Models of Psychoses: Which One, When, and Why?

  • Michael Myslobodsky
  • Ina Weiner
Part of the Neurobiological Foundation of Aberrant Behaviors book series (NFAB, volume 1)

Abstract

The term “model” has been colonized by experts and is shared by several disciplines. It is as abused as the overlapping word “paradigm.” According to the Webster, a model may be “a structural design,” “a miniature representation of something,” “an example for imitation or emulation,” or “a description or analogy used to help visualize something that cannot be directly observed.” Only in some quarters it denotes an original, a standard, a thing copied and thus something superior to the copy (e.g., a model painted by an artist). In the real world, models serve a variety of roles, some committed to their major calling, others rather peripheral to their stated goals, but considered profitable. All appeal to the need of accepting simplified representations as if they were reality. They retreat from its perplexity by offering something less cumbersome, less burdensome technically or ethically, in a word, something less complex (Ashby, 1970).

Keywords

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Cognitive Model Nocturnal Enuresis Tonic Immobility Rejection Sensitivity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allebeck, P., Rodvall, Y., Wistedt, B. (1985) Incidence of rheumatoid arthritis among patients with schizophrenia, affective psychosis and neurosis. Acta Psychiatr Scand 71: 615–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashby, W.R. (1970) Analysis of the system to be modeled. In: Stogdill, R.M. (ed.), The process of model-building in the behavioral sciences. (pp 94–114 ). Columbus: Ohio state University.Google Scholar
  3. Auroux, M. (1997) Behavioral teratogenesis: an extension to the teratogenesis of functions. Biol Neonate, 71: 137–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baldwin, J. A., (1979) Schizophrenia and physical disease. Psychol. Med. 9: 611–618.Google Scholar
  5. Bartus, R.T. (1988) The need for common perspectives in the development and use of animal models for age-related cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders. Neurobiol Aging, 9: 445–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Castellanos, F.X., Fine, E.J., Kaysen, D. et al. (1996) Sensorimotor gating in boys with Tourette’s syndrome and ADHD: preliminary results. Biol. Psychiat., 39: 33–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cummings, J.L. (1999) Principles of neuropsychiatry: Towards a neuropsychiatric epistemology. Neurocase, 5: 181–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Damasio, A.R. (1996) The somatic marker hypothesis and the possible functions of the prefrontal cortex. Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. Series B., 351: 1413–1420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. De Keyser, J., Sulter, G., Luiten, P.G. (1999) Clinical trials with neuroprotective drugs in acute ischaemic stroke: are we doing the right thing? TINS, 22: 535–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Eaton, W. W., Hayward, C., Ram, R. (1992) Schizophrenia and rheumatoid arthritis: a review. Schizophr Res 6: 181–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Friedman A, Kaufer D, Shemer J, Hendler I, Soreq H, Turkaspa I. (1996) Pyridostigmine brain penetration under stress enhances neuronal excitability and induces early immediate transcriptional response. Nature Medicine 2: 1382–1385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fuchs, S. (1992) The professional quest for truth. A social theory of science and knowledge. State University of New York Press: Albany.Google Scholar
  13. Gullap, Jr. G.G. and Maser, J.D. (1977) Tonic immobility: evolutionary underpinnings of human catalepsy and catatonia. In: Maser, J.D., and Seligman, M.E.P. (Eds.), Psychopathology: Experimental models. San Francisco: Freeman and Co., pp 334–357.Google Scholar
  14. Hebb, D.O. (1949) The organization of behavior. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  15. Kimball, A.W. (1957) Errors of the third kind in statistical consulting. J Amer Stat Assoc 52: 133–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Krueger, R. F. (1999) The structure of common mental disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 56: 921–926.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Maes, M., Vanderplanken, M., Stevens, W.J., Peeters, D., Declerck, L.S, Bridts, Ch., Schotte, C., Cosyns, P. (1992) Leukocytosis, monocytosis and neutrophilia - hallmarks of severe depression. J. Psychiat. Res., 26: 125–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Maestripieri, D. and Carroll, K.A. (1998) Child abuse and neglect: Usefulness of the animal data. Psychol Bull, 123: 211–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Marchand, W.E., Sarota, B., Marble, H.C., Leavy, T.M., burbank, C.B., and Bellinger, M.J. (1969) Occurrence of painless acute surgical disorders in psychotic patients. New Engl J.Med., 260–580.Google Scholar
  20. Marks, I. (1977) Clinical phenomena in search of laboratory models. In: Maser, J.D. and Seligman, M.E.P. (Eds.), Psychopathology: Experimental models. San Francisco: Freeman and Co., pp 174–213.Google Scholar
  21. McKinney, W. T., Jr., Suomi S. J. and Harlow H. F., (1972) Vertical-chamber confinement of juvenileage rhesus monkeys. A study in experimental psychopathology, Arch Gen Psychiatry. 26: 223–228.Google Scholar
  22. McKinney, W.T. (1988) Models of mental disorderrs. A new comparative psychiatry. New York: Plenum Medical Book Company.Google Scholar
  23. Miller, W.R, Rosellini, R.A, Seligman, M.E.P. (1977) Learned helplessnes and depression. In: Maser, J.D. and Seligman, M.E.P. (Eds.), Psychopathology: Experimental models. San Francisco: Freeman and Co., pp 105–130.Google Scholar
  24. Myslobodsky, M., and Mirsky A.F. (1988) Update on Petit Mal: The case for heterogeneity. In: Myslobodsky M., and Mirsky, A.F (eds), Elements of Petit Mall Epilepsy. Peter Lang: New York.Google Scholar
  25. Myslobodsky, M. and Valenstein, E. (1980) Amygdaloid kindling and the GABA system. Epilepsia 21: 163–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nagayma, H. (1999) Influences of biological rhythms on the effects of psychotropic drugs. Psychosomatic Med., 61: 618–628.Google Scholar
  27. Omitz, E.M., Hanna, G.L., de Traversay, J. (1992) Prestimulation-induced startle modulation in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and nocturnal enuresis. Psychophysiology, 29: 437–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Parent, A. and Ciccetti, F. (1998) The current model of basal ganglia organization under scrutiny. Mov Dis, 13: 1999–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pribram, K. H. (1961) Implications for systemic studies of behavior. In: D. E. Sheer, Electrical stimulation of the brain. Austin: Texas University Press, pp. 563–574.Google Scholar
  30. Rhodes, M. E. and Rubin, R. T. (1999) Functional sex differences (‘sexual diergism’) of central nervous system cholinergic systems, vasopressin, and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in mammals: a selective review. Behav Brain Res. 30: 135–152.Google Scholar
  31. Rizzolatti, G. and Arbib, M.A. (1998) Language within our grasp. TINs, 21: 188–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Rybakowski, J.K. (1999) The effect of lithium on the immune system. Human Psychophannacology, Clinical and Exp., 14: 345–353Google Scholar
  33. Schaeffer, J.M., Bergstrom, A.R., Frazier, E.G., Underwood, D. (1994) Nematocidal activity of MK-801 analogs and related drugs. Structure-activity relationships. Biochem Pharmacol. 48 (2): 411–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Simon, J.C. (1991) Regularities and singularities in line images. In: Watt, R.J. (Ed.), Pattern recognition by man and machine. CRC Press, Inc.: Boca Raton, pp. 98–106.Google Scholar
  35. Swerdlow, N.R., Braff, D.L., Hartston, H., Perry, W., Geyer, M.A. (1996) Latent inhibition in schizophrenia. Schiz Res. 20: 91–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Swerdlow, N.R., Hartston, H. J., Hartman, P. L. (1999) Enhanced visual latent inhibition in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biol Psychiatry 45: 482–488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Szabo, C. A., Wyllie, E., Doiske, M. et al. (1999) Epilepsy surgery in children with pervasive developmental disorder. Pediatr Neurol. 20: 349–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Taylor, S. (1978) Psychiatry and natural history. British Medical Journal, 2: 1754–1758.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ward, P., Sutherland, J., Glen, E., Glen, A.I., Horrobin, D.F. (1998) Niacin skin flush in schizophrenia: a preliminary report. Schizophrenia Res., 29: 296–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Weinberger, D. R. (1999) Cell biology of the hippocampal formation in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiat. 45: 395–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wilbur, J.S. (1990) PTSD in DSM-III: A case in the politics of diagnosis and disease. Social Problems, 37: 294–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Myslobodsky
  • Ina Weiner

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations