Carnivore Group Living: Comparative Trends

  • John L. Gittleman


In contrast to some other mammalian orders, members of the Carnivora do not commonly live in groups: only about 10–15% of all species aggregate at some period outside of the breeding season (Bekoff et al. 1984; Gittleman 1984). Because most carnivores reside in dense habitats and are solitary, dangerous, and nocturnal, little information existed on their social behavior until recently. Now, more comprehensive and comparative data are available to examine functional explanations of interspecific variation in grouping patterns across carnivores (for previous qualitative comparisons, see Ewer 1973; Kleiman and Eisenberg 1973; Kruuk 1975; Bertram 1979; Macdonald 1983). In this chapter I briefly review selected hypotheses for the evolution and maintenance of grouping in carnivores, focusing on those that are broadly applicable across the order and are testable from the available comparative data. I then analyze quantitative measures of interspecific variation in social behavior with respect to differences in morphology, physiology, and ecology. The analysis differs from previous cross-species comparisons of carnivore social ecology (Ewer 1973; Kleiman and Eisenberg 1973; Kruuk 1975; Bertram 1979; Macdonald and Moehlman 1982; Macdonald 1983; Bekoff et al. 1984; Kruuk and Macdonald 1985) by being more quantitative, by accounting for morphological and metabolic constraints, and by deriving general trends across the order as a whole rather than in particular taxonomic families.


Group Size Prey Size Open Grassland Gray Wolf Golden Jackal 
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  • John L. Gittleman

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