Parathyroid Hormone

  • Karen Kleeman
  • Charles R. Kleeman


Recent published work on parathyroid hormone (PTH) constitutes a record of steady progress along mostly familiar lines. Aspects of hormone synthesis and kinetics, effects on renal physiology, and the vitamin D-PTH interaction have become much clearer. A new classification of hypercalciurias and the role of PTH in their production has been presented. Radiation-induced hyperparathyroidism now seems an established entity, and hypertension secondary to hyperparathyroidism may be on the way to becoming one.


Parathyroid Hormone Parathyroid Gland Primary Hyperparathyroidism Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Parathyroid Adenoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Habener, J.F., Amherdt, M., and Orci, L., 1977, Subcellular organelles involved in the conversion of biosynthetic precursors of parathyroid hormone, Trans. Assoc. Amer. Phys. 90: 366–379.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Habener, J.F., Chang, H.T., and Potts, J.T., Jr., 1977, Enzymic processing of proparathyroid hormone by cell-free extracts of parathyroid glands, Biochemistry 16: 3910–3917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    MacGregor, R.R., Chu, L.L.H., and Cohn, D.V., 1976, Conversion of proparathyroid hormone to parathyroid hormone by a paniculate enzyme of the parathyroid gland, J. Biol. Chem. 251: 6711–6716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    MacGregor, R.R., Hamilton, J.W., and Cohn, D.V., 1975, The by-pass of tissue hormone stores during the secretion of newly synthesized parathyroid hormone, Endocrinology 97: 178–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Thiele, J., 1977, Human parathyroid gland: A freeze fracture and thin section study, Curr. Top. Pathol. 65: 31–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chanard, J., Black, R., Purkerson, M., Lewis, J., Klahr, S., and Slatopolsky, E., 1977, The effects of colchicine and vinblastine on parathyroid hormone secretion in the rat, Endocrinology 101: 1792–1800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chertow, B.S., Manke, D.J., Williams, G.A., Baker, G.R., Hargis, G.K., and Buschmann, R.J., 1977, Secretory and ultrastructural responses of hyperfunctioning human parathyroid tissues to varying calcium concentration and vinblastine, Lab. Invest. 36: 198–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Segre, G.V., Niall, H.D., Habener, J.F., and Potts, J.T., Jr., 1974, Metabolism of parathyroid hormone: Physiologic and clinical significance, Am. J. Med. 56: 774–784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Segre, G.V., D’Amour, P., and Potts, J.T., Jr., 1976, Metabolism of radioiodinated bovine parathyroid hormone in the rat, Endocrinology 99: 1645–1652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hunziker, W.H., Blum, J.W., and Fischer, J.A., 1977, Plasma kinetics of exogenous bovine parathyroid hormone in calves, Pfluegers. Arch. 371: 185–192.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Papapoulos, S.E., Hendy, G.N., Tomlinson, S., Lewin, I.G., and O’Riordan, J.L.H., 1977, Clearance of exogenous parathyroid hormone in normal and uraemic man, Clin. Endocrinol. 7: 211–225.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Martin, K., Hruska, K., Greenwalt, A., Klahr, A., and Slatopolsky, E., 1976, Selective uptake of intact parathyroid hormone by the liver: Differences between hepatic and renal uptake, J. Clin. Invest. 58: 781–788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hruska, K.A., Martin, K., Mennes, P., Greenwalt, A., Anderson, C., Klahr, S., and Slatopolsky, E., 1977, Degradation of parathyroid hormone and fragment production by the isolated perfused dog kidney: The effect of glomerular filtration rate and perfusate Ca++ concentrations, J. Clin. Invest. 60: 501–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Martin, K.J., Hruska, K.A., Lewis, J., Anderson, C., and Slatopolsky, E., 1977, The renal handling of parathyroid hormone: Role of peritubular uptake and glomerular filtration, J. Clin. Invest. 60: 808–814.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zull, J.E., Malbon, C.C., and Chuang, J., 1977, Binding of tritiated bovine parathyroid hormone to plasma membranes from bovine kidney cortex, J. Biol. Chem. 252: 1071–1078.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Marcus, R., and Aurbach, G.D., 1971, Adenyl cyclase from renal cortex, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 242: 410–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Canterbury, J.M., Bricker, L.A., Levey, G.S., Kozlovskis, P.L., Ruiz, E., Zull, J.E., and Reiss, E., 1975, Metabolism of bovine parathyroid hormone: Immunological and biological characteristics of fragments generated by liver perfusion, J. Clin. Invest. 55: 1245–1253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Malbon, C.C., and Zull, J.E., 1977, Studies of binding of parathyroid hormone to a detergent-dispersed preparation from bovine kidney cortex plasma membranes, J. Biol. Chem. 252: 1079–1083.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rosenblatt, M., and Potts, J.T., Jr., 1977, Design and synthesis of parathyroid hormone analogues of enhanced biological activity, Endocrine Res. Comm. 4: 115–133.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dennis, V.W., Bello-Reuss, E., and Robinson, R.R., 1977, Response of phosphate transport to parathyroid hormone in segments of rabbit nephron, Am. J. Physiol. 233: F29–F38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Knox, F.G., Greger, R.F., Lang, F.C., and Marchand, G.R., 1977, Renal handling of phosphate: Update, in: Advances in Phosphate Metabolism, Vol. 81 (S.G. Massry and E. Ritz, eds.), pp. 3–14, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Knox, F.G., Osswald, H., Marchand, G.R., Marchand, W.S., Spielman, J.A., Haas, T., Berndt, T., and Youngberg, S.P., 1977, Phosphate transport along the nephron, Am. J. Physiol. 233: F261–F268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ellsworth, R., and Nicholson, W.M., 1935, Further observations upon the changes in the electrolytes of the urine following the injection of parathyroid extract, J. Clin. Invest. 14: 823–827.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kleeman, C.R., and Cooke, R.E., 1951, The acute effects of parathyroid hormone on the metabolism of endogenous phosphate, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 38: 112–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nordin, B.E.C., 1960, The effect of intravenous parathyroid extract on urinary pH, bicarbonate and electrolyte excretion, Clin. Sci. 19: 311–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hellman, D.E., Au, W.Y.W., and Bartter, F.C., 1965, Evidence for a direct effect of parathyroid hormone on urinary acidification, Am. J. Physiol. 209: 643–650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Beck, L.H., and Goldberg, M., 1973, Effects of acetazolamide and parathyroidectomy on renal transport of sodium, calcium and phosphate, Am. J. Physiol. 224: 1136–1142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Beck, N., Kim, K.S., Wolak, M., and Davis, B.B., 1975, Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase by parathyroid hormone and cyclic AMP in rat renal cortex in vitro, J. Clin. Invest. 55: 149–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Uchikawa, T., Borle, A.B., and Midgett, R.J., 1976, Parathyroid hormone and phosphaturia, Calcif. Tissue Res. 21:(Suppl.) 284–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dennis, V.W., 1976, Influence of bicarbonate on parathyroid hormone-induced changes in fluid absorption by the proximal tubule, Kidney Int. 10: 373–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Knox, F.G., Haas, J.A., and Lechene, C.P., 1976, Effect of parathyroid hormone on phosphate reabsorption in the presence of acetazolamide, Kidney Int. 10: 216–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nascimento, L., Rademacher, D.R., Arruda, J.A.L., and Kurtzman, N.A., 1977, Effect of acetazolamide and parathyroid hormone on HCO3 and PO4 excretion, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 201: 243–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Arruda, J.A.L., Nascimento, L., Westenfelder, C., and Kurtzman, N.A., 1977, Effect of parathyroid hormone on urinary acidification, Am. J. Physiol. 232: F429–F433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Aurbach, H.D., Brown, E.M., and Marx, S.J., 1977, Receptors and cyclic nucleotides in secretion and action of parathyroid hormone, Calcif. Tissue Res. 22: (Suppl.) 117–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bijvoet, O.L.M., 1976, The importance of the kidney in phosphate homeostasis, in: Phosphate Metabolism: Kidney and Bone (L. Avioli, P. Bordier, H. Fleisch, S.G. Massry, and E. Slatopolsky, eds.), pp. 421–474, Nouvelle Imprimerie Fournie, Toulouse, France.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lau, K., Agus, Z.S., Goldberg, M., and Goldfarb, S., 1977, Chronic phosphate depletion: Changes in segmental calcium and phosphate reabsorption, Kidney Int. 12: 458.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Goldfarb, S., Westby, G.R., Goldberg, M., and Agus, Z.S., 1977, Renal tubular effects of chronic phosphate depletion, J. Clin. Invest. 59: 770–779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Costanzo, L.S., and Windhager, E.E., 1977, In vivo microperfusion study of calcium (Ca) and sodium (Na) transport in the distal convoluted tubule, Kidney Int. 12: 456.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bonjour, J.P., Preston, C., and Fleisch, H., 1977, Effect of 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 on the renal handling of P1 in thyroparathyroidectomized rats, J. Clin. Invest. 60: 1419–1428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sutton, R.A.L., and Dirks, J.H., 1977, Renal handling of calcium: Overview, in: Advances in Phosphate Metabolism, Vol. 81 (S.G. Massry and E. Ritz, eds.), pp. 15–27, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chabardès, D., Imbert, M., Clique, A., Montégut, M., and Morel, F., 1975, PTH-sensitive adenyl cyclase activity in different segments of the rabbit nephron, Pfluegers Arch. 354: 229–239.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Agus, Z.S., Chiu, P.J.S., and Goldberg, M., 1977, Regulation of urinary calcium excretion in the rat, Am. J. Physiol. 232: F545–549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Humes, H.D., Ichikawa, I., Troy, J.L., Anderson, A.J., and Brenner, B.M., 1977, Influence of calcium on the determinants of glomerular ultra-filtration, Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians 90: 228–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ichikawa, I., Humes, H.D., and Brenner, B.M., 1977, Evidence for a glomerular action of parathormone in the rat, Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians 90: 248–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gerblich, A.A., Genuth, S.M., and Haddad, J.G., Jr., 1977, A case of idiopathic hypoparathyroidism and dietary vitamin D deficiency: The requirement for calcium and vitamin D for bone, but not renal responsiveness to PTH, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 44: 507–513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Madsen, S., Ølgaard, K., and Ladefoged, J., 1976, 1-Alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol-induced changes in the renal handling of phosphate and the serum parathyroid hormone level, Acta Med. Scand. 200: 351–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Madsen, S., Ølgaard, K., and Thaysen, J.H., 1977, The effect of 1-α-hydroxycholecalciferol on the renal handling of phosphate in parathyroidectomized man, Acta Med. Scand. 202: 23–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Luben, R.A., Wong, G.L., and Cohn, D.V., 1976, Biochemical characterization with parathormone and calcitonin of isolated bone cells: Provisional identification of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, Endocrinology 99: 526–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wong, G.L., Luben, R.A., and Cohn, D.V., 1977, 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol and parathormone: Effects on isolated osteoclast-like and osteoblast-like cells, Science 197: 663–665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Scully, R.E., Galdabini, J.J., and McNeely, B.U., 1978, Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital: Weekly clinicopathological exercises, case 4, N. Engl. J. Med. 298: 266–274.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rizzoli, R., Fleisch, H., and Bonjour, J.P., 1977, Effect of thyroparathyroidectomy on calcium metabolism in rats: Role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, Am. J. Physiol. 223: E160–E164.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Jensen, P.S., and Kliger, A.S., 1977, Early radiographic manifestations of secondary hyperparathyroidism associated with chronic renal disease, Radiology 125: 645–652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Herrmann-Erlee, M.P.M., Hekkelman, J.W., Heersche, J.N.M., and Nijweide, P.J., 1975, The role of Ca2+ and cyclic AMP in the action of parathyroid hormone on embryonic bone in vitro, J. Endocrinol. 64: 69P.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Drüeke, T., Bordier, P.J., Man, N.K., Jungers, P., and Marie, P., 1977, Effects of high dialysate calcium concentration on bone remodeling, serum biochemistry, and parathyroid hormone in patients with renal osteodystrophy, Kidney Int. 11: 267–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wecksler, W.R., Henry, H.L., and Norman, A.W., 1977, Studies on the mode of action of calciferol: Subcellular localization of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in chicken parathyroid glands, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 183: 168–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Altenähr, E., Dietel, M., Dorn, G., and Montz, R., 1977, The effect of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on the parathyroid hormone secretion of porcine parathyroid glands and human parathyroid adenomas in vitro, Acta Endocrinol. 86: 533–538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Llach, F., Coburn, J.W., Brickman, A.S., Kurokawa, K., Norman, A.W., Canterbury, J.M., and Reiss, E., 1977, Acute actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in normal man: Effect on calcium and parathyroid status, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 44: 1054–1060.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Arieff, A.I., and Massry, S.G., 1974, Calcium metabolism of brain in acute renal failure: Effects of uremia, hemodialysis, and parathyroid hormone, J. Clin. Invest. 53: 387–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Guisado, R., Arieff, A.I., and Massry, S.G., 1975, Changes in the electroencephalogram in acute uremia: Effects of parathyroid hormone and brain electrolytes, J. Clin. Invest. 55: 738–745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Cogan, M., Covey, C., Arieff, A., Lazarowitz, V., Wisniewski, A., and Clark, O., 1977, Effects of hyperparathyroidism on the central nervous system, Kidney Int. 12: 455.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Carman, J.S., Post, R.M., Goodwin, F.K., and Bunney, W.E., Jr., 1977, Calcium and electroconvulsive therapy of severe depressive illness, Biol. Psychiatry 12: 5–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Massry, S.G., 1977, Is parathyroid hormone a uremic toxin?, Nephron 19: 125–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ball, J.H., Butkus, D.E., and Madison, D.S., 1977, Effect of subtotal parathyroidectomy on dialysis dementia, Nephron 18: 151–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Dousa, T.P., Barnes, L.D., Ong, S.H., and Steiner, A.L., 1977, Immunohistochemical localization of 3′:5′-cyclic AMP and 3′:5′-cyclic GMP in rat renal cortex: Effect of parathyroid hormone, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74: 3569–3573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Davidovitch, Z., Montgomery, P.C., and Shanfeld, J.L., 1977, Cellular localization and concentration of bone cyclic nucleotides in response to acute PTE administration, Calcif. Tissue Res. 24: 81–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Horiuchi, N., Suda, T., Takahashi, H., Shimazawa, E., and Ogata, E., 1977, In vivo evidence for the intermediary role of 3′,5′-cyclic AMP in parathyroid hormone-induced stimulation of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 synthesis in rats, Endocrinology 101: 969–974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kurokawa, K., Lenchner, G., and Massry, S.G., 1977, Interaction between parathyroid hormone and catecholamines on renal cortical cyclic AMP, Nephron 18: 60–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ong, S.H., Whitley, T.H., Stowe, N.W., and Steiner, A.L., 1975, Immunohistochemical localization of 3′:5′-cyclic AMP and 3′:5′-cyclic GMP in rat liver, intestine, and testis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72: 2022–2026.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Steiner, A.L., Ong, S.H., and Wedner, H.J., 1976, Cyclic nucleotide immunohistochemistry, Adv. Cyclic Nucleotide Res. 7: 115–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Davidovitch, Z., Montgomery, P.C., and Shanfeld, J.L., 1977, Guanosine 3′:5′-monophosphate in bone: Microscopic visualization by an immunohistochemical technique, Calcif. Tissue Res. 24: 73–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Spiegel, A.M., and Aurbach, G.D., 1974, Binding of 5′-guanylyl-imidodiphosphate to turkey erythrocyte membranes and effects of β-adrenergic activated adenylate cyclase, J. Biol. Chem. 249: 7630–7636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Rodbell, M., Lin, M.C., Salomon, Y., Londos, C., Harwood, J.P., Martin, B.R., Rendell, M., and Berman, M., 1974, The role of adenine and guanine nucleotides in the activity and response of adenylate cyclase systems to hormones: Evidence for multi-site transition states, Acta Endocrinol. 77(Suppl. 191): 11–37.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Schramm, M., and Rodbell, M., 1975, A persistent active state of the adenylate cyclase system produced by the combined actions of isoproterenol and guanylyl-imidodiphosphate in frog erythrocyte membranes, J. Biol. Chem. 250: 2232–2237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hunt, N.H., Martin, T.J., Michelangeli, V.P., and Eisman, J.A., 1976, Effect of guanyl nucleotides on parathyroid hormone-responsive adenylate cyclase in chick kidney, J. Endocrinol. 69: 401–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Michelangeli, V.P., Hunt, N.H., and Martin, T.J., 1977, States of activation of chick kidney adenylate cyclase induced by parathyroid hormone and guanyl nucleotides, J. Endocrinol. 72: 69–79.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Werner, S., and Löw, H., 1977, Urinary excretion of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in primary hyperparathyroidism with reference to clinical signs and symptoms, Horm. Metab. Res. 9: 332–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Streeto, J.M., 1969, Renal cortical adenyl cyclase: Effect of parathyroid hormone and calcium, Metabolism 18: 968–973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Popovtzer, M.M., Flis, R.S., Mehandru, S.K., and Blum, M., 1977, Effect of divalent cation ionophore (A 23187) on renal handling of phosphorus, Kidney Int. 12: 164–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Rasmussen, H., and Goodman, D.B.P., 1977, Relationships between calcium and cyclic nucleotides in cell activation, Physiol. Rev. 57: 421–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Habener, J.F., Kemper, B., and Potts, J.T., Jr., 1975, Calcium-dependent intracellular degradation of parathyroid hormone: A possible mechanism for the regulation of hormone stores, Endocrinology 97: 431–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Habener, J.F., Stevens, T.D., Ravazzola, M., Orci, L., and Potts, J.T., Jr., 1977, Effects of calcium ionophores on the synthesis and release of parathyroid hormone, Endocrinology 101: 1524–1537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Brown, E.M., Hurwitz, S., Woodard, C.J., and Aurbach, G.D., 1977, Direct identification of beta-adrenergic receptors on isolated bovine parathyroid cells, Endocrinology 100: 1703–1709.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Brown, E.M., Hurwitz, S., and Aurbach, G.D., 1977, Beta-adrenergic stimulation of cyclic AMP content and parathyroid hormone release from isolated bovine parathyroid cells, Endocrinology 100: 1696–1702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Brown, E.M., Carroll, R.J., and Aurbach, G.D., 1977, Dopaminergic stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation and parathyroid hormone release from dispersed bovine parathyroid cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74: 4210–4213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Araki, N., Nagata, N., and Kimura, N., 1977, Effects of parathyroid hormone and prostaglandin E1 in vitro on release of cyclic AMP from kidney cortical tissue, Endocrinol. Jpn. 24: 581–587.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Habener, J.F., 1976, New concepts in the formation, regulation of release, and metabolism of parathyroid hormone, in: Polypeptide Hormones: Molecular and Cellular Aspects, pp. 197–224, Elsevier/Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam and New York.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Birnbaumer, M.E., Schneider, A.B., Palmer, D., Hanley, D.A., and Sherwood, L.M., 1977, Secretion of parathyroid hormone by abnormal human parathyroid glands in vitro, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 45: 105–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Dietel, M., Dorn, G., Montz, R., and Altenähr, E., 1977, The effect of calcium and dibutyryl-cAMP on the secretion of parathyroid hormone by human parathyroid adenomas in organ culture, Acta Endocrinol. 85: 541–547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bouillon, R., and De Moor, P., 1977, Parathyroid hormone secretion in primary hyperparathyroidism, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 45: 261–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Monchik, J.M., Wray, H.L., Schaaf, M., and Earll, J.M., 1977, Nonautonomy of parathyroid hormone and urinary cyclic AMP in primary hyperparathyroidism, Am. J. Surg. 133: 498–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Badder, E.M., Graham, W.P., III, and Harrison, T.S., 1977, Functional insignificance of microscopic parathyroid hyperplasia, Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 145: 863–868.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Fialkow, P.J., Jackson, C.E., Block, M.A., and Greenawald, K.A., 1977, Multicellular origins of parathyroid “adenomas,” N. Engl. J. Med. 297: 696–698.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Dinnen, J.S., Greenwood, R.H., Jones, J.H., Walker, D.A., and Williams, E.D., 1977, Parathyroid carcinoma in familial hyperparathyroidism, J. Clin. Pathol. 30: 966–975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Okerlund, M.D., Beckmann, A., Galante, M., and Hunt, T., 1978, Radiation-induced parathyroid tumors following head and neck radiation in childhood, Clin. Res. 26: 191A.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Tisell, L.-E., Hannson, G., Lindberg, S., and Ragnhult, I., 1977, Hyperparathyroidism in persons treated with X-rays for tuberculous cervical adenitis, Cancer 40: 846–854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Pritchard, M.H., and Jessop, J.D., 1977, Chondrocalcinosis in primary hyperparathyroidism, Ann. Rheum. Dis. 36: 146–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rollinson, R.D., and Gilligan, B.S., 1977, Primary hyperparathyroidism presenting as a proximal myopathy, Aust. N.Z.J. Med. 7: 420–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Broadus, A.E., Hanson, T.A.S., Bartter, F.C., and Walton, J., 1977, Primary hyperparathyroidism presenting as anticonvulsant-induced osteomalacia, Am. J. Med. 63: 298–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ljunghall, S., Hedstrand, H., Hellsing, K., and Wibell, L., 1977, Calcium, phosphate and albumin in serum, Acta Med. Scand. 201: 23–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Christensson, T., Hellstrom, K., and Wengle, B., 1977, Hypercalcemia and primary hyperparathyroidism, Arch. Intern. Med. 137: 1138–1142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Christensson, T., Hellstrom, K., and Wengle, B., 1977, Blood pressure in subjects with hypercalcemia and primary hyperparathyroidism detected in a health screening programme, Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 7: 109–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Boxer, M., Ellman, L., Geller, R., and Wang, C.-A., 1977, Anemia in primary hyperparathyroidism, Arch. Intern. Med. 137: 588–590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Levi, J., Bessler, H., Hirsch, I., and Djaldetti, M., 1977, The inhibitory effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on RNA and heme synthesis, Kidney Int. 12: 527.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Coffey, R.J., Lee, T.C., and Canary, J.J., 1977, The surgical treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism: A 20 year experience, Ann. Surg. 185: 518–523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Gray, R.W., Wilz, D.R., Caldas, A.E., and Lemann, J., Jr., 1977, The importance of phosphate in regulating plasma 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D levels in humans: Studies in healthy subjects, in calcium-stone formers and in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 45: 299–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kaplan, R.A., Haussler, M.R., Deftos, L.J., Bone, H., and Pak, C.Y.C., 1977, The role of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the mediation of intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium in primary hyperparathyroidism and absorptive hypercalciuria, J. Clin. Invest. 59: 756–760.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Shen, F.H., Baylink, D.J., Nielsen, R.L., Sherrard, D.J., Ivey, J.L., and Haussier, M.R., 1977, Increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in idiopathic hypercalciuria, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 90: 955–962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Transbøl, I., 1977, On the diagnosis of so-called normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism, Acta Med. Scand. 202: 481–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Bordier, P., Ryckewart, A., Gueris, J., and Rasmussen, H., 1977, On the pathogenesis of idiopathic hypercalciuria, Am. J. Med. 63: 398–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Shaw, J.W., Oldham, S.B., Rosoff, L., Bethune, J.E., and Fichman, M.P., 1977, Urinary cyclic AMP analyzed as a function of the serum calcium and parathyroid hormone in the differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia, J. Clin. Invest. 59: 14–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Broadus, A.E., Mahaffey, J.E., Bartter, F.C., and Neer, R.M., 1977, Nephrogenous cyclic adenosine monophosphate as a parathyroid function test, J. Clin. Invest. 60: 771–783.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Walker, D.A., Davies, S.J., Siddle, K., and Woodhead, J.S., 1977, Control of renal tubular phosphate reabsorption by parathyroid hormone in man, Clin. Sci. Mol. Med. 53: 431–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Pena, J.C., Guerrero, J., Erbessd, M.L., Quiroz, S., and Jaime Herrera, A., 1977, Total dietary phosphorus deprivation (TPD) in normal subjects (NS) and in patients with hyper (HP) and hypoparathyroidism (HPO), Kidney Int. 12: 459.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Transbøl, I., Schønau Jørgensen, F., Hornum, I., and Keiding, N., 1977, Hypercalcaemia discrimination index: A multivariate analysis of parathyroid function in 107 hypercalcaemic patients, Acta Endocrinol. 86: 768–783.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Flueck, J.A., DiBella, F.P., Edis, A.J., Kehrwald, J.M., and Arnaud, C.D., 1977, Immunoheterogeneity of parathyroid hormone in venous effluent serum from hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands, J. Clin. Invest. 60: 1367–1375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Wang, C.-A., 1977, Parathyroid re-exploration: A clinical and pathological study of 112 cases, Ann. Surg. 186: 140–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Purnell, D.C., Scholz, D.A., and Beahrs, O.H., 1977, Hyperparathyroidism due to single gland enlargement, Arch. Surg. 112: 369–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Brennan, M.F., Brown, E.M., Sears, H.F., and Aurbach, G.D., 1978, Human parathyroid cryopreservation: In vitro testing of function by parathyroid hormone release, Ann. Surg. 187: 87–90.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Slatopolsky, E., Rutherford, W.E., Hruska, K., Martin, K., and Klahr, S., 1978, How important is phosphate in the pathogenesis of renal osteodystrophy?, Arch. Intern. Med. 138: 848–852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Massry, S.G., and Ritz, E., 1978, The pathogenesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism of renal failure: Is there a controversy?, Arch. Intern. Med. 138: 853–856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Jensen, P.S., and Kliger, A.S., 1977, Early radiographic manifestations of secondary hyperparathyroidism associated with chronic renal disease, Radiology 125: 645–652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Debnam, J.W., Bates, M.L., Kopelman, R.C., and Teitelbaum, S.L., 1977, Radiological/pathological correlations in uremic bone disease, Radiology 125: 653–658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Fletcher, P.D., Scopp, I.W., and Hersh, R.A., 1977, Oral manifestations of secondary hyperparathyroidism related to long-term hemodialysis therapy, Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. 43: 218–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Chatterjee, S.N., Friedler, R.M., Bergen, T.V., Oldham, S.B., Singer, F.R., and Massry, S.G., 1976, Persistent hypercalcemia after successful renal transplantation, Nephron 17: 1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Christensen, M.S., and Nielsen, H.E., 1977, The clinical significance of hyperparathyroidism after renal transplantation, Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol. 42(Suppl.): 130–133.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Pieper, R., Alveryd, A., Lundgren, G., Collste, H., Magnusson, G., Svahn, T., and Groth, C.G., 1977, Secondary hyperparathyroidism and its sequelae in renal transplant recipients, Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol. 42(Suppl.): 144–148.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Geis, W.P., Popovtzer, M.M., Corman, J.L., Halgrimson, C.G., Groth, C.G., and Starzl, T.E., 1973, The diagnosis and treatment of hyperparathyroidism after renal homotransplantation, Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 137: 997–1010.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Lundgren, G., Asaba, M., Magnusson, G., Pieper, R., and Alveryd, A., 1977, The role of parathyroidectomy in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism before and after renal transplantation, Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol. 42(Suppl.): 149–152.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Rose, G.A., and Vas, C.J., 1966, Neurological complications and electroen-cephalographic changes in hypoparathyroidism, Acta Neurol. Scand. 42: 537–550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Fonesca, O.A., and Calverley, J.R., 1967, Neurological manifestations of hypoparathyroidism, Arch. Intern. Med. 120: 202–206.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Luttwig, G., 1903, Ein Fall von Chronischer Tetanie (dissertation), Munich.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Palmer, R.F., Searles, H.H., and Boldrey, E.B., 1959, Papilledema and hypoparathyroidism simulating brain tumor, J. Neurosurg. 16: 378–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Grant, D.K., 1953, Papilloedema and fits in hypoparathyroidism, Q.J. Med. 22: 243–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Sambrook, M.A., and Hill, L.F., 1977, Cerebrospinal fluid absorption in primary hypoparathyroidism, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 40: 1015–1017.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Drezner, M.K., Neelon, F.A., Haussler, M., McPherson, H.T., and Lebovitz, A.E., 1976, 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol deficiency: The probable cause of hypocalcemia and metabolic bone disease in pseudohypoparathyroidism, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 42: 621–628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Metz, S.A., Baylink, D.J., Hughes, M.R., Haussler, M.R., and Robertson, R.P., 1977, Selective deficiency of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol: A cause of isolated skeletal resistance to parathyroid hormone, N. Engl. J. Med. 297: 1084–1090.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Williams, A.J., Wilkinson, J.L., and Taylor, W.H., 1977, Pseudohypoparathyroidism: Variable manifestations within a family, Arch. Dis. Child. 52: 798–800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Connors, M.H., Irias, J.J., and Golabi, M., 1977, Hypo-hyperparathyroidism: Evidence for a defective parathyroid hormone, Pediatrics 60: 343–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Wiegmann, T., and Kaye, M., 1977, Hypomagnesemic hypocalcemia, Arch. Intern. Med. 137: 953–955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Gabow, P.A., Hanson, T.J., Popovtzer, M.M., and Schrier, R.W., 1977, Furosemide-induced reduction in ionized calcium in hypoparathyroid patients, Ann. Intern. Med. 86: 579–581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Drezner, M.K., Neelon, F.A., Jowsey, J., and Lebovitz, H.E., 1977, Hypoparathyroidism: A possible cause of osteomalacia, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 45: 114–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Chesney, R.W., Horowitz, S.D., Kream, B.E., Eisman, J.A., Hong, R., and DeLuca, H.F., 1977, Failure of conventional doses of 1α,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol to correct hypocalcemia in a girl with idiopathic hypoparathyroidism, N. Engl. J. Med. 297: 1272–1275.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karen Kleeman
    • 1
  • Charles R. Kleeman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of MedicineBeth Israel HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.Division of Nephrology, Department of MedicineUniversity of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine and Center for the Health SciencesLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations