The Feasibility of Cryogenic Freeze-Out for Control of Atmospheric Trace Contaminants in Manned Spacecraft

  • J. C. Ballinger
  • E. J. Russ
  • W. J. Sevier
Conference paper


Among the problems which must be considered for long-term manned space flight, gaseous contaminant control may be one of the most important. Early space cabin simulators were so leaky that the regular changeover of air did not allow the problem to show itself. The Mercury flights presented no contamination problem because they were of short duration and the cabin had a relatively high leakage rate of about two pounds per day. However, as longer missions require that space cabins become more airtight, trace contaminants in the cabin atmosphere may well prove to be a serious problem. Empirical data is meager on the long-term effects of the many possible contaminants on man and applicable theories concerning toxicity are lacking. Further, the procurement of additional data on long-term metabolic toxic limits can become a tremendous task.


Pressure Drop Heat Exchanger Outlet Temperature Inlet Concentration Contamination Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. 1.
    Drake, G. L. et al: Final Technical Report, Feasibility Study of Freeze-out Techniques for Contaminant Control Within Manned Spacecraft Atmospheres, NASA Contract NAS1–5625, General Dynamics Convair Report No. 64–26243, May 1966Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Missile and Space Systems Division, Douglas Aircraft Co.: Report on the Optimization of the Manned Orbital Research Laboratory ( VRL) System Concept, Volumes I-XXVII, September 1964.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Platt, V. R.: Chemical Constituents of Submarine Atmospheres, Chapter I, pp 15–24 in NRL Report 5465, The Present Status of Chemical Research in Atmosphere Purification and Control on Nuclear Powered Submarines, Washington, D. C., 21 April 1960.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Saunders, R. A.: Analysis of the Spacecraft Atmosphere, NRL Report 5816, 23 October 1962.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    NASA Report CR-134: Manned Environmental System Assessment, November 1964.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    McKee, H. C.: Gas Chromatographic Measurement of Trace Contaminants in a Simulated Space Cabin, NASA TN D-1825, March 1963.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Saunders, R. A.: Atmospheric Contamination in the AMRL Environmental Test Chamber, NRL Letter Serial No. 6110–224A:RAS:bs, 1963.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bolles, T. V.: Atmospheric Contaminant Control Subsystem Evaluation for Space Flights of One Year Duration, GDC Report 64–26204, 18 October 1963.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Spangler, E. R.: Biological Problems of Extended Manned Missions, AIAA Fourth Manned Space Flight Meeting, pp 80–90, 1965.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Huber, D. D.; and Jackson, T. D.: An Introduction to Trace Contaminant Control Problems, presented at the Symposium on Trace Contaminant Control in a Closed Environment, 58th Annual Meeting, AIChE, December 1965.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists: Threshold Limit Values for 1964.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sax, N. I.: Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, Reinhold Publishing Company, New York, 1957.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stokinger, H. E.: Validity and Hazards of Extrapolating Threshold Limit Values to Continuous Exposures, presented at the Symposium on Toxicity in the Closed Ecological System, Palo Alto, California, July 1963.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dodge, B. F.: Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, pp 249–250, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1944.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chemical Rubber Publishing Company: Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 46th Edition, 1965.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lange, A. L.: Handbook of Chemistry, 10th Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1961.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    McKee, H. C.: A Study of Trace Contaminants in Enclosed Systems, Contract NASw-150, N62–10068, 31 January 1962.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ballinger, J. C. and Christensen, E. H.: Environmental Control Study of Space Vehicles, Part II, ERR-AN-016, General Dynamics Convair, January 1961.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    General Dynamics Convair: Investigation and Analysis of the Application of a Heat Pump in Thermal Control Systems for Manned Spacecraft, Report 65–120, Revised, August 1965.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1967

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. C. Ballinger
    • 1
  • E. J. Russ
    • 1
  • W. J. Sevier
    • 1
  1. 1.Convair Division of General DynamicsSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations