Another group of concepts of caring activities in economics centers on the crucial role played by motivation in bringing about a caring situation. These concepts highlight the need to distinguish caring motivations that reflect a caring attitude (and are in the focus of this section) from motives that do not. I call such motivation-derived caring concepts two-fold because they assume that two ingredients are needed for an effective caring situation: the provision of a caring service and a caring motivation on the part of the care giver. Examples of two-fold concepts of caring are found, for example in Himmelweit (1997, 1999), Folbre and Weisskopf (1998), Nelson (1998), and Tronto (1993). Himmelweit (1997) distinguishes between care as an activity and care as a motivation. Folbre and Weisskopf (1998) elaborate the difference between “caring services labor” as caring services performed without a caring motivation and “caring labor” to denote labor performed out of a caring motivation and therefore considered “both objectively and subjectively caring” (Folbre and Weisskopf 1998: 172). According to Nelson (1998) only the care service performed and the imparted feeling of being cared for, i.e. the instrumental and the communicative parts taken together constitute “real caring,” in both paid and unpaid caring work. Tronto (1993) understands caring as “both a practice and a disposition” (Tronto 1993: 104), and confines references to care to situations where “both the activity and the disposition of care are present” (Tronto 1993: 105). Himmelweit calls it the “double characteristic of caring — that it is both motivation and activity” (Himmelweit 1999: 35).
KeywordsIntrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivation Care Giver Joint Product Integrative Product
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