Flow Properties of Blood under Low Shear Rate

  • A. W. Rahn
  • Chi Tien
  • L. C. Cerny

Abstract

The determination of the flow properties of blood was carried out over a range of shear rates (3 × 10−3 to 3 × 103 sec.−1) using a Weissenberg Rheogoniometer. The hematocrit of the samples ranged from 39 percent to 63 percent. Plots of viscosity as a function of shear rate on log-log scale clearly demonstrated the non-Newtonian behavior of blood, a higher hematocrit resulting in an upward displacement of the curve. For a normal value of hematocrit (H ≈ 45%), the log viscosity versus log shear rate curve consists of three regions, a representation supported by the theory that blood consists of aggregates of blood cells whose size is related to the applied shear. At low values of shear rate (σ < 10−2sec−1), where the applied stress is only of sufficient magnitude to orient the aggregates to the shear field, the linear nature of the plot suggests that blood may be represented as a power-law fluid. In the region 10−2 < σ < 103, the curve is non-linear, and the stress probably results in a breaking down of the aggregates. At high shear rates (σ > 103), blood behaves as a Newtonian fluid, due to the fact that the aggregates are destroyed and the blood cells behave as individuals.

A Hydroxyethyl Starch solution was substituted for five and ten percent aliquots of plasma in the whole blood sample to determine the effect on the viscosity-shear rate relationship. No significant changes were observed.
Table 1

Previous Investigations on the Flow Properties of Blood

Investigator

Mammel

Range of σ(or τw)

Viscometer*

Bayliss (1)

Dog

τw ≥ 1

cap.

Bugliarells & Hayden (2)

Human

12.8 − 200

cap.

Cerney (3)

Dog

5 − 750

cap.

Charm & Kurland (4)

Dog

300 − 104

cap.

  

11 − 230

c-p

Charm & Kurland (5)

Human

100 − 105

c-p

Charm and Kurland (6)

Human

11

c-p

Chien et al (7)

Human

10−2 − 50

GDM

Cokelet, Merrill et al (8)

Human

10−1 − 10−2

GDM

Dintenfass (10,11)

Human

10−1 − 10−2

c-c

Dintenfass (12)

Human

.1 − 500

c-c

Galluzzi et al (13)

Human

11 − 230

c-p

Gregersen et al (14)

Human

0.2 − 230

c-p

   

Couette

Gregersen et al (15)

Human

.05 − 100

GDM

Haynes (16)

Human

High flow

cap.

Hershey & Cho (17)

Human

5

cap.

Mayer & Kiss (18)

Human

Const. flow

cap.

Merrill et al (19)

Human

.02 − 200

cap.

Merrill et al (20,21,22)

Human

.01 − 75

GDM

Reemtsna & Greech (24)

Dog

 

Ultrasonic

Virgilio et al (25)

Dog

 

cap.

Wells et al (26,23)

Human

10 − 130

c-p

Wells et al (27)

Human

0.1 − 20

GDM

Keywords

Shear Rate Flow Property High Shear Rate Gear Setting Hydroxyethyl Starch Solution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1967

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. W. Rahn
    • 1
  • Chi Tien
    • 1
  • L. C. Cerny
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering and MetallurgySyracuse UniversitySyracuseUSA
  2. 2.Utica CollegeSyracuse UniversityUticaUSA

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