Is Cytoplasm Intelligent Too?

  • Guenter Albrecht-Buehler


Ever since modern computers arrived on the scene, the concept of “intelligence” has been greatly demystified and replaced by “data processing capacity.” Even the last bastions of mystical meaning in the word “intelligence,” namely the aspects of “creativity” and “awareness,” are being secularized. Computerists are exploring whether the use of look-up tables, tree searches, and pseudo-random number generators can replace the old-fashioned, mystical terms.


Basal Body Metachronal Wave Enucleated Cell Liquid Computer Cellular Data Processor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adler, J., 1969, Chemoreceptors in bacteria, Science 166:1588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albrecht-Buehler, G., 1976, Filopodia of spreading 3T3 cells. Do they have a substrate exploring function?, J. Cell Biol 69:275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albrecht-Buehler, G., 1977, Daughter 3T3 cells. Are they mirror images of each other?, J. Cell. Biol 72:595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Albrecht-Buehler, G., 1979a, The angular distribution of directional changes of guided 3T3 cells, J. Cell Biol 80:53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Albrecht-Buehler, G., 1979b, Group locomotion of PtKl cells, Exp. Cell. Res. 122:402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Albrecht-Buehler, G., 1980, Autonomous movements of cytoplasmic fragments, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 77:6639.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Albrecht-Buehler, G., 1981, Does the geometric design of centrioles imply their function?, Cell Motil 1:237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Albrecht-Buehler, G., and Bushnell, A., 1979, The orientation of centrioles in migrating 3T3 cells, Exp. Cell. Res. 120:111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Albrecht-Buehler, G., and Bushnell, A., 1982, Reversible compression of cytoplasm, Exp. Cell Res. 140:173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Allen, R. D., Zacharski, L. R., and Widirstky, S. T., 1979, Transformation and motility of human platelets. Details of the shape change and release reaction observed by optical and electron microscopy, J. Cell Biol. 83:126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berns, M. W., and Richardson, S. M., 1977, Continuation of mitosis after selective laser-micro- beam destruction of the centriolar region, J. Cell Biol. 75:977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cleveland, L. R., and Grimstone, A. V., 1963, The fine structure of the flagellate Mixotricha paradoxa and its associated micro-organisms, Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.) B 159:668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Curtis, A. S. G., and Varde, M., 1964, Control of cell behavior: Topological factors, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 33:15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Goldman, R. D., Pollack, R. E., and Hopkins, N. H., 1973, Preservation of normal behavior by enucleated cells in culture, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70:750.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Koshland, D. E., Warrick, H., Taylor, B., and Spudich, J., 1976, The control of flagellar rotation in bacterial behavior, in: Cell Motility (R. D. Goldman, T. Pollard, J. Rosenbaum, eds.), p. 57, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.Google Scholar
  16. Kung, C., 1976, Membrane control of ciliary motions and its genetic modification, in: Cell Motility (R. D. Goldman, T. Pollard, J. Rosenbaum, eds.), p. 941, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.Google Scholar
  17. Kung, C., Chang, S. Y., Satow, Y., Van Houten, J., and Hansma, H., 1975, Genetic dissection of behavior in Paramecium, Science 188:898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Macnab, R. M., and Koshland, D. E., 1972, The gradient sensing mechanism in bacterial Chemotaxis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 69:2509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Manton, J., Kowallik, K., and van Stosch, H. A., 1969, Observations on the fine structure and development of the spindle at mitosis and meiosis in a marine centric diatom (Lithodesmium undulatum). IV. The second meiotic division and conclusion, J. Cell. Sci. 7:407.Google Scholar
  20. Margolis, R. L., and Wilson, L., 1978, Opposite end assembly and disassembly of microtubules at steady state in vitro, Cell 13:1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nanney, D. L., 1968, Cortical patterns in cellular morphogenesis, Science 160:469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ng, S. F., and Frankel, J., 1977, 180° rotation of ciliary rows and its morphogenentic implications in Tetrahymena piriformis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74:1115.Google Scholar
  23. Satir, P., Studies on cilia. II. Examination of the distal region of the ciliary shaft and the role of filaments in motility, J. Cell. Biol. 26:805.Google Scholar
  24. Shannon, C. E., 1948, A mathematical theory of communication, Bell Syst. Technol. J. 27:379.Google Scholar
  25. Shaw, G., and Bray, D., 1977, Movement and extension of isolated growth cones, Exp. Cell Res. 104:55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Shay, J. W., Gershenbaum, M. R., and Porter, K. R., 1975, Enucleation of CHO cells by means of cytochalasin B and centrifugation: The topography of enucleation, Exp. Cell Res. 94:47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Solomon, F., 1979, Detailed neurite morphologies of sister neuroblastoma cells are related, Cell 16:161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sonneborn, T. M., 1970, Gene action in development, Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.) B 176:347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Springer, M. S., Goy, M. F., and Adler, J., 1979, Protein methylation in behavioural control mechanisms and signal transduction, Nature 280:279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Stebbings, H., and Willison, J. H. M., 1973, Structure of microtubules: A study of freeze-etched and negatively stained microtubules from the ovaries of Notonecta, Z. Zellforsch. 138:387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Vasiliev, J. M., and Gelfand, I. M., 1976, Effects of colcemid on morphogenetic processes and locomotion of fibroblasts, in: Cell Motility (R. D. Goldman, T. Pollard, J. Rosenbaum, eds.), p. 279, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.Google Scholar
  32. Weiss, P., 1961, Guiding principles in cell locomotion and cell aggregation, Exp. Cell Res. (Suppl.) 8:260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guenter Albrecht-Buehler
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cell Biology and AnatomyNorthwestern UniversityChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations