schiffmann, E., Venkatasubramanian, K., Salomon, D., and Axelrod, J., 1980, A phospholipase A2 inhibitory protein in rabbit neutrophils induced by glucocorticoids, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 77:2533.Google Scholar
  85. Hirsch, J. G., and Cohn, Z. A., 1960, Degranulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes following phagocytosis of microorganisms, J. Exp. Med. 112:1005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Hirschhorn, R., and Weissmann, G., 1965, Isolation and properties of human leukocyte lysosomes in vitro, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol Med. 119:36.Google Scholar
  87. Hoffstein, S. T., 1979, Ultrastructural demonstration of calcium loss from local regions of the plasma membrane of surface-stimulated human granulocytes, J. Immunol. 123:1395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Hoffstein, S., Soberman, R., Goldstein, I., and Weissmann, G., 1976, Concanavalin A induces microtubule assembly and specific granule discharge in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, J. Cell. Biol. 68:781.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Hoffstein, S., Goldstein, I. M., and Weissmann, G., 1977, Role of microtubule assembly in lysosomal enzyme secretion from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. A reevaluation, J. Cell. Biol. 73:242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Ignarro, L. J., 1974a, Nonphagocytic release of neutral protease and ß-glucuronidase from human neutrophils. Regulation by autonomic neurohormones in cyclic nucleotides, Arthritis Rheum. 17:25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Ignarro, L. J., 1974b, Stimulation of phagocytic release of neutral protease from human neutrophils by cholinergic amines and cyclic 3′, 5′-guanosine monophosphate, J. Immunol. 112:210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Ignarro, L. J., and Colombo, C., 1973, Enzyme release from polymorphonuclear leukocyte lysosomes, Scien ce 180:1181.Google Scholar
  93. Ignarro, L. J., and George, W. J., 1974a, Mediation of immunologic discharge of lysosomal enzymes from human neutrophils by guanosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate. Requirement of calcium, and inhibition by adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate, J. Exp. Med. 140:225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Ignarro, L. J., and George, W. J., 1974Z?, Hormonal control of lysosomal enzyme release from human neutrophils, elevation of cyclic nucleotide levels by autonomic neurohormones, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 71:2027.Google Scholar
  95. Ignarro, L. J., Lint, T. F., and George, W. J., 1974, Hormonal control of lysosomal enzyme release from human neutrophils. Effects of autonomic agents on enzyme release, phagocytosis, and cyclic nucleotide levels, J. Exp. Med. 139:1395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Ingraham, L. M., Boxer, L. A., Haak, R. A., and Baehner, R. L., 1981, Membrane fluidity change accompanying phagocytosis in normal and in chronic granulomatous disease polymorphonuclear leukocytes, Blood 58:830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Jackowski, S., and Sha’afi, R. I., 1979, Response of adenosine cyclic 3′, 5′-monophosphate level in rabbit neutrophils to the chemotactic peptide formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenyla-lanine, Mol. Pharmacol. 16:473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Johnston, R. B., Jr., and Lehmeyer, J. E., 1976, Elaboration of toxic oxygen byproducts by neutrophils in a model of immune complex disease, J. Clin. Invest. 57:836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Kaliner, M., and Austen, K. F., 1974, Adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate: Inhibition of complement-mediated cell lysis, Science 183:659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kaliner, M., Orange, R. P., and Austen, K. F., 1972, Immunologic release of histamine and slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis from human lung. IV. Enhancement by cholinergic and alpha adrenegic stimulation, J. Exp. Med. 136:556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Kane, S. P., and Peters, T. J., 1975, Analytical subcellular fractionation of human granulocytes with reference to the localization of vitamin B12 -binding proteins, Clin. Sci. Mol. Med. 49:171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Kaplan, L., Weiss, J., and Elsbach, P., 1978, Low concentrations of indomethacin inhibit phospholipase A2 of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 75:2955.Google Scholar
  103. Kaplan, S. S., Finch, S. C., and Basford, R. E., 1972, Polymorphonuclear leukocyte activation: Effects of phospholipase c, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 140:540.Google Scholar
  104. Karnovsky, M. L, 1968, The metabolism of leukocytes, Semin. Hematol. 5:156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Klebanoff, S. J., 1967, Iodination of bacteria: A bactericidal mechanism, J. Exp. Med. 126:1063.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Korchak, H. M., and Weissmann, G., 1978, Changes in membrane potential of human granulocytes antecede the metabolic responses to surface stimulation, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 75:3818.Google Scholar
  107. Korchak, H. M., and Weissmann, G., 1980, Stimulus-response coupling in the human neutrophil: Transmembrane potential and the role of extracellular Na+, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 601:180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Korchak, H. M., Eisenstat, B. A., Hoffstein, S. T., Dunham, P. B., and Weissmann, G., 1980, Anion channel blockers inhibit lysosomal enzyme secretion from human neutrophils without affecting generation of superoxide anion, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 77:2721.Google Scholar
  109. Krinsky, N. I., 1974, Singlet excited oxygen as a mediator of the antibacterial action of leukocytes, Science 186:363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Leffell, M. S., and Spitznagel, J. K., 1972, Association of lactoferrin with lysozyme in granules of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Infect. Immun. 6:761.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Leffell, M. S., and Spitznagel, J. K., 1974, Intracellular and extracellular degranulation of human polymorphonuclear azurophil and specific granules induced by immune complexes, Infect. Immun. 10:1241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Leffell, M. S., and Spitznagel, J. K., 1975, Fate of human lactoferrin and myeloperoxidase in phagocytizing human neutrophils: Effects of immunoglobulin G subclasses and immune complexes coated on latex beads, Infect. Immun. 12:813.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Levin, R. M., and Weiss, B., 1977, Binding of trifluoperazine to the calcium-dependent activator of cyclic nucleotides phosphodiesterase, Mol. Pharmacol. 13:690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Mantovani, B., 1975, Different roles of IgG and complement receptors in phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, J. Immunol. 115:15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Marone, G., Thomas, L. L, and Lichtenstein, L. M., 1980, The role of agonists that activate adenylate cyclase in the control of cAMP metabolism and enzyme release by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, J. Immunol. 125:2277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Metchnikoff, E., 1883, Untersuchungen über die intracellular Verdauung bie wirbellosen Thieren, Arb. Zool. Inst. Univ. Wein 5:141.Google Scholar
  117. Metchnikoff, E., 1905, Immunity in Infective Diseases, p. 572, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.Google Scholar
  118. Mikulikova, D., and Trnavsky, K., 1982, The effect of indomethacin and its ester on lyso-somal enzyme release from polymorphonuclear leukocytes and intracellular levels of cAMP and cGMP after phagocytosis of urate crystals, Biochem. Pharmacol. 31:460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Murphy, G., Bretz, U., Baggiolini, M., and Reynolds, J. J., 1980, The latent collagenase and gelatinase of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes, Biochem, J. 192:517.Google Scholar
  120. Naccache, P. H., Showell, H. J., Becker, E. L., and Sha’afi, R. I., 1977, Changes in ionic movements across rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte membranes during lysosomal enzyme release. Possible ionic basis for lysosomal enzyme release, J. Cell. Biol 75:635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Naccache, P. J., Showell, H. J., Becker, E. L, and Sha’afi, R. I., 1979a, Arachidonic acid induced degranulation of rabbit peritoneal neutrophils, Biochem. Biophys. R es. Commun. 87:292.Google Scholar
  122. Naccache, P. H., Volpi, M., Showell, H. J., Becker, E. L., and Sha’afi, R. I., 19796, Chemo-tactic factor-induced release of membrane calcium in rabbit neutrophils, Science 203:461.Google Scholar
  123. Naccache, P. H., Showell, H. J„ Becker, E. L., and Sha’atî, R. I., 1979c, Involvement of membrane calcium in the response of rabbit neutrophils to chemotactic factors as evidenced by the fluorescence of Chlortetracycline, J. Cell. Biol. 83:179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Naccache, P. H., Sha’afi, R. I., Borgeat, P., and Goetzl, E. J., 1981, Mono- and dihydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids alter calcium homeostasis in rabbit neutrophils, J. Clin. Invest. 67:1584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Nachman, R., Hirsch, J. G., and Baggiolini, M., 1972, Studies on isolated membranes of azurophil and specific granules from rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes, J. Cell. Biol. 54:133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Novikoff, A. B., Essner, E., and Quintana, N., 1964, Golgi apparatus and lysosomes, Fed. Proc. 23:1010.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Ochs, D. L., and Reed, P. W., 1981, Inhibition of the neutrophil oxidative burst and de-granulation by phenothiazines, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 102:958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. O’Flaherty, J. T., Showell, H. J., Ward, P. A., and Becker, E. L., 1979, A possible role of arachidonic acid in human neutrophil aggregation and degranulation, Am. J. Pathol. 96:799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. O’Flaherty, J. T., Wykle, R. L., Lees, C. J., Shewmake, T., McCall, C. E., and Thomas, M. J., 1981, Neutrophil degranulating action of 5,12-dihydroxy-6,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid and 1-O-alkyl-2-O-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, Am. J. Pathol. 105:264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Oliver, J. M., 1976, Impaired microtubule function correctable by cyclic GMP and cholinergic agonists in the Chediak-Higashi syndrome, Am. J. Pathol. 85:395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Oliver, J. M., and Zurier, R. B., 1976, Correction of characteristic abnormalities of microtubule function and granule morphology in Chediak-Higashi syndrome with cholinergic agonists. Studies in vitro in man and in vivo in the beige mouse, J. Clin. Invest. 57:1239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Olmstead, J. B., and Borisy, G. G., 1973, Microtubules, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 42:507.Google Scholar
  133. Olsson, I., 1969, Isolation of human leukocyte granules using colloidal silica-polysaccharide density gradients, Exp. Cell. Res. 54:325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Persellin, R. H., and Ku, L. C., 1974, Effects of steroid hormones on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte lysosomes, J. Clin. Invest. 54:919.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Petroski, R. J., Naccache, P. H., Becker, E. L., and Sha’afi, R. I., 1979, Effect of the chemotactic factor formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and cytochalasin B on the cellular levels of calcium in rabbit neutrophils, FEBS Lett. 100:161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Plagemann, P. G. W., and Estensen, R. D., 1972, Cytochalasin B. VI. Competitive inhibition of nucleotide transport by cultured Novikoff rat hepatoma cells, J. Cell. Biol. 55:179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Repine, J. E., White, J. G., Clawson, C. C., and Holmes, B.W., 1974, The influence of phorbol myristate acetate on oxygen consumption by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 83:911.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Romeo, P., Cramer, R., and Rossi, F., 1970, Use of l-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate to study structural transitions in cell membranes of PMN leucocytes, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 41:582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Romeo, D., Zabucchi, G., and Rossi, F., 1973, Reversible metabolic stimulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages by concanavalin A, Nature (New Biol.) 243:111.Google Scholar
  140. Roos, D. Homan-Müller, J. W. T., and Weening, R. S., 1976, Effect of cytochalasin B on the oxidative metabolism of human peripheral blood granulocytes, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 68:43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Roos, D., Bot, A. A. M., van Schaik, M. L. J., de Boer, M., and Daha, M. R., 1981, Interaction between human neutrophils and zymosan particles: The role of opsonins and divalent cations, J. Immunol. 126:433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Root, R. K., and Metcalf, J. A., 1977, H2O2 release from human granulocytes during phagocytosis. Relationship to superoxide anion formation and cellular catabolism of H2O2 : Studies with normal and cytochalasin B-treated cells, J. Clin. Invest. 60:1266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Root, R. K., and Stossel, T. P., 1974, Myeloperoxidase-mediated iodination by granulocytes. Intracellular site of operation and some regulating factors, J. Clin. Invest. 53:1207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Root, R. K., Metcalf, J., Oshino, N., and Chance, B., 1975, H2O2 release from human granulocytes during phagocytosis. I. Documentation, quantitation, and some regulating factors, J. Clin. Invest. 55:945.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Rubin, R.P., Sink, L. E., and Freer, R. J., 1981, On the relationship between formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine stimulation of arachidonyl phosphatidylinositol turnover and lysosomal enzyme secretion by rabbit neutrophils, Mol. Pharmacol. 19:31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Rudolph, S. A., Greengard, P., and Malawista, S. E., 1977, Effects of colchicine on cyclic AMP levels in human leukocytes,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci (USA) 74:3404.Google Scholar
  147. Sajnani, A.N., Ranadive, N. S., and Movat, H. Z., 1976, Redistribution of immunoglobulin receptors on human neutrophils and its relationship to the release of lysosomal enzymes, Lab. Invest. 35:143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Schumacher, H. R., and Phelps, P., 1971, Sequential changes in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes after urate crystal phagocytosis. An electron microscopic study, Arthritis Rheum. 14:513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Scribner, D.J., and Fahrney, D., 1976, Neutrophil receptors for IgG and complement: Their roles in the attachment and ingestion phases of phagocytosis, J Immunol. 116:892.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Seligmann, B.E., and Gallin, J. I., 1980, Use of lipophilic probes of membrane potential to assess human neutrophil activation. Abnormality in chronic granulomatous disease, J. Clin. Invest. 66:493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Seligmann, B. E., Gallin, E. K., Martin, D. L., Shain, W., and Gallin, J. I., 1980, Interaction of chemotactic factors with human polymorphonuclear leukocytes: Studies using a membrane potential sensitive dye, J. Membr. Biol. 52:257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Seligmann, B., Chused, T. M., and Gallin, J. I., 1981, Human neutrophil heterogeneity identified using flow microfluorometry to monitor membrane potential, J. Clin. Invest. 68:1125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Serhan, C. N., Radin, A., Smolen, J. E., Korchak, H., Samuelsson, B., and Weissmann, G., 1982, Leukotriene B4 is a complete secretagogue in human neutrophils: A kinetic analysis, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 107:1006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Sha’afi, R. I., Naccache, P. H., Molski, T. F. P., Borgeat, P., and Goetzl, E. J., 1981, Cellular regulatory role of leukotriene B4: Its effects on cation homeostasis in rabbit neutrophils, J. Cell. Physiol. 108:401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Showell, H. J., Freer, R. J., Zigmond, S. H., Schiffmann, E., Aswanikumar, S., Corcoran, B., and Becker, E. L., 1976, The structure-activity relations of synthetic peptides as chemotactic factors and inducers of lysosomal enzyme secretion for neutrophils, J. Exp. Med. 143:1154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Showell, H. J., Naccache, P. H., Sha’afi, R. I., and Becker, E. L., 1977, The effects of extracellular K+, Na+ and Ca++ on lysosomal enzyme secretion from polymorphonuclear leukocytes, J. Immunol. 119:804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Showell, H. J., Naccache, P. H., Borgeat, P., Picard, S., Vallerand, P., Becker, E. L., and Sha’afi, R. I., 1982, Characterization of the secretory activity of leukotriene B4 toward rabbit neutrophils, J. Immunol 128:811.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Simchowitz, L., and Spilberg, I., 1979, Generation of superoxide radicals by human peripheral neutrophils activated by chemotactic factor. Evidence for the role of calcium, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 93:583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Simchowitz, L., Fischbein, L. C., Spilberg, I., and Atkinson, J. P., 1980, Induction of a transient elevation in intracellular levels of adenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate by chemotactic factors: An early event in human neutrophil activation, J. Immunol. 124:1482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Smith, R. J., 1977, Modulation of phagocytosis by and lysosomal enzyme secretion from guinea-pig neutrophils: Effect of non-steroid anti-inflammatory agents and prostaglandins,/. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 200:647.Google Scholar
  161. Smith, R. J., 1978, Nonsteroid anti-inflammatory agents: Regulators of the phagocyte secretion of lysosomal enzymes from guinea-pig neutrophils, J. Pharmacol Exp. Ther. 207:618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Smith, R. J., 1979, The guinea pig neutrophil calcium-dependent lysosomal enzyme secretory process. Inhibition by nonsteroid anti-inflammatory agents, Biochem. Pharmacol. 28:2739.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Smith, R. J., and Iden, S. S., 1979, Phorbol myristate acetate-induced release of granule enzymes from human neutrophils: Inhibition by the calcium antagonist, 8-(N,N-die-thylamino)-octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate hydrochloride, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 91:263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Smith, R. J., and Ignarro, L. J., 1975, Bioregulation of lysosomal enzyme secretion from human neutrophils: Roles of guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate and calcium in stimulus-secretion coupling, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. (USA) 72:108.Google Scholar
  165. Smith, R. J., Wierenga, W., and Iden, S.S., 1980, Characteristics of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine as an inducer of lysosomal enzyme release from human neutrophils, Inflammation 4:73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Smith, R. J., Sun, F.F., Iden, S.S., Bowman, B.J., Sprecher, H., and McGuire, J.G., 1981a, An evaluation of the relationship between arachiodonic acid lipoxygenation and human neutrophil de granulation, Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 20:157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Smith, R. J., Bowman, B. J., and Iden, S. S., 1981b, Effects of trifluoperazine on human neutrophil function, Immunology 44:677.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Smolen, J.E., and Weissmann, G., 1980, The effects of indomethacin, 5,8,11,14-eicosate-traynoic acid, and p-bromophenacyl bromide on lysosomal enzyme release and superoxide anion generation by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, Biochem. Pharmacol. 29:533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Smolen, J.E., and Weissmann, G., 1981, Stimuli which provoke secretion of azurophil enzymes from human neutrophils induce increments in adenosine cycle 3′,5 ‘-monophosphate, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 672:197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Smolen, J. E., and Weissmann, G., 1982, The effect of various stimuli and calcium antagonists on the fluorescence response of chlortetracycline-loaded human neutrophils, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 720:172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Smolen, J. E., Korchak, H. M., and Weissmann, G., 1980, Increased levels of cyclic adenosine-3′, 5′-monophosphate in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes after surface stimulation, J. Clin. Invest. 65:1077.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Smolen, J.E., Korchak, H. M., and Weissmann, G., 1981, The roles of extracellular and intracellular calcium in lysosomal enzyme release and superoxide anion generation by human neutrophils, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 677:512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Spitznagel, J. K., Dalldorf, M. G., Leffell, M. S., Folds, J. D., Welsh, I. R. H., Cooney, M. H., and Martin, L. E., 1974, Character of azurophil and specific granules purified from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, Lab. Invest. 30:774.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Stenson, W. F., and Parker, C. W., 1979, Metabolism of arachidonic acid in ionophore- stimulated neutrophils. Esterification of a hydroxylated metabolite into phospholipids, J. Clin. Invest. 64:1457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Stenson, W. F., and Parker, C. W., 1980, Monohydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) induce degranulation of human neutrophils, J. Immunol. 124:2100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Stole, V., 1981, Stimulatory effect of latex and zymosan particles on cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate content in human granulocytes, Mol Immunol. 18:773.Google Scholar
  177. Stossel, T. P., 1973, Quantitative studies of phagocytosis. Kinetic effects of cations and heat-labile opsonin, J. Cell. Biol. 58:346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Stossel, T. P., Pollard, T. D., Mason, R. J., and Vaughan, M., 1971, Isolation and properties of phagocytic vesicles from polymorphonuclear leukocytes, J. Clin. Invest. 50:1745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Straus, W., 1964, Occurrence of phagosomes and phagolysosomes in different segments of the nephron in relation to the reabsorption, transport, digestion, and extrusion of intravenously injected horseradish peroxidase, J. Cell. Biol. 21:295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Takeshige, K., Nabi, Z. F., Tatscheck, B., and Minakami, S., 1980, Release of calcium from membranes and its relation to phagocytic metabolic changes: A fluorescence study on leukocytes loaded with chloretetracycline, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 95: 410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Tanaka, T., and Hidaka, H., 1981, Interaction of local anesthetics with calmodulin, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 101:447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Tauber, A. I., and Babior, B. M., 1977, Evidence for hydroxyl radical production by human neutrophils, J. Clin. Invest. 60:374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Tedesco, F. S., Trani, S., Soranzo, M. R., and Patriarca, P., 1975, Stimulation of glucose oxidation in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes by C3-Sepharose and soluble C567, FEBS Lett. 51:232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Traynor, J. R., and Authi, K. S., 1981, Phospholipase A2 activity of lysosomal origin se creted by polymorphonuclear leukocytes during phagocytosis or on treatment with calcium, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 665:571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Utsumi, K., Sugiyama, K., Miyahara, M., Naito, M., Auai, M., and Inoue, M., 1977, Effect of concanavalin A on membrane potential of polymorphonuclear leukocytes monitored by fluorescent dye, Cell. Struct. Fund. 2:203.Google Scholar
  186. Volpi, M., Naccache, P. H., and Sha’afi, R. I., 1980, Arachidonic metabolite(s) increase the permeability of the plasma membrane of the neutrophils to calcium, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 92:1231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Walenga, R. W., Showell, H. J., Feinstein, M. B., and Becker, E. L., 1980, Parallel inhibition of neutrophil arachidonic acid metabolism and lysosomal enzyme secretion by nordihydroguaiaretic acid, Life Sci. 27:1047.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Walsh, C. E., Waite, B. M., Thomas, M. J., and DeChatelet, L. R., 1981, Release and metabolism of arachidonic acid in human neutrophils, J. Biol. Chem. 256:7228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Weening, R. S., Wever, R., and Roos, D., 1975, Quantitative aspects of the production of superoxide radicals by phagocytizing human granulocytes, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 85:245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Weisenberg, R. C., Borisy, G.G., and Taylor, E. W., 1968, The colchicine-binding protein of mammalian brain and its relation to microtubules, Biochemistry 7:4466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Weissmann, G., 1982, Activation of neutrophils and the lesions of rheumatoid arthritis, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 100:322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Weissmann, G., and Rita, G. A., 1972, Molecular basis of qouty inflammation: Interaction of monosodium urate crystals with lysosomes and liposomes, Nature (New Biol.) 240:167.Google Scholar
  193. Weissmann, G., and Uhr, J. W., 1968, Studies on lysosomes, IX. Localization of bacteriophages and thorotrast and their inflammatory properties, Biochem. Pharmacol. 17: (Suppl.)5.Google Scholar
  194. Weissmann, G., Hirschhorn, R., and Krakauer, K., 1969, Effect of mellitin upon cellular and lysosomal membranes, Biochem. Pharmacol. 18:1771.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Weissmann, G., Zurier, R. B., Spieler, P. J., and Goldstein, I. M., 1971a, Mechanisms of lysosomal enzyme release from leukocytes exposed to immune complexes and other particles, J. Exp. Med. 134:149s.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Weissmann, G., Dukor, P., and Zurier, R. B., 1971b, Effect of cyclic AMP on release of lysosomal enzymes from phagocytes, Nature (New Biol.) 231:131.Google Scholar
  197. Weissmann, G., Zurier, R. B., and Hoffstein, S., 1972, Leukocytic proteases and the immunologic release of lysosomal enzymes, Am. J. Pathol. 68:539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Weissmann, G., Goldstein, I., Hoffstein, S., Chauvet, G., and Robineaux, R., 1975a, Yin/Yang modulation of lysosomal enzyme release from polymorphonuclear leukocytes by cyclic nucleotides, Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 256:222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Weissmann, G., Goldstein, I., Hoffstein, S., and Tsung, P-K., 1975b, Reciprocal effects of cAMP and cGMP on microtubule-dependent release of lysosomal enzymes, Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 253:750.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Weissmann, G., Korchak, H. M., Perez, H. D., Smolen, J. E., Goldstein, I. M., and Hoffstein, S. T., 1979, The secretory code of the neutrophil, J. Reticuloendothel. Soc. 26:687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Weissmann, G., Smolen, J. E., and Korchak, H. M., 1980, Release of inflammatory mediators from stimulated neutrophils, TV. Engl. J. Med. 303:27.Google Scholar
  202. Welsh, I. R. H., and Spitznagel, J. K., 1971, Distribution of lysosomal enzymes, cationic proteins, and bactericidal substances in subcellular fractions of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, Infect. Immun. 4:97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Wentzell, B., and Epand, R. M., 1978, Stimulation of the release of prostaglandins from polymorphonuclear leukocytes by the calcium ionophore A23187, FEBS Lett. 86:255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. West, B. C., Rosenthal, A. S., Gelb, N. A., and Kimball, H. R., 1974, Separation and characterization of human neutrophil granules, Am. J. Pathol. 77:41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Whitin, J. C., Chapman, C. E., Simons, E. R., Chovaniec, M. E., and Cohen, H. J., 1980, Correlation between membrane potential changes and superoxide production in human granulocytes stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate. Evidence for defective activation in chronic granulomatous disease, J. Biol. Chem. 255:1874.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Wright, D. G., and Gallin, J. I., 1979, Secretory responses of human neutrophils: Exocytosis of specific (secondary) granules by human neutrophils during adherence in vitro and during exudation in vivo, J. Immunol. 123:285.Google Scholar
  207. Wright, D. G., and Malawista, S. E., 1972, The mobilization and extracellular release of granular enzymes from human leukocytes during phagocytosis, J. Cell. Biol. 53:788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Wright, D. G., and Malawista, S. E., 1973, Mobilization and extracellular release of granular enzymes from human leukocytes during phagocytosis. Inhibition by colchicine and Cortisol but not by salicylate, Arthritis Rheum. 16:749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Wright, D. G., Bralove, D. A., and Gallin, J. I., 1977, The differential mobilization of human neutrophil granules. Effects of phorbol myristate acetate and ionophore A23187, Am. J. Pathol. 87:273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Wunderlich, F., Muller, R., and Speth, V., 1973, Direct evidence for a colchicine-induced impairment in the mobility of membrane components, Science 182:1136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Zabucchi, G., and Romeo, D., 1976, The dissociation of exocytosis and respiratory stimulation in leucocytes by ionophores, Biochem. J. 156:209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Zeya, H. I., and Spitznagel, J. K., 1971, Characterization of cationic protein-bearing granules of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, Lab. Invest. 24:229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Zigmond, S. H., and Hirsch, J. G., 1972, Effects of cytochalasin B on polymorphonuclear leukocyte locomotion, phagocytosis, and glycolysis, Exp. Cell. Res. 73:383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Zucker-Franklin, D., and Hirsch, J. G., 1964, Electron microscope studies on the degranulation of rabbit peritoneal leukocytes during phagocytosis, J. Exp. Med. 120:569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Zurier, R. B., and Sayadoff, D. M., 1975, Release of prostaglandins from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, Inflammation 1:93.Google Scholar
  216. Zurier, R. B., Hoffstein, S., and Weissmann, G., 1973a, Mechanisms of lysosomal enzyme release from leukocytes. I. Effect of cyclic nucleotides and colchicine, J. Cell. Biol. 58:27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Zurier, R. B., Hoffstein, S., and Weissmann, G., 1973b, Cytochalasin B. Effect on lysosomal enzyme release from human leucocytes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 70:844.Google Scholar
  218. Zurier, R. B., Weissmann, G., Hoffstein, S., Kammerman, S., and Tai, H.-H., 1974, Mecha-nisims of lysosomal enzyme release from leukocytes. II. Effects of cAMP and cGMP, autonomic agonists, and agents which affect microtubule function, J. Clin. Invest. 53:297.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ira M. Goldstein
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Rosalind Russell Arthritis Research Laboratory, Medical ServiceSan Francisco General HospitalSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Department of MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations