The Effects of Switching from Coal to Alternative Fuels on Heavy Metals Emissions from Cement Manufacturing

  • Arun B. Mukherjee
  • Ursula Kääntee
  • Ron Zevenhoven


The total generation of scrap car tires throughout the world is estimated at 1000 million pieces per year which presents economic, environmental treatment and disposal problems. In the European Union, the estimated generation of scrap car tires is about 180 million per year of which 65% should be recycled by the member states. In Fnnand, the recovery percentage is about 90. There are many ways scrap car tires can be reused and these may include heat and power production, road construction, landfills, protection of sea shores from waves and so on. A cement production plant at the south-west coast of Finland has replaced traditional fossil fuel (coal and petcoke) by 10% scrap car tires. Car tires contain heavy metals. This study focuses on how toxic elements Hg and Tl can be captured as particulates in presence of Mn and Cr oxides. The shifting of gaseous phases of metals to particulate forms is more beneficial for the ecosystem because metal-containing particulates are more easily seperatable from the gas stream by the emission control equipments.


Alternative Fuel Cement Plant Waste Tire Tire Scrap Cement Manufacturing 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arun B. Mukherjee
    • 1
  • Ursula Kääntee
    • 2
  • Ron Zevenhoven
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Limnology and Environmental ProtectionUniversity of HelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.Finnsementti OyParainenFinland
  3. 3.Energy Engineering and Environmental ProtectionHelsinki University of TechnologyEśpooFinland

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