Acute stroke can be classified as ischemic, hemorrhagic, or both and result in the occurrence of multiple pathophysiological processes. These pathophysiological events develop over the subsequent hours to days, as the original core of the infarct develops into the surrounding penumbral area (1, 2). Initial cell death results from the deprivation of blood supply to the brain. However, a significant portion of the brain damage occurs later when secondary deleterious mechanisms come into play (2). The recent progress made in defining the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of stroke will probably lead to the identification of new strategies for intervention in the ischemic cascade. Therefore, it becomes increasingly important to initially consider how these new therapeutics may be delivered into the target tissue in brain and secondly to speculate on new strategies that would target ischemic brain tissue.
KeywordsBlood Brain Barrier Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Focal Cerebral Ischemia Cereb Blood Flow Human Umbilical Cord Blood
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 3.Suckling AJ, Rumsby MG, Bradbury M.W.B., Eds., The blood-brain barier in health and disease ( Ellis Horwood, Chichester,) 1986.Google Scholar
- 5.Pardridge W, Peptide drug delivery to the brain. ( Raven Press, New York ) 1991.Google Scholar
- 10.Muldoon LL, Pagel MA, Kroll RA, Roman-Goldstein S, Jones RS, Neuwelt EA, A physiological barrier distal to the anatomic blood-brain barrier in a model of transvascular delivery, Am J Neuroradiol 1999; 20: 217–222.Google Scholar
- 19.Peng KW, Morling FJ, Cosset FL, Murphy G, Russell SJ, A gene delivery system activatable by disease-associated matrix metalloproteinases. Hum Gene Ther 1997; 8: 729783.Google Scholar
- 21.Imaizumi S, Woolworth V, Fishman RA, Chan PH, Liposome-entrapped superoxide dismutase reduces cerebral infarction in cerebral ischemia in rats. Stroke 1990; 21: 1312 1317.Google Scholar
- 26.Lawrence MS, Sun GH, Kunis DM, Saydam TC, Dash R, Ho DY, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK, Overexpression of the glucose transporter gene with a herpes simplex viral vestor protects striatal neurones against stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1996; 16: 18 1185.Google Scholar
- 33.Li Y, Chen J, Chopp M, Adult bone marrow transplantation after stroke in adult rats. Cell Transplantation 2001; 10: 31–40.Google Scholar