Water Reducing Chemical Admixtures

  • Vance H. Dodson


The author has chosen to discuss water reducing admixtures (WRAs) first because their volume of use in concrete is the largest of the chemical admixtures . This class of chemical admixtures permits the use of less water to obtain the same slump (a measure of consistency or workability), or the attainment of a higher slump, at a given water content, or the use of less portland cement to realize the same compressive strength. Their effects on the physical properties are specified in ASTM C494 [1]. The theoretical water-cement ratio ranges from 0.27 to 0.32, depending upon the composition of the portland cement and the individual doing the theoretical calculations. The amount of water in excess of this ratio is often called “water of convenience,” in that it makes it more convenient to mix, transport, place, and finish the concrete.


Portland Cement Calcium Sulfate Plain Concrete Cement Particle Water Reduce 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    ASTM C494, “Standard Specification for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete,” Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02, pp. 245–252 (1988).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Blank, B. , Rossington, D. R. , Weinland, L. A. , “Adsorption of Admixtures on Portland Cement,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 46, No. 8, pp. 395–399 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Mark, J. G., “Concrete and Hydraulic Cement,” U. S. Patent, No. 2,141,570, Dec. 17 (1938).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Scripture, E. W., “Cement Mix,” U. S. Patent, No. 2,169,980, Aug. 15 (1939).Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Tucker, G. R., “Amine Salts of Aromatic Sulfonic Acids,” U. S. Patent, No. 2,052,586, Sept. (1936).Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Dodson, V. H., Hayden, T. D. , “Another look at the Portland Cement/Chemical Admixture Incompatibility Problem,” Cement, Concrete, and Aggregates, CCAGDP, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 52–56, Summer (1989) .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Manabe, T. , Kawada, N., “Abnormal Setting of Cement Paste Owing to Calcium Lignosulfonate,” Semento Konkurito, No. 162, pp. 24–27 (1960).Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    ASTM C359, “Standard Test Method for Early Stiffening of Portland Cement (Mortar Method),” Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.01, pp. 270–273 (1986) .Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Hansen, W. C. , Hunt, J. D. , “The Use of Natural Anhydrite in Portland Cement,” ASTM Bulletin, No. 161 pg. 50–58 (1949).Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    ASTM C157, “Standard Test Method for Length Change of Hardened Hydraulic-Cement Mortar and Concrete,” Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02, pp. 97–101 (1988).Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Kalousek, G. L. , Jumper, C. H. , Tregoning, J. J. , “Composition and Physical Properties of Aqueous Extracts from Portland Cement Clinker Pastes Containing Added Materials,” Journal of Research, National Bureau of Standards, Vol. 30, pp. 215–225 (1943) .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Odler, I. , Becker, T. , “The Effect of Some Liquifying Agents on Properties and Hydration of Portland Cement and Tricalcium Silicate Pastes,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 10, pp. 321–331 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Sakai, E. , Raina, K., Asaga, K. , Goto, S. , Kondo, R. , “Influence of Sodium Aromatic Sulfonates on the Hydration of Tricalcium Aluminate With or Without Gypsum,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 10, pp. 311–319 (1980) .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Ramachandran, V. S. , “Adsorption and Hydration Behavior of Tricalcium Aluminate-Water and Tricalcium Aluminate-Gypsum-Water Systems in the Presence of Superplasticizers,” Journal of American Concrete Institute, pp. 235–241 (1983).Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Bruere, G. M., “Importance of Mixing Sequence When Using Set-Retarding Agents with Portland Cement,” Nature, Vol. 199, pp. 32 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Dodson, V. H. , Farkas, E. , “Delayed Addition of Set Retarding Admixtures to Portland Cement Concrete,” Proceedings, American Society for Testing and Materials, Vol. 64, pp. 816–826 (1965).Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Dodson, V. H. , “History of Darex Admixtures,” Construction Products Div., W. R. Grace & Co . , In-house Publication, pp. 2–3 (1986) .Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Burnett, I., “High Strength Concrete in Melbourne, Australia,” Concrete International, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 17–25 (1989) .Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    ACI Committee 439, “Uses and Limitations of High Strength Steel Reinforcement,” American Concrete Institute, R-73, (1973) .Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Smith, G. L., Rad, F. N., “Economic Advantages of High-Strength Concretes in Columns,” Concrete International, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 37–43 (1989).Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Madderom, F. M. , “Excess Water Can Be a Costly Ingredient in Concrete,” Concrete Construction, pg. 340 (1980) .Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Basile, F. , Biagini, S. , Ferrari, G. , Collepardi, M. , “Effect of the Gypsum State in Industrial Cements on the Action of Superplasticizers,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 17, No. 5, pp. 715–722, Sept. (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    ASTM C143, “Standard Test Method for Slump of Portland Cement Concrete,” Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02, pp. 85–86 (1988).Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Ravina, D. , Mor, A. , “Consistency of Concrete Mixes-Effects of Superplasticizers,” Concrete International, pp. 53–55 July (1986).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vance H. Dodson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations