The Action of Growth and Developmental Hormones

Evolutionary Aspects
  • J. R. Tata

Abstract

Virtually every growth and developmental process in higher organisms is at some stage regulated by hormones. The terms “hormones,” “growth,” and “development” are often interpreted in different ways and it is best to define them very briefly in the context of this article. We shall consider hormones in their broadest sense, namely, as chemical messengers that help coordinate the activities of one group of cells with those of another, and are synthesized, released, or activated in response to environmental signals. Growth can be accomplished by increasing the number of cells or the mass of each cell in a tissue or organism. Since, in most instances, the control of cell proliferation constitutes a relatively late response to hormones or a special system in itself, as, for example, the various growth factors (Gospodarowicz and Moran, 1976; Sato and Ross, 1979) or mitogenic lectins (O’Brien, et al., 1978), growth will be considered here largely as an increase in cellular mass or a selective increase in specific cellular components. With respect to development, we shall consider only relatively late processes, since early postfertilization differentiation is generally autonomously regulated. These will include predominantly the expression of major phenotypic functions in cells that have already undergone partial or terminal differentiation.

Keywords

Growth Hormone Thyroid Hormone Glucocorticoid Receptor Hormone Action Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Acher, R., Chemistry of neurohypophyseal hormones: An example of molecular evolution, in:Handbook of Physiology (E. Knobil and W. H. Sawyer, eds.). Section 7, Vol. 4, Part 1, pp. 119–130, American Physiological Society, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  2. Acher, R., 1976, Molecular evolution of polypeptide hormones, in:Polypeptide Hormones: Molecular and Cellular Aspects, Ciba Foundation Symposium No. 41, p. 31, Elsevier/Excerpta Medica/North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  3. Agarwal, M. K., Hanoune, J., Yu, F. L., 1969, Studies on the effect of cortisone on rat liver transfer ribonucleic acid, Biochemistry 8: 4806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmad, F., Schultz, J., Russell, T. R., and Werner, R. (eds.), 1978, Differentiation and Development, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Allfrey, V. G., 1977, Post-synthetic modifications of histone structure: A mechanism for the control of chromosome structure by the modulation of histone-DNA interaction, in; Chromatin and Chromosome Structure (H. J. Li and R. Eckhardt, eds.), pp. 167–191, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  6. André, J., Raynaud, A., and Rochefort, H., 1978, Characterization of estradiol receptor extracted from nuclei by micrococcal nuclease, Biochemistry 17: 3619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. André, J., André, R., and Rochefort, H., 1980, The extraction by micrococcal nuclease of glucocorticoid receptors and mouse mammary tumor virus DNA sequences is dissociated, Nucleic Acids Res., 8: 3393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Attardi, B., and Ohno, S., 1976, Androgen and estrogen receptors in the developing mouse brain, Endocrinology 99: 1279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Attardi, B., Geller, L. N., and Ohno, S., 1976, Androgen and estrogen receptors in brain cytosol from male, females, and testicular feminized (tfm/y O) mice, Endocrinology 98: 864.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Auricchio, F., Migliaccio, A., and Rotondi, A., 1981, Inactivation of oestrogen receptor in vitro by nuclear dephosphorylation, Biochem. J. 194: 569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Axel, R., 1978, Dissection of the eukaryotic chromosome with deoxyribonucleases, in: Methods in Cell Biology ( J. Stein and L. J. Kleinsmith, eds.), pp. 41–54, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Axelrod, J., 1974, The pineal gland: A neurochemical transducer, Science 184: 1341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baker, H. J., and Shapiro, D. J., 1977, Kinetics of estrogen induction of Xenopus laevis vitellogenin messenger RNA as measured by hybridization to complementary DNA, J. Bzol. Chem. 252: 8428.Google Scholar
  14. Baker, H. J., and Shapiro, D. J., 1978, Rapid accumulation of vitellogenin messenger RNA during secondary estrogen stimulation of Xenopus laevis, J. Biol. Chem. 253: 4521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Barbanel, G., and Assenmacher, I., 1980, Postnatal development of estradiol receptor in female and male rats, Mol. Cell, Endocrinol. 18: 227.Google Scholar
  16. Bardin, C. W., and Catterall, J. F., 1981, Testosterone: A major determinant of extragenital sexual dimorphism, Science 211: 1385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bardin, C. W., Bullock, L. P., Mills, N. C., Lin, Y.-C., and Jacob, S., 1978, The role of receptors in the anabolic action of androgens, in:Receptors and Hormone Action (B. W. O’Malley and L. Birnbaumer, eds.), Vol. II, pp. 83–103, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Barrack, E. R., and Coffey, D. S., 1980, The specific binding of estrogens and androgens to the nuclear matrix of sex hormone responsive tissues, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 7625.Google Scholar
  19. Barrington, E. J. W., 1963, An Introduction to General and Comparative Endocrinology, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  20. Barrington, E. J. W., 1964, Hormones and Evolution, The English Universities Press, London.Google Scholar
  21. Barrington, E. J. W., 1977, Chemical communication, Proc. R. Soc. (London) Ser. B 199: 257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Baulieu, E.-E., 1972, A 1972 survey of the mode of action of steroid hormones, Proc. IV Internat. Cong. Endocrinol, pp. 30–620.Google Scholar
  23. Baulieu, E.-E., 1978, Hormones, Hermann, Paris.Google Scholar
  24. Baulieu, E.-E., Alberga, A., Jung, I., Lebeau, M.-C., Mercier-Bodard, C., Milgrom, E., Raynaud, J.-P., Raynaud-Jammet, C., Rochefort, H., Truong, H., and Robel, P., 1971, Metabolism and protein binding of sex steroids in target organs: An approach to the mechanism of hormone action, Recent Prog. in Horm. Res. 27:351.Google Scholar
  25. Baulieu, E.-E., Godeau, F., Schorderet, M., and Schordetet-Slatkine, S., 1978, Steroid-induced meiotic division in Xenopus laevis oocytes: Surface and Calcium, Nature 275: 593.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Baxter, J. D., 1976, Glucocorticoid hormone action, Pharmac. Ther. B. 2: 605.Google Scholar
  27. Baxter, J. D., and Ivarie, R. D., 1978, Regulation of gene expression by glucocorticoid hormones: Studies of receptors and responses in cultuied cells, in:Receptors and Hormone Action (B. W. O’Malley and L. Birnbaumer, eds.), Vol. II, pp. 252–296, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Baxter, J. D., Harris, A. W., Tomkins, G. M., and Cohn, M., 1971, Glucocorticoid receptors in lymphoma cells in culture: Relationship to glucocorticoid killing activity, Science 171: 189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Beckingham Smith, K., and Tata, J. R., 1976, The hormonal control of amphibian metamorphosis, in. Developmental Biology of Plants and Animals (C. Graham and P. F. Wareing, eds.), pp. 228–242, W. B. Saunders, Boston.Google Scholar
  30. Bellard, M., Gannon, F., and Chambon, P., 1978, Nucleosome structure III: The structure and transcriptional activity of the chromatin containing the ovalbumin and globin genes in chick oviduct nuclei, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 42: 779.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bergstrom, S., 1966, The prostaglandins, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 22: 153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Bern, H. A., and Nicoll, C. S., 1968, The comparative endocrinology of prolactin, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 24: 681.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Berridge, M. V., 1980, Hormone action—A search for transducing mechanisms, in: Insect Biology in the Future ( M. Locke, and D. S. Smith, eds.), pp. 463–478, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Berridge, M. V., Farmer, S. R., Green, C. D., Henshaw, R. C., and Tata, J. R., 1976, Characterization of polysomes from Xenopus liver synthesizing vitellogenin and translation of vitellogenin and albumin messenger RNAs zn vitro, Eur. J. Biochem. 62: 161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Bhakoo, H. S., and Katzenellenbogen, B. S., 1977, Progesterone modulation of estrogen-stimulated uterine biosynthetic events and estrogen receptor levels, Mol. Cell. Endocrznol. 8: 121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Birnbaumer, L., and O’Malley, B. W. (eds.), 1978, Receptor and Hormone Action, Vol. III, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  37. Blake, C. C. F., 1981, Prealbumin and the thyroid hormone receptor, Proc. Soc. (London) Ser. B 211: 413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Bloom, K. S., and Anderson, J. N., 1979, Conformation of ovalbumin and globin genes in chromatin during differential gene expression, J. Bzol. Chem. 254: 10532.Google Scholar
  39. Blundell, T. L., and Humber, R. E., 1980, Hormone families: Pancreatic hormones and homologous growth factors, Nature 287: 781.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Blundell, T. L., Bedarkar, S., Dockerill, S., Pitts, J. E., Tickle, I. J., and Wood, S. P., 1977, The conformation and molecular biology of pancreatic and homologous hormones, in: Molecular Endocrinology ( I. Maclntyre and M. Szelke, eds.), pp. 15–26, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  41. Botchan, M., and Watson, J. D., (eds.), 1978, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. Vol. 42.Google Scholar
  42. Bourgeois, S., and Newby, R. F., 1977, Diploid and haploid states of the glucocorticoid receptor gene of mouse lymphoid cell lines, Cell 11: 423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Bradbury, E. M., and Javaherian, K. (eds.), 1977, The Organization and Expression of the Eukaryotic Genome, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  44. Buller, R. E., and O’Malley, B. W., 1976, The biology and mechanism of steroid hormone receptor interaction with the eukaryotic nucleus, Biochem. Pharmacol. 25: 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Butcher, R. W., Robison, G. A., Hardman, J. G., and Sutherland, E. W., 1968, The role of cyclic AMP in hormone actions, Adv. Enzyme Reguln. 6: 357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Cake, M., and Litwack, G., 1975, The glucocorticoid receptor, in: Biochemical Actions of Hormones ( G. Litwack, ed.), Vol. 3, pp. 317–390, Academic Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cake, M. H., Yeoh, G. C. T., and Oliver, I. T., 1981, Ontogeny of the glucocorticoid receptor and its relationship to tyrosine aminotransferase induction in cultured foetal hepatocytes, Biochem. J. 198: 301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Carlson, R. A., and Gorski, J., 1980, Characterization of a unique population of unfilled estrogen-binding sites associated with the nuclear fraction of immature rat uteri, Endocrinology 106: 1776.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Catt, K. J., and Dufau, M. L., 1977, Peptide hormone receptors, Ann. Rev. Physiol. 39: 529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Catt, K. J., and Dufau, M. L., 1978, Gonadotropin receptors and regulation of interstitial cell function in the testis, in: Receptors and Hormone Action ( B. L. Birnbaumer, and B. W. O’Malley, eds.), Vol. 3, pp. 291–339, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  51. Chambon, P., 1975, Eukaryotic nuclear-RNA polymerases, Ann. Rev. Bzochem. 44: 613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Chan, L., and O’Malley, B. W., 1978, Steroid hormone action: Recent advances, Ann. Intern. Med. 89 (1): 694.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Chan, L., Means, A. R., and O’Malley, B. W., 1978, Steroid hormone regulation of specific gene expression, Vitam. Horm. 36: 259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Charles, M. A., Ryffel, G. U., Obinata, M., McCarthy, B. J., and Baxter, J. D., 1975, Nuclear receptors for thyroid hormone: Evidence for non-random distribution within chromatin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72: 1787.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Charreau, E. H., Attramadal, A., Torjesen, P. A., Calandra, R., and Hansson, V., 1977, Androgen stimulation of prolactin receptors in rat prostate, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 7: 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Chiu, J.-F., and Hnilica, L. S., 1977, Nuclear nonhistone proteins: Chemistry and function, in: Chromatin and Chromosome Structure ( H. J. Li and R. Eckhardt, eds.), pp. 193–253, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  57. Cidlowski, J. A., and Munck, A., 1980, Differential solubilisation of nuclear glucocorticoid receptors by DNAase I and DNAase II, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 630: 375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Clark, J. H., and Gorski, J., 1970, Ontogeny of the estrogen receptor during early uterine development, Science 169: 76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Clark, J. H., and Peck, E. J., Jr., 1976, Nuclear retention of receptor-estrogen complex and nuclear acceptor sites. Nature 260: 635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Clark, H. J., and Peck, E. J., Jr., 1979, Female Sex Steroids. Receptors and Function, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Clark, J. H., Anderson, J., and Peck, E. J., Jr., 1972, Receptor-estrogen complex in the nuclear fraction of rat uterine cells during the estrous cycle, Science 176: 528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Clark, J. H., Peck, E. J., Jr., Hardin, J. W., and Eriksson, H., 1978, The biology and pharmacology of estrogen receptor binding: Relationship to uterine growth, in:Receptors and Hormone Action (B. W. O’Malley and L. Birnbaumer, eds.), Vol. II, pp. 1–31, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  63. Clarke, W. C., and Bern, H. A., 1980, Comparative endocrinology of prolactin, in:Hormonal Proteins and Peptides, Vol. VIII, Prolactin (C. H. Li, ed.), pp. 105–197, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  64. Clemens, M. J., and Korner, A., 1970, Amino acid requirement for the growth-hormone stimulation of incorporation of precursors into protein and nuclear acids of liver slices, Biochem. J. 119: 629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Clemens, M. J., and Tata, J. R., 1973, An analysis of the effects of estrogen treatment in vivo on the protein synthetic activity of male Xenopus liver cell-free systems, Eur. J. Biochem. 33: 71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Cloud, J. G., and Schuetz, A. W., 1977, Interaction of progesterone with all or isolated portions of the amphibian (Rana pipiens) oocyte surface, Dev. Biol. 60: 359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Cohen, M. E., and Hamilton, T. H., 1975, Effect of estradiol-17ß on the synthesis of specific uterine nonhistone chromosomal proteins, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72: 4346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Cohen, P., 1982, The role of protein phosphorylation in neural and hormonal control of cellular activity, Nature 296: 613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Cohen, P. P., 1970, Biochemical differentiation during amphibian metamorphosis, Science 168: 533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Cohen, S. N., Chang, A. C., Nakanishi, S., Inoue, A., Kita, T., Nakamura, M., and Numa, S., 1980, Studies of cloned DNA encoding the structure for the bovine corticotropin-beta-lipotropin precursor protein, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 343: 415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Compton, J. G., Schrader, W. T., and O’Malley, B. W., 1982, Selective binding of chicken progesterone receptor. A subunit to a DNA fragment containing ovalbumin gene sequences, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Common. 105: 96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Cooke, N. E., Coit, D., Shine, J., Baxter, J. D., and Martial, J. A., 1981, Human prolactin. DNA structural analysis and evolutionary comparisons, J. Biol. Chem. 256: 4007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Courvalin, J.-C., Bouton, M.-M., and Baulieu, E.-E., 1976, Effect of estradiol on rat uterus DNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Studies on solubilized enzymes, J. Biol. Chem. 251: 4843.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Cox, R. F., 1973, Transcription of high-molecular weight RNA from hen-oviduct chromatin by bacterial and endogenous form-B RNA polymerases, Eur. J. Biochem. 39: 49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Cox, R. F., Haines, M. E., and Carey, N. H., 1973, Modification of the template capacity of chick-oviduct chromatin for form-B RNA polymerase by estradiol, Eur. J. Biochem. 32: 513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Cox, R. F., Haines, M. E., and Emtage, J. S., 1974, Quantitation of ovalbumin mRNA in hen and chick oviduct by hybridization to complementary DNA, Eur. J. Biochem. 49: 225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Craig, R. K., and Campbell, P. N., 1978, Molecular aspects of milk protein-biosynthesis, in:’ Lactation: A Comprehensive Treatise (B. L. Larson and V. R. Smith, eds.), Vol. 4, pp. 387–404, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  78. Casaba, G., 1980, Phylogeny and ontogeny of hormone receptors: The selection theory of receptor formation and hormonal imprinting, Biol. Rev. 55: 47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Dahmus, M. E., and Bonner, J., 1965, Increased template activity of liver chromatin, a result of hydrocortisone administration, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 54: 1370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Davidson, E. H., 1976, Gene Expression during Early Development, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  81. Davie, J. R., and Candido, E. P. M., 1978, Acetylated histone H4 is preferentially associated with template-active chromatin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75: 3574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Davies, P., Thomas, P., Borthwick, N. M., and Giles, M. G., 1980, Distribution of acceptor sites for androgen-receptor complexes between transcriptionally active and inactive fractions of rat ventral prostate chromatin, J. Endocranol. 87: 225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Dawid, I. B., and Wahli, W., 1979, Application of recombinant DNA technology to questions of developmental biology: A review, Dev. Biol. 69: 305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. de Boer, W., de Vries, J., Mulder, E., and van der Molen, H. J., 1978, Estradiol-receptor complexes in sub-nuclear fractions of rat uterine tissue, Nucleic Acids Res. 5: 87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Debuquois, B., Lopez, S., and Burlet, H., 1982, Ligand-induced translocation of insulin receptors in intact rat liver, J. Biol. Chem. 157: 10852.Google Scholar
  86. Deeley, R. G., Udell, D. S., Burns, A. T. H., Gordon, J. I., and Goldberger, R. F., 1977, Kinetics of avian vitellogenin messenger RNA induction, J. Biol. Chem. 252: 7913.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. De Luca, H. F., 1971, The role of vitamin D and its relationship to parathyroid hormone and calcitonin, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 27: 479.Google Scholar
  88. De Luca, H. E., 1974, Vitamin D: The vitamin and the hormone, Fed. Proc. 33: 2211.Google Scholar
  89. Dillmann, W. H., and Oppenheimer, J. H., 1979, Glucagon influences the expression of thyroid hormone action: Discrepancy between nuclear triiodothyronine receptor number and enzyme responses, Endocrinology 105: 74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Dimitriadis, J. G., and Tata, J. R., 1982, Differential sensitization to deoxyribonuclease I of Xenopus vitellogenin and albumin genes during primary and secondary induction of vitellogenesis by oestradiol, Biochem. J. 202: 491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Dixon, H. B. F., 1964, Chemistry of pituitary hormones, The Hormones 5: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Dumont, J. E., 1971, The action of thyrotropin on thyroid metabolism, Vitam. Horm. 29: 287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Edelman, I. S., and Fanestil, D. D., 1970, Mineralocorticoids, in:Biochemical Actions of Hormones (G. Litwack, ed.), Vol. I, pp. 321–364, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  94. Edelman, I. S., and Ismail-Begi, F., 1974, Thyroid thermogenesis and active sodium transport, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 30: 235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Eisenman, R. N., and Vogt, V. M., 1978, The biosynthesis of oncovirus proteins, Biochim. Biophys. Acta (Reviews on Cancer) 473: 187.Google Scholar
  96. Elias, J. J., 1980, The role of prolactin in normal gland growth and function, in:Hormonal Proteins and Peptides (C. H. Li, ed.), Vol. VIII, Prolactzn, pp. 37–74, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  97. Eliott, C. G., 1977, Sterols in fungi: Their functions in growth and reproduction, Adv. Mzcrob. Physiol. 15: 121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Epel, D., Pressman, B. C., Elsaesser, S., and Weaver, A. M., 1969, The program of structural and metabolic changes following fertilization of sea urchin eggs, in: The Cell Cycle: Gene-Enzyme Interaction ( G. M. Padilla, G. L. Whitson, and I. L. Cameron, eds.), pp. 279–298, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  99. Evans, R. W., Chen, T. J., Hendry, W. J., III, and Leavitt, W. W., 1980, Progesterone regulation of estrogen receptor in the hamster uterus during the estrous cycle, Endocrinology 107: 383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Exton, J. H., 1981, Molecular mechanisms involved in a-adrenergic responses, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 23: 233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Falconer, I. R., and Rowe, J. M., 1975, Possible mechanism for action of prolactin on mammary cell transport, Nature 256: 327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Farmer, S. R., Henshaw, E. C., Berridge, M. V., and Tata, J. R., 1978, Translation of Xenopus vitellogenin mRNA during primary and secondary induction, Nature 273: 401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Feigelson, P., Ramanarayan-Murthy, L., and Colman, P.D., 1978, Studies on the cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptor and its nuclear interaction in mediating induction of tryptophan oxygerese messenger RNA in liver and hepatoma, in: Receptors and Hormone Action ( B.W. O’Malley and L. Birnbaumer, eds.), Vol. II, pp. 225–249, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  104. Fix, J. A., and Moore, M. V., 1981, Growth hormone stimulation of glucose transport in isolated rat hepatocyte suspensions and primary cultures, Endocrinology 108: 239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Fontaine, Y. A., 1964, Characteristics of the zoological specificity of some protein hormones from the anterior s pituitary, Nature 202: 1296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Franceschi, R. T., and Kim, K.-H., 1979, Isolation of estrogen receptor in complex with a discrete nuclear subfraction from hen oviduct, J. Biol. Chem. 254: 3637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Frey, A., and Seifart, K. H., 1982 Glucocorticoids directly affect the synthesis of ribosomal RNA in rat-liver cells, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 28: 161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Frieden, E., and Just, J. J., 1970, Hormonal responses in amphibian metamorphosis, in: Biochemical Actions of Hormones ( G. Litwack, ed.), Vol. 1, pp. 1–52, Academic Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Gaillard, P. J., and Boer, H. H. (eds.), 1978, Comparative Endorcinology, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  110. Gardner, R. S., 1978, Nuclear thyroid hormone receptor binding to chromatin subunits: Implications from digestion studies with micrococcal nuclease, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 10: 277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Garel, A., and Axel, R., 1976, Selective digestion of transcriptionally active ovalbumin genes from oviduct nuclei, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73: 3966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Garel, A., and Axel, R., 1978, The structure of the transcriptionally active ovalbumin genes in chromatin, Cold Spring Harbor Quant. Biol. 42: 701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Gehring, U., and Tomkins, G. M., 1974, Characterization of a hormone receptor defect in the androgen-insensitivity mutant, Cell 3: 59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Gerber-Huber, S., Felber, B. K., Weber, R., and Ryffel, G. U., 1981, Estrogen induces tissue specific changes in the chromatin conformation of the vitellogenin genes in Xenopus, Nucleic Acids Res. 9: 2475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Geschwind, I. I., 1967, Molecular variation and possible lines of evolution of peptide and protein hormones, Am. Zoologist 7: 89.Google Scholar
  116. Gharbi, J., and Torresani, J., 1979, High affinity thyroxine binding to purified rat liver plasma membranes, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 88: 170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Giannopoulos, G., 1974, Variations in the levels of cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptor in lungs of various species at different developmental stages, Endocrinology 94: 450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Giesecke, K., Sippel, A. E., Nguyen-Huu, M. C., Groner, B., Hynes, N. E., Wurtz, T., and Schutz, G., 1977, A RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity: Implications for chromatin transcription experiments, Nucleic Acids Res. 4: 3943.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Gilbert, L.I., 1974, Endocrine action during insect growth, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 30: 347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Gilbert, L. I., and Frieden, E. (eds.), 1981, Metamorphosis, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  121. Gilmour, R. S., 1976, Gene expression in the eukaryotic cell, in: Receptors and Hormone Action ( L. Birnbaumer and B. W. O’Malley, eds), Vol. I, pp. 331–357, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  122. Glasser, S. R., Chytil, F., and Spelsberg, T. C., 1972, Early effects of estradiol-173 on the chromatin and activity of deoxyribonucleic acid-dependent ribonucleic acid polymerases (I and II) of the rat uterus, Biochem. J. 130: 947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Goidl, J. A., 1979, Insulin binding to isolated liver nuclei from obese and lean mice, Biochemistry 18: 3674.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Goidl, J. A., Cake, M. H., Dolan, K. P., Parchman, L. G., and Litwack, G., 1977, Activation of the rat liver glucocorticoid-receptor complex, Biochemistry 16: 2125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Goldberger, R. F., 1979, Strategies of genetic regulation in prokaryotes, in: Biological Regulation and Development ( R. F. Goldberger, ed.), Vol. 1, pp. 1–18, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Goldfine, I. D., Smith, G. J., Wong, K. Y., and Jones, A. L., 1977, Cellular uptake and nuclear binding of insulin in human cultured lymphocytes: Evidence for potential intracellular sites of insulin action, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74: 1368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Goodman, H. M., 1968, Growth hormone and metabolism of carbohydrate and lipid in adipose tissue, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 148: 419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Goodwin, G. H., Walker, J. M., and Johns, E. W., 1978, The high mobility group nonhistone chromosomal proteins, in: The Cell Nucleus ( H. Busch, ed.), Vol. 6, pp. 181–219, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  129. Gorbman, A., and Bern, H. A., 1962, A Textbook of Comparative Endocrinology, John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  130. Gorski, J., 1964, Early estrogen effects on the activity of uterine ribonucleic acid polymerase, J. Biol. Chem. 239: 889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Gorski, J., and Gannon, F., 1976, Current models of steroid hormone action: A critique, Ann. Rev. Physiol. 38: 425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Gorski, J., and Padnos, D., 1966, Translational control of protein synthesis and the control of steroidogenesis in the rabbit ovary, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 113: 100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Gorski, J., Noteboom, W. D., and Nicolette, J. A., 1965, Estrogen control of the synthesis of RNA and protein in the uterus, J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 66: (Suppl. 1): 91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Gospodarowicz, D., and Moran, J. S., 1976, Growth factors in mammalian cell culture, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 45: 531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Green, C. D., 1980, The regulation of gene expression by steroid hormones in animal cells, in: Biochemistry of Cellular Regulation (M. J. Clemens, ed.), Vol. I, Gene Expression, pp. 59–83, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  136. Green, C. D., and Tata, J. R., 1976, Direct induction by estradiol of vitellogenin synthesis in organ in cultures of male Xenopus laevis liver, Cell 7: 131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Greene, G. L., and Jensen, E. V., 1982, Monoclonal antibodies as probes for estrogen receptor detection and characterization, J. Steroid Biochem. 16: 353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Greene, G. L., Gloss, L. E., Fleming, H., DeSombre, E. R., and Jensen, E. V., 1977, Antibodies to estrogen receptor: Immunochemical similarity of estrophilin from various mammalian species, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74: 3681.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Greene, G. L., Nolan, C., Engler, J. P., and Jensen, E. V., 1980, Monoclonal antibodies to human estrogen receptor, Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77: 5115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Griswold, M. D., and Merryweather, J., 1982, Insulin stimulates the incorporation of [32Pi] into ribonucleic acid in cultured Sertoli cells, Endocrinology 111: 661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Gruber, M., Boss, E. S., and AB, G., 1976, Hormonal control of vitellogenin synthesis in avian liver, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 5: 41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Guillemin, R., 1978, Control of adenohypophysial functions by peptides of the central nervous system, The Harvey Lectures 71: 71.Google Scholar
  143. Guyette, W. A., Matusik, R. J., and Rosen, J. M., 1979, Prolactin-mediated transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of casein gene expression, Cell 17: 1013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Halpern, J., and Hinkle, P. M., 1982, Evidence for an active step in thyroid hormone transport to nuclei: Drug inhibition of L-[12511-triiodothyronine binding to nuclear receptors in rat pituitory tumor cells, Endocrinology 110: 1070.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Hamilton, T. H., 1963, Isotopic studies on estrogen-induced alterations of ribonucleic acid and protein synthesis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 49: 373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Hamilton, T. H., 1968, Control by estrogen of genetic transcription and translation, Science 161: 649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Hamilton, T. H., Widnell, C. C., and Tata, J. R., 1968, Ribonucleic acid synthesis during early estrogen action, J. Biol. Chem. 243: 408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Hamilton, T. H., Clark, J. H., and Sadler, W. A., 1979, Ontogeny of Receptors and Reproductive Hormone Action, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  149. Harris, S. E., Schwartz, R. J., Tsai, M.-J., and O’Malley, B. W., 1976, Effect of estrogen on gene expression in the chick oviduct. In vitro transcription of the ovalbumin gene in chromatin, J. Biol. Chem. 251: 524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Haslam, S. Z., and Shyamala, G., 1979, Effect of estradiol on progesterone receptors in normal mammary glands and its relationship with lactation, Biochem. J. 182: 127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Haug, E., 1979, Progesterone suppression of estrogen-stimulated prolactin secretion and estrogen receptor levels in rat pituitary cells, Endocrinology 104: 429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Hayward, M. A., Mitchell, T. A., and Shapiro, D. J., 1980, Induction of estrogen receptor and reversal of the nuclear/cytoplasmic receptor ratio during vitellogenin synthesis and withdrawal in Xenopus laevis, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 1 1308.Google Scholar
  153. Hechter, O., and Halkerston, I. D. K., 1964, On the action of mammalian hormones, The Hormones 5: 697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Hershko, A., Mamont, P., Shields, R., and Tomkins, G. M., 1971, Pleiotypic response, Nat. New Biol. 232: 206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Higgins, S. J., and Gehring, U., 1978, Molecular mechanisms of steroid hormone action, Adv. Cancer Res. 28: 313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Hinkle, P. M., and Tashjian, A. H., Jr., 1975, Thyrotropin-releasing hormone regulates the number of its own receptors in GH3 strain of pituitary cells in culture, Biochemistry 14: 3845.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Hizuka, N., Goden, P., Lesniak, M. A., Van Obberghen, E., Carpentier, J. L., and Orci, L., 1981, Polypeptide hormone degradation and receptor regulation are coupled to ligand internalisation. A direct biochemical and morphologic demonstration, J. Biol. Chem. 256: 4591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Hobbs, A. A., Richards, D. A., Kessler, D. J., and Rosen, J. M., 1982, Complex hormonal regulation of rat casein gene expression, J. Biol. Chem. 257: 3598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Hodgkin, D. C., 1974, Insulin, its chemistry and biochemistry, Proc. R. Soc. (London) Ser. A 338: 251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Holden, J. T., 1968, Evolution of transport systems, J. Theor. Biol. 21: 97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Horgen, P. A., 1977, Steroid induction of differentiation: Achlya as a model system, in:Cell Communication and Morphogenesis (D. H. O’Day and P. A. Horgen, eds.), pp. 272–294, Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  162. Horowitz, N. H., 1945, On the evolution of biochemical synthesis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 31: 153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Horton, E. W., 1972, The prostaglandins, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) Ser. B 182: 411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Houdebine, L.-M., Devinoy, E., and Delouis, C., 1978, Stabilization of casein mRNA by prolactin and glucocorticoids, Biochimie 60: 57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Hsueh, A. J. W., Peck, E. J., Jr., and Clark, J. H., 1976, Control of uterine estrogen receptor levels by progesterone, Endocrinology 98: 438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Hynes, N. E., Groner, B., Sippel, A. E., Jepp, S., Wurtz, T., Nguyen-Huu, M. C., Giesecke, K., and Schutz, G., 1979, Control of cellular content of chicken egg white protein specific RNA during estrogen administration and withdrawal, Biochemistry 18: 616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Igo-Kemenes, T., Horz, W., and Zachau, H. G., 1982, Chromatin, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 51: 89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Ishi, S., Hirano, T., and Wada, M. (eds.), 1980, Hormones, Adaptation and Evolution, Springer-VerlagBerlin.Google Scholar
  169. Ishikawa, K., Hanaoka, Y., Kondo, Y., and Imai, K., 1977, Primary action of steroid hormone at the surface of amphibian oocyte in the induction of germinal vesicle breakdown, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 9: 91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Isomaa, V., Isotalo, H., Orava, M., and Jänne, O., 1979, Regulation of cytosol and nuclear progesterone receptors in rabbit uterus by estrogen, antiestrogen and progesterone administration, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 585: 24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Jackson, I. M. D., 1981, Evolutionary significance of the phylogenetic distribution of the mammalian hypothalamic releasing hormones, Fed. Proc. 40: 2545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Jacob, S. T., 1973, Mammalian RNA polymerases, Prog. Nucleic Acids Res. Mol. Biol. 13: 93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Jaehning, J. R., and Roeder, R. G., 1977, Faithful gene transcription by eukaryotic RNA polymerases in reconstituted systems, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Btol. 42: 577.Google Scholar
  174. Jänne, O., Bullock, L. P., Bardin, C. W., and Jacob, S. T., 1976, Early androgen action in kidney or normal and androgen insensitive (tfm/y) mice: Changes in RNA polymerase and chromatin template activities, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 418: 330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Jensen, E. V., and Jacobson, H. I., 1962, Basic guides to the mechanism of estrogen action, Recent Prog Horm. Res. 18: 387.Google Scholar
  176. Jensen, E. V., Suzuki, T., Kawashima, T., Stumpf, W. E., Jungblut, P. W., and De Sombre, E. R., 1968, A two-step mechanism for the interaction of estradiol with rat uterus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 59: 632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Jensen, E. V., Numata, M., Smith, S., Suzuki, T., Brecher, P. I., and De Sombre, E. R., 1969, Estrogenreceptor interaction in target tissues, Del). Biol. Suppl. 3: 151.Google Scholar
  178. Johnson, E. M., and Allfrey, V. G., 1978, Postsynthetic modifications of histone primary structure: Phosphorylaction and acetylation as related to chromatin conformation and function, in: Biochemical Actions of Hormones ( G. Litwack, ed.), Vol. 5, pp. 2–51, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  179. Jump, D. B., and Oppenheimer, J. H., 1980, Thyroid hormone receptor containing fragment released from chromatin by deoxyribonuclease I and micrococcal nuclease, Science 209: 811.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Kahn, C. R., 1976, Membrane receptors for hormones and neurotransmitters, J. Cell Biol. 70: 261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Kalimi, M., Tsai, S. Y., Tsai, M.-J., Clark, J. H., and O’Malley, B. W., 1976, Effect of estrogen on gene expression in the chick oviduct. Correlation between nuclear-bound estrogen, receptor and chromatin initiation sites for transcription, J. Biol. Chem. 251: 516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Kan, O. L., Webster, R. A., and Spelsberg, T.C., 1980, Isolation and Characterisation of the estrogen receptor in hen oviduct: Evidence for two molecular species, Endocrinology 107: 1182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Kanerva, P. A., and Maenpaa, P. H., 1978, Codon-specific serine transfer ribonucleic acid synthesis in avian liver during vitellogenin induction, Acta Chem. Scand. B32: 561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Kaplan, J., 1981, Polypeptide-binding membrane receptors: Analysis and classification, Science 212: 14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Kaplan, J. G., 1978, Membrane cation transport and the control of proliferation of mammalian cells, Ann. Rev. Physiol. 40: 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Karlson, P., 1963, New concepts on the mode of action of hormones, Perspect. Biol Med. 6: 203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Kasuga, M., Karlsson, F. A., and Kah, C. R., 1982, Insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of the 95,000 dalton subunit of its own receptor, Science 215: 185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Katzenellenbogen, B. S., and Gorski, J., 1975, Estrogen actions on synthesis of macromolecules in target cells, in: Biochemical Actions of Hormones ( G. Litwack, ed.), Vol. 3, pp. 188–243, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  189. Kaye, A. M., 1978, The ontogeny of estrogen receptors, in: Biochemical Actions of Hormones ( G. Litwack, ed.), Vol. 5, pp. 149–201, Academic Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Kaye, A. M., Ickeson, I., Lamprecht, S. A., Gruss, R., Tsafriri, A., and Lindner, H. R., 1973, Stimulation of ornithine decarboxylâse by luteinizing hormone in immature and adult rat ovaries, Biochemistry 12: 3072.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Kenney, F. T., Wicks, W. D., and Greenman, D. L., 1965, Hydrocortisone stimulation of RNA synthesis in induction of hepatic enzymes, J. Cell, Comp. Physiol. 66 (Suppl. 1): 125.Google Scholar
  192. King, C. R., Udell, D. S., and Deeley, R. G., 1979, Characterization of the estrogen responsive domain of avian liver and cloning of double-stranded cDNA derived from estrogen-inducible RNA species, J. Biol. Chem. 254: 6781.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. King, G. L., and Kahn, C. R., 1981, Non-parallel evolution of metabolic and growth promoting functions of insulin, Nature 292: 644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. King, R. J. B., and Mainwaring, W. I. P., 1974, Steroid-Cell Interactions, Butterworths, London.Google Scholar
  195. Kleinsmith, L. J., 1975, Phosphorylation of non-histone proteins in the regulation of chromosome structure and function, J. Cell. Physiol. 85 (Suppl. 1): 459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Knox, W. E., Auerbach, V. H., and Lin, E. C. C. 1956, Enzymatic and metabolic adaptations in animals, Physiol. Rev. 36: 164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Kornberg, R. D., 1977, Structure of chromatin, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 46: 931.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Korner, A., 1958, Effect of hypophysectomy on the ability of rat liver microsomes in a cell-free system to incorporate radioactive amino-acids into their proteins, Nature 181: 422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Korner, A., 1961, Hormone and protein synthesis in subcellular particles, Mem. Soc. Endocrinol. 11: 60.Google Scholar
  200. Korner, A., 1964, Regulation of the rate of synthesis of messenger ribonucleic acid by growth hormone, Biochem. J. 92: 449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Korner, A., 1965, Growth hormone control of biosynthesis of protein and ribonucleic acid, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 21: 205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Korner, A., 1969, The effect of growth hormone on protein synthesis in the absence of peptide chain initiation, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 174: 351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Koshland, D. E., Jr., 1973, Protein shape and biological control, Sci. Am. 229: 52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Koshland, D. E., Jr., Goldbeter, A., and Stock, J. B., 1982, Amplification and adaptation in regulatory and sensory systems, Science 217: 220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Kostyo, J. L., 1968, Rapid effects of growth hormone on amino acid transport and pcotein synthesis, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 148: 389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Kroeger, H., and Lezzi, M., 1966, The regulation of gene action in insect development, Ann. Rev. Entomol. 11: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Kurtz, D. T., 1981, Hormonal inducibility of rat a2„globulin genes in transfected mouse cells, Nature 291: 629.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Kurtz, D. T., and Feigelson, P., 1978, Multihormonal control of the messenger RNA for the hepatic protein a 20-globulin, in: Biochemical Actions of Hormones ( G. Litwack, ed.), Vol. 5, pp. 433–455, Academic Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Lan, N. C., and Katzenellenbogen, B. S., 1976, Temporal relationships between hormone receptor binding and biological responses in the uterus: Studies with short-and long-acting derivatives of estriol, Endocrinology 98: 220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Latham, K. R., MacLeod, K. M., Papavasilou, S. S., Martial, J. A., Seeburg, P. H., Goodman, H. M., and Baxter, J. D., 1978, The regulation of gene expression by thyroid hormones, in: Receptors and Hormone Action ( L. Birnbaumer and B. W. O’Malley, eds.), Vol. 3, pp. 75–100, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  211. Lawson, G. M., Knoll, B. J. March, C. J., Woo, S. L. C., Tsai, M.-J., and O’Malley, B. W., 1982, Definition of 5’ and 3’ structural boundaries of the chromatin domain containing the ovalbumin multigene family, J. Biol. Chem. 257: 1501.Google Scholar
  212. Lazier, C. B., 1978, Ontogeny of the vitellogenic response to estradiol and of the soluble nuclear receptor in embryonic chick liver, Biochem. J. 174: 143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Lazier, C. B., 1979, Estrogen-binding proteins in avian liver: Characteristics, regulation, and ontogenesis, in: Ontogeny of Receptors and Reproductive Hormone Action ( T. H. Hamilton, J. H. Clark, and W. A. Sadler, eds.), pp. 353–370, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  214. Lefkovitz, R. J., Mukherjee, C., Limbird, L. E., Caron, M. G., Williams, L. T., Alexander, R. W., Mickey, J. V., and Tate, R., 1976, Regulation of adenylate cyclase coupled 0-adrenergic receptors, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 32: 597.Google Scholar
  215. LeMeur, M., Glanville, N., Mandel, J. L., Gerlinger, P., Palmiter, R., and Chambon, P., 1981, The ovalbumin gene family: Hormonal control of X and Y gene transcription and mRNA accumulation, Cell 23: 561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. LeRoith, D., Liotta, A. S., Roth, J., Shiloach, J., Lewis, M. E., Pert, C. B., and Krieger, D. T., 1982, Corticotropin and ß-endorphin-like materials are native to unicellular organisms, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79: 2086.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Lewis, J. A., Clemens, M. J., and Tata, J. R., 1976, Morphological and biochemical changes in the hepatic endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus of male Xenopus laevis after induction of egg-yolk protein synthesis by estradiol-170, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 4: 311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Lezzi, M., and Gilbert, L. I., 1970, Differential effects of K+ and Na+ on specific bands of isolated polytene chromosomes of Chironomus tentans, J. Cell Science, 6: 615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Li, C. H., 1977,13-Endorphin: A pituitary peptide with potent morphine-like activity, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 183: 592.Google Scholar
  220. Liao, S., 1977, Molecular actions of androgens, in: Biochemical Actions of Hormones ( G. Litwack, ed.), Vol. 4, pp. 351–406, Academic Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Liao, S., and Williams-Ashman, H. G., 1962, An effect of testosterone on amino acid incorporation by prostatic ribonucleoprotein particles, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sca. U.S.A. 48: 1956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Liao, S., Smythe, S., Tymoczko, J. L., Rossini, G. P., Chen, C., and Hiipakka, R. A., 1980, RNA dependent release of androgen and other steroid receptor complexes from DNA, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 5545.Google Scholar
  223. Libby, P. R., 1973, Histone acetylation and hormone action, Biochem. J. 134: 907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Locke, M., and Smith, D. S. (eds.), 1980, Insect Biology in the Future, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  225. Lodish, H. F., 1976, Translational control of protein synthesis, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 45: 39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Loose, D. S., Schurman, D. J., and Feldman, D., 1981, A corticosteroid binding protein and endogenous ligand in C. albicans indicating a possible steroid-receptor system, Nature 293: 477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Luck, D. N., and Hamilton, T. H., 1975, Early estrogen action: Stimulation of the synthesis of methylated ribosomal and transfer RNA, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 383: 23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Macmillan, J. (ed.), 1980, Hormonal Regulation of Development, I, Molecular Aspects of Plant Hormones, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  229. Maenpäa, P. H., 1972, Seryl transfer RNA alterations during estrogen-induced phosvitin synthesis: Quantitative assay of the hormone-responding species by ribosome binding, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 47: 971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Maenpäa, P. H., and Bernfeld, M. R., 1969, Quantitative variation in serine transfer ribonucleic acid during estrogen-linked phosphoprotein synthesis in rooster liver, Biochemistry 8: 4926.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Mains, R. E., and Eipper, B. A., 1980, Biosynthetic studies on ACTH, 0-endorphin, and a-melanotropin in the rat, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 343: 94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Mainwaring, W. I. P., 1977, The Mechanism of Action of Androgens, Springer-Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Mainwaring, W. I. P., and Wilce, P. A., 1973, The control of the form and function of the ribosomes in androgen-dependent tissues by testosterone, Biochem. J. 134: 795.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Malick, J. B., and Bell, R. M. S. (eds.), 1982, Endorphins. Chemistry, Physiology, Pharmacology, and Clinical Relevance, Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  235. Mailer, J. L., and Krebs, E. G., 1980, Regulation of oocyte maturation, Curr. Topics Cell. Regul. 16: 271.Google Scholar
  236. Mailer, J. L., Butcher, F. R., and Krebs, E. G., 1979, Early effect of progesterone on levels of cyclic adenosine 3’:5’-monophosphate in Xenopus oocytes, J. Biol. Chem. 254: 579.Google Scholar
  237. Manley, J. L., Sharp, P. A., and Gefter, M. L., 1979, RNA synthesis in isolated nuclei: In vitro initiation of adenovirus 2 major late mRNA precursor, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76: 160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Marshall, S., Bruni, J. F., and Meites, J., 1979, Effects of hypophysectomy, thyroidectomy, and thyroxine on specific prolactin receptor sites in kidneys and adrenals of male rats, Endocrinology 104: 390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Mathis, D. J., Oudet, P., Wasylyk, B., and Chambon, P., 1978, Effect of histone acetylation on structure and in vitro transcription of chromatin, Nucleic Acids Res. 5: 3523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Mathis, D., Oudet, P., and Chambon, P., 1980, Structure of transcribing chromatin, Prog. Nucleic Acids Res. Mol. Biol. 24: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Matusik, R. J., and Rosen, J. M., 1978, Prolactin induction of casein mRNA in organ culture. A model system for studying peptide hormone regulation of gene expression, J. Biol. Chem. 253: 2343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Maurer, R. A., 1982, Estradiol regulates the transcription of the prolactin gene, J. Biol. Chem. 257: 2133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Maxfield, F. R., Willingham, M. C., Pastan, I., Dragsten, P., and Cheng, S. Y., 1981, Binding and mobility of the cell surface receptors for 3,3’,5-triiodo-L-thyronine, Science 211: 63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. May, F. E. B., and Westley, B. R., 1982, Glucocorticoid receptor of X. laevis: Possible effect of phosphorylation on hormone binding. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 26: 103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. McEwen, B. S., 1981, Neural gonadal steroid actions, Science 211: 1303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Means, A. R., and Hamilton, T. H., 1966, Early estrogen action: Concomitant stimulations within two minutes of nuclear RNA synthesis and uptake of RNA precursor by the uterus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 56: 1594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Mihich, E. (ed.), 1971, Drugs and Cell Regulation. Organizational and Pharmacological Aspects on the Molecular Level, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  248. Moore, D. D., Conkling, M. A., and Goodman, H. M., 1982, Human growth hormone: A multigene family, Cell 29: 285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Moore, R. J., and Hamilton, T. H., 1964, Estrogen-induced formation of uterine ribosomes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 52: 439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Motta, A. M., Crosignani, P. G., and Martini, L. (eds.), 1975, Hypothalamic Hormones, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  251. Mueller, G. C., Gorski, J., and Aizawa, Y., 1961, The role of protein synthesis in early estrogen action, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 47: 164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Muggeo, M., Ginsberg, B. H., Roth, J., Neville, D. M., Jr., De Meyts, P., and Kahn, R., 1979, The insulin receptor in vertebrates is functionally more conserved during evolution than insulin itself, Endocrinology 104: 1393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Mulvihill, E. R., and Palmiter, R. D., 1977, Relationship of nuclear estrogen receptor levels to induction of ovalbumin and conalbumin mRNA and chick oviduct, J. Biol. Chem. 252: 2060.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Mulvihill, E. R., and Palmiter, R. D., 1980, Relationship of nuclear progesterone receptors to induction of ovalbumin and conalbumin mRNA in chick oviduct, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 2085.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Mulvihill, E. R., LePennec, J. P., and Chambon, P., 1982, Chicken oviduct progesterone receptor: Location of specific regions of high-affinity binding in cloned DNA fragments of hormone-responsive genes, Cell 24: 621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Nakanishi, S., Inoue, A., Kita, T., Nakamura, M., Chang, A. C. Y., Cohen, S. N., and Numa, S., 1979, Nucleotide sequence of cloned cDNA for bovine corticotropin-ß-lipotropin precursor, Nature 278: 423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Nguyen-Huu, M. C., Barrett, K. J., Giesecke, K., Wurtz, T., Sippel, A. E., and Schutz, G., 1978, Transcription of the chicken ovalbumin and conalbumin gene during early secondary induction with estrogens, Hoppe-Seylers Z. Physiol. Chem. 359: 1307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Nicoll, C. S., 1974, Physiological actions of prolactin, in: Handbook of Physiology (E. Knobil and W. H. Saw- yer, eds.), Section 7, Vol. 4, Part 2, pp. 253–292, American Physiological Society, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  259. Nicoll, C. S., and Bern, H. A., 1972, On the actions of prolactin among the vertebrates: Is there a common denominator?, in:Lactogenic Hormones (G. E. W. Wolstenholme and J. Knight, eds.), pp. 299–317, Churchill Livingstone, London.Google Scholar
  260. Nikodem, V. M., and Rall, J. E., 1982, Effects of thyroid hormone administration on the susceptibility of rat liver chromatin to digestion with micrococcal nuclease, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 106: 1148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Norman, A. W., and Henry, H., 1974, 1, 25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol—A hormonally active form of vitamin D, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 30: 431.Google Scholar
  262. Notides, A., and Gorski, J., 1966, Estrogen-induced synthesis of a specific uterine protein, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sct. U.S.A. 56: 230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. O’Brien, R. L., Parker, J. W., and Dixon, J. F. P., 1978, Mechanisms of lymphocyte transformation, Prog. Mol. Subcell. Biol. 6: 201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Oka, T., and Perry, J. W., 1974, Spermidine as a possible mediator of glucocorticoid effect on milk protein synthesis in mouse mammary epithelium in vitro, J. Biol. Chem. 249: 7647.Google Scholar
  265. O’Malley, B. W., and Birnbaumer, L. (eds.), 1978, Receptors and Hormone Action, Vol. II, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  266. O’Malley, B. W., and Means, A. R., 1974, Female steroid hormones and target cell nuclei, Science 183: 610.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. O’Malley, B. W., McGuire, W. L., Kohler, P. O., and Korenman, S. G., 1969, Studies on the mechanism of steroid hormone regulation of synthesis of specific proteins, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 25: 105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. O’Malley, B. W., Towle, H. C., and Schwartz, R. J., 1977a, Regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes, Ann. Rev. Genet. 11: 239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. O’Malley, B. W., Tsai, M.-J., Tsai, S. Y., and Towle, H. C., 1977b, Regulation of gene expression in chick oviduct, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 42: 605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. O’Malley, B. W., Vedeckis, W. V., Birnbaumer, M.-E., and Schrader, W. T., 1977e, Steroid hormone action: The role of receptors in regulating gene expression, in: Molecular Endocrinology (I. Maclntyre and M. Szelke, eds.), pp. 135–150, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  271. O’Malley, B. W., Roop, D. R., Lai, E. C., Nordstrom, J. L., Catterall, J. F., Swaneck, G. E., Colbert, D. A., Tsai, M.-J., Dugaiczyk, A., and Woo, S. L. C., 1979, The ovalbumin gene: Organization, structure, transcription and regulation, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 35: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Oppenheimer, J. H., 1979, Thyroid hormone action at the cellular level, Science 203: 971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Oppenheimer, J. H., and Dillman, W. H., 1978, Nuclear receptors for triiodothyronine: A physiological perspective, in: Receptors and Hormone Action ( B. W. O’Malley and L. Birnbaumer, eds.), Vol. III, pp. 133, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  274. Oppenheimer, J. H., Schwartz, H. L., Surks, M. I., Koerner, D., and Dillmann, W. H., 1976, Nuclear receptors and the initiation of thyroid hormone action, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 32: 529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Pain, Y. M., and Clemens, M. J., 1973, The role of soluble protein factors in the translational control of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells, FEBS Lett. 32: 205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Palade, G. E., 1975, Intracellular aspects of the process of protein synthesis, Science 189: 347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Palmiter, R. D., 1975, Quantitation of parameters that determine the rate of ovalbumin synthesis, Cell 4: 189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Palmiter, R. D., and Carey, N. H., 1974, Rapid inactivation of ovalbumin messenger ribonucleic acid after acute withdrawal of estrogen, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71: 2357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Palmiter, R. D., Moore, P. B., Mulvihill, E. R., and Emtage, S., 1976, A significant lag in the induction of ovalbumin messenger RNA by steroid hormones: A receptor translocation hypothesis, Cell 8: 557.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Palmiter, R. D., Mulvihill, E. R., McKnight, G. S., Senear, A. W., 1977, Regulation of gene expression in chick oviduct by steroid hormones, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 42 (2): 639.Google Scholar
  281. Parker, M. G. E., 1978, Hormonal control of mRNA synthesis, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 10: 119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Pasqualini, J. R. (ed.), 1976, Receptors and Mechanism of Action of Steroid Hormones, Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  283. Pastan, I. H., Johnson, G. S., and Anderson, W. B., 1975, Role of cyclic nucleotides in growth control, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 44: 491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Pavlik, E. J., and Katzenellengoben, B. S., 1982, The intranuclear distribution of rat uterine estrogen receptor determined after nuclease treatment and chromatin fractionation, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 26: 201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Payvar, F., Wrange, O., Carlstedt, Duke J., Okret, S., Gustafsson, J. A., and Yamamoto, K. R., 1981, Purified glucocorticoid receptors bind selectively in vitro to a cloned DNA fragment whose transcription is regulated by glucocorticoids in vivo, Cell 78: 6628.Google Scholar
  286. Pegg, A. E., Lockwood, D. M., and Williams-Ashman, H. G., 1970, Concentrations of putrescine and polyamines and their enzymic synthesis during androgen-induced prostatic growth, Biochean. J. 117: 17.Google Scholar
  287. Pennequin, P., Robins, D. M., and Schimke, R. T., 1978, Regulation of translation of ovalbumin messenger RNA by estrogen and progesterone in oviduct of withdrawn chicks, Eur. J. Biochem. 90: 51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Perrone, M. H., and Hinkle, P. M., 1978, Regulation of pituitary receptor for thyrotropin-releasing hormone by thyroid hormones, J. Biol. Chem. 253: 5168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Pierce, J. G., and Parsons, T. F., 1980, Glycoprotein hormones: Similar molecules with different functions, in: The Evolution of Protein Structure and Function ( D. S. Bysigman and M. A. B. Brazier, eds.), pp. 99–117, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  290. Pierce, J. G., and Parsons, T. F., 1981, Glycoprotein hormones: Structure and Function, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 50: 465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Pierce, J. J., Liao, T.-H., Howard, S. M., Shome, B., and Cornell, J. S., 1971, Studies on the structure of thyrotropin: Its relationship to luteinizing hormone, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 27: 165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Pietras, R. J., and Szego, C. M., 1980, Partial purification and characterisation of oestrogen receptors in subfractions of hepatocyte plasma membranes, Biochem. J. 191: 743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Pitt-Rivers, R., and Tata, J. R., 1959, The Thyroid Hormones, Pergamon Press, London.Google Scholar
  294. Pliam, N. B., and Goldfine, I. D., 1977, High affinity thyroid hormone binding sites on purified rat liver plasma membranes, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 79: 166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Posner, B. I., Kelly, P. A., and Friesen, H. G., 1974, Induction of a lactogenic receptor in rat liver: Influence of estrogen and the pituitary, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71: 2407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Puca, G. A., Nola, E., Sica, V., and Bresciani, F., 1977, Estrogen binding proteins of calf uterus. Molecular and functional characterization of the receptor transforming factor: A Cat+-activated protease, J. Biol. Chem. 252: 1358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Pullen, R. A., Lindsay, D. G., Wood, S. P. Tickle, I. J., Blundell, T. L., Wollmer, A., Krail, G., Brandenburg, D., Zahn, H., Gliemann, J., and Gammeltoft, S., 1976, Receptor binding region of insulin, Nature 259: 369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Raaka, B. M., and Samuels, H. H., 1981, Regulation of thyroid hormone nuclear receptor levels in GH, cells by 3,5,3’-triiodo-L-thyronine. The use of dense amino acid labelling to determine the influence of hormone on the receptor half life and the rate of appearance of newly synthesized receptor, J. Biol. Chem. 256: 6883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. Raina, A., and Jänne, J., 1970, Polyamines and the accumulation of RNA in mammalian systems, Fed. Proc. 29: 1568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Reel, J. R., and Shih, Y., 1975, Estrogen-inducible uterine progesterone receptors. Characteristics in the ovariectomized immature and adult hamster, Acta Endocrinol. 80: 344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. Retegui, L. A., De Meyts, P., Pena, C., and Masson, P. L., 1982, The same region of human growth hormone is involved in its binding to various receptors, Endocrinology 111: 668.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Rhoads, R. E., McKnight, G. S., and Schimke, R. T., 1973, Quantitative measurement of ovalbumin messenger ribonucleic acid activity, J. Biol. Chem. 248: 2031.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Richards, G., 1981, Insect Hormones in development, Biol. Rev. 56: 501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Rilemma, J. A., Kostyo, J. L., and Gimpel, L. P., 1973, Inhibition of metabolic effects of growth hormone by various inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 297: 527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Ringold, G. M., Yamamoto, K. R., Bishop, J. M., and Varmus, H. E., 1977, Glucocorticoid stimulated accumulation of mouse mammary tumor virus RNA: Increased rate of synthesis of viral RNA, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74: 2879.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Roberts, J. L., and Herbert, E., 1977a, Characterization of a common precursor to corticotropin and fI-lipotropin: Cell-free synthesis of the precursor and identification of corticotropin peptides in the molecule, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74: 4826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Roberts, J. L., and Herbert, E., 1977b, Characterization of a common precursor to corticotropin and fI-lipotropin: Identification of fI-lipotropin peptides and their arrangement relative to corticotropin in the precursor synthesized in a cell-free system, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74: 5300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Robins, D. M., and Schimke, R. T., 1978, Differential effects of estrogen and progesterone on ovalbumin mRNA utilization, J. Biol. Chem. 253: 8925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Robison, G. A., Butcher, R. W., and Sutherland, E. W., 1971, Cyclic AMP, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  310. Lawson, G. M., Knoll, B. J. March, C. J., Woo, S. L. C., Tsai, M.-J., and O’Malley, B. W., 1982, Definition of 5’ and 3’ structural boundaries of the chromatin domain containing the ovalbumin multigene family, J. Biol. Chem. 257: 1501.Google Scholar
  311. Lazier, C. B., 1978, Ontogeny of the vitellogenic response to estradiol and of the soluble nuclear receptor in embryonic chick liver, Biochem. J. 174: 143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. Lazier, C. B., 1979, Estrogen-binding proteins in avian liver: Characteristics, regulation, and ontogenesis, in: Ontogeny of Receptors and Reproductive Hormone Action ( T. H. Hamilton, J. H. Clark, and W. A. Sadler, eds.), pp. 353–370, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  313. Lefkovitz, R. J., Mukherjee, C., Limbird, L. E., Caron, M. G., Williams, L. T., Alexander, R. W., Mickey, J. V., and Tate, R., 1976, Regulation of adenylate cyclase coupled 0-adrenergic receptors, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 32: 597.Google Scholar
  314. LeMeur, M., Glanville, N., Mandel, J. L., Gerlinger, P., Palmiter, R., and Chambon, P., 1981, The ovalbumin gene family: Hormonal control of X and Y gene transcription and mRNA accumulation, Cell 23: 561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. LeRoith, D., Liotta, A. S., Roth, J., Shiloach, J., Lewis, M. E., Pert, C. B., and Krieger, D. T., 1982, Corticotropin and ß-endorphin-like materials are native to unicellular organisms, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79: 2086.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Lewis, J. A., Clemens, M. J., and Tata, J. R., 1976, Morphological and biochemical changes in the hepatic endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus of male Xenopus laevis after induction of egg-yolk protein synthesis by estradiol-170, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 4: 311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Lezzi, M., and Gilbert, L. I., 1970, Differential effects of K+ and Na+ on specific bands of isolated polytene chromosomes of Chironomus tentans, J. Cell Science, 6: 615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. Li, C. H., 1977,13-Endorphin: A pituitary peptide with potent morphine-like activity, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 183: 592.Google Scholar
  319. Liao, S., 1977, Molecular actions of androgens, in: Biochemical Actions of Hormones ( G. Litwack, ed.), Vol. 4, pp. 351–406, Academic Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. Liao, S., and Williams-Ashman, H. G., 1962, An effect of testosterone on amino acid incorporation by prostatic ribonucleoprotein particles, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sca. U.S.A. 48: 1956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Liao, S., Smythe, S., Tymoczko, J. L., Rossini, G. P., Chen, C., and Hiipakka, R. A., 1980, RNA dependent release of androgen and other steroid receptor complexes from DNA, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 5545.Google Scholar
  322. Libby, P. R., 1973, Histone acetylation and hormone action, Biochem. J. 134: 907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. Locke, M., and Smith, D. S. (eds.), 1980, Insect Biology in the Future, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  324. Lodish, H. F., 1976, Translational control of protein synthesis, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 45: 39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Loose, D. S., Schurman, D. J., and Feldman, D., 1981, A corticosteroid binding protein and endogenous ligand in C. albicans indicating a possible steroid-receptor system, Nature 293: 477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. Luck, D. N., and Hamilton, T. H., 1975, Early estrogen action: Stimulation of the synthesis of methylated ribosomal and transfer RNA, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 383: 23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Macmillan, J. (ed.), 1980, Hormonal Regulation of Development, I, Molecular Aspects of Plant Hormones, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  328. Maenpäa, P. H., 1972, Seryl transfer RNA alterations during estrogen-induced phosvitin synthesis: Quantitative assay of the hormone-responding species by ribosome binding, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 47: 971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. Maenpäa, P. H., and Bernfeld, M. R., 1969, Quantitative variation in serine transfer ribonucleic acid during estrogen-linked phosphoprotein synthesis in rooster liver, Biochemistry 8: 4926.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Mains, R. E., and Eipper, B. A., 1980, Biosynthetic studies on ACTH, 0-endorphin, and a-melanotropin in the rat, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 343: 94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Mainwaring, W. I. P., 1977, The Mechanism of Action of Androgens, Springer-Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. Mainwaring, W. I. P., and Wilce, P. A., 1973, The control of the form and function of the ribosomes in androgen-dependent tissues by testosterone, Biochem. J. 134: 795.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. Malick, J. B., and Bell, R. M. S. (eds.), 1982, Endorphins. Chemistry, Physiology, Pharmacology, and Clinical Relevance, Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  334. Mailer, J. L., and Krebs, E. G., 1980, Regulation of oocyte maturation, Curr. Topics Cell. Regul. 16: 271.Google Scholar
  335. Mailer, J. L., Butcher, F. R., and Krebs, E. G., 1979, Early effect of progesterone on levels of cyclic adenosine 3’:5’-monophosphate in Xenopus oocytes, J. Biol. Chem. 254: 579.Google Scholar
  336. Manley, J. L., Sharp, P. A., and Gefter, M. L., 1979, RNA synthesis in isolated nuclei: In vitro initiation of adenovirus 2 major late mRNA precursor, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76: 160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Marshall, S., Bruni, J. F., and Meites, J., 1979, Effects of hypophysectomy, thyroidectomy, and thyroxine on specific prolactin receptor sites in kidneys and adrenals of male rats, Endocrinology 104: 390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Mathis, D. J., Oudet, P., Wasylyk, B., and Chambon, P., 1978, Effect of histone acetylation on structure and in vitro transcription of chromatin, Nucleic Acids Res. 5: 3523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. Mathis, D., Oudet, P., and Chambon, P., 1980, Structure of transcribing chromatin, Prog. Nucleic Acids Res. Mol. Biol. 24: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. Matusik, R. J., and Rosen, J. M., 1978, Prolactin induction of casein mRNA in organ culture. A model system for studying peptide hormone regulation of gene expression, J. Biol. Chem. 253: 2343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. Maurer, R. A., 1982, Estradiol regulates the transcription of the prolactin gene, J. Biol. Chem. 257: 2133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. Maxfield, F. R., Willingham, M. C., Pastan, I., Dragsten, P., and Cheng, S. Y., 1981, Binding and mobility of the cell surface receptors for 3,3’,5-triiodo-L-thyronine, Science 211: 63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. May, F. E. B., and Westley, B. R., 1982, Glucocorticoid receptor of X. laevis: Possible effect of phosphorylation on hormone binding. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 26: 103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. McEwen, B. S., 1981, Neural gonadal steroid actions, Science 211: 1303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. Means, A. R., and Hamilton, T. H., 1966, Early estrogen action: Concomitant stimulations within two minutes of nuclear RNA synthesis and uptake of RNA precursor by the uterus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 56: 1594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. Mihich, E. (ed.), 1971, Drugs and Cell Regulation. Organizational and Pharmacological Aspects on the Molecular Level, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  347. Moore, D. D., Conkling, M. A., and Goodman, H. M., 1982, Human growth hormone: A multigene family, Cell 29: 285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. Moore, R. J., and Hamilton, T. H., 1964, Estrogen-induced formation of uterine ribosomes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 52: 439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. Motta, A. M., Crosignani, P. G., and Martini, L. (eds.), 1975, Hypothalamic Hormones, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  350. Mueller, G. C., Gorski, J., and Aizawa, Y., 1961, The role of protein synthesis in early estrogen action, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 47: 164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. Muggeo, M., Ginsberg, B. H., Roth, J., Neville, D. M., Jr., De Meyts, P., and Kahn, R., 1979, The insulin receptor in vertebrates is functionally more conserved during evolution than insulin itself, Endocrinology 104: 1393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. Mulvihill, E. R., and Palmiter, R. D., 1977, Relationship of nuclear estrogen receptor levels to induction of ovalbumin and conalbumin mRNA and chick oviduct, J. Biol. Chem. 252: 2060.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. Mulvihill, E. R., and Palmiter, R. D., 1980, Relationship of nuclear progesterone receptors to induction of ovalbumin and conalbumin mRNA in chick oviduct, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 2085.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. Mulvihill, E. R., LePennec, J. P., and Chambon, P., 1982, Chicken oviduct progesterone receptor: Location of specific regions of high-affinity binding in cloned DNA fragments of hormone-responsive genes, Cell 24: 621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. Nakanishi, S., Inoue, A., Kita, T., Nakamura, M., Chang, A. C. Y., Cohen, S. N., and Numa, S., 1979, Nucleotide sequence of cloned cDNA for bovine corticotropin-ß-lipotropin precursor, Nature 278: 423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. Nguyen-Huu, M. C., Barrett, K. J., Giesecke, K., Wurtz, T., Sippel, A. E., and Schutz, G., 1978, Transcription of the chicken ovalbumin and conalbumin gene during early secondary induction with estrogens, Hoppe-Seylers Z. Physiol. Chem. 359: 1307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. Nicoll, C. S., 1974, Physiological actions of prolactin, in: Handbook of Physiology (E. Knobil and W. H. Saw- yer, eds.), Section 7, Vol. 4, Part 2, pp. 253–292, American Physiological Society, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  358. Nicoll, C. S., and Bern, H. A., 1972, On the actions of prolactin among the vertebrates: Is there a common denominator?, in:Lactogenic Hormones (G. E. W. Wolstenholme and J. Knight, eds.), pp. 299–317, Churchill Livingstone, London.Google Scholar
  359. Nikodem, V. M., and Rall, J. E., 1982, Effects of thyroid hormone administration on the susceptibility of rat liver chromatin to digestion with micrococcal nuclease, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 106: 1148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. Norman, A. W., and Henry, H., 1974, 1, 25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol—A hormonally active form of vitamin D, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 30: 431.Google Scholar
  361. Notides, A., and Gorski, J., 1966, Estrogen-induced synthesis of a specific uterine protein, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sct. U.S.A. 56: 230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. O’Brien, R. L., Parker, J. W., and Dixon, J. F. P., 1978, Mechanisms of lymphocyte transformation, Prog. Mol. Subcell. Biol. 6: 201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. Oka, T., and Perry, J. W., 1974, Spermidine as a possible mediator of glucocorticoid effect on milk protein synthesis in mouse mammary epithelium in vitro, J. Biol. Chem. 249: 7647.Google Scholar
  364. O’Malley, B. W., and Birnbaumer, L. (eds.), 1978, Receptors and Hormone Action, Vol. II, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  365. O’Malley, B. W., and Means, A. R., 1974, Female steroid hormones and target cell nuclei, Science 183: 610.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. O’Malley, B. W., McGuire, W. L., Kohler, P. O., and Korenman, S. G., 1969, Studies on the mechanism of steroid hormone regulation of synthesis of specific proteins, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 25: 105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. O’Malley, B. W., Towle, H. C., and Schwartz, R. J., 1977a, Regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes, Ann. Rev. Genet. 11: 239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. O’Malley, B. W., Tsai, M.-J., Tsai, S. Y., and Towle, H. C., 1977b, Regulation of gene expression in chick oviduct, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 42: 605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. O’Malley, B. W., Vedeckis, W. V., Birnbaumer, M.-E., and Schrader, W. T., 1977e, Steroid hormone action: The role of receptors in regulating gene expression, in: Molecular Endocrinology (I. Maclntyre and M. Szelke, eds.), pp. 135–150, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  370. O’Malley, B. W., Roop, D. R., Lai, E. C., Nordstrom, J. L., Catterall, J. F., Swaneck, G. E., Colbert, D. A., Tsai, M.-J., Dugaiczyk, A., and Woo, S. L. C., 1979, The ovalbumin gene: Organization, structure, transcription and regulation, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 35: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  371. Oppenheimer, J. H., 1979, Thyroid hormone action at the cellular level, Science 203: 971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. Oppenheimer, J. H., and Dillman, W. H., 1978, Nuclear receptors for triiodothyronine: A physiological perspective, in: Receptors and Hormone Action ( B. W. O’Malley and L. Birnbaumer, eds.), Vol. III, pp. 133, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  373. Oppenheimer, J. H., Schwartz, H. L., Surks, M. I., Koerner, D., and Dillmann, W. H., 1976, Nuclear receptors and the initiation of thyroid hormone action, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 32: 529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. Pain, Y. M., and Clemens, M. J., 1973, The role of soluble protein factors in the translational control of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells, FEBS Lett. 32: 205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. Palade, G. E., 1975, Intracellular aspects of the process of protein synthesis, Science 189: 347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. Palmiter, R. D., 1975, Quantitation of parameters that determine the rate of ovalbumin synthesis, Cell 4: 189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. Palmiter, R. D., and Carey, N. H., 1974, Rapid inactivation of ovalbumin messenger ribonucleic acid after acute withdrawal of estrogen, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71: 2357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. Palmiter, R. D., Moore, P. B., Mulvihill, E. R., and Emtage, S., 1976, A significant lag in the induction of ovalbumin messenger RNA by steroid hormones: A receptor translocation hypothesis, Cell 8: 557.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  379. Palmiter, R. D., Mulvihill, E. R., McKnight, G. S., Senear, A. W., 1977, Regulation of gene expression in chick oviduct by steroid hormones, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 42 (2): 639.Google Scholar
  380. Parker, M. G. E., 1978, Hormonal control of mRNA synthesis, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 10: 119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. Pasqualini, J. R. (ed.), 1976, Receptors and Mechanism of Action of Steroid Hormones, Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  382. Pastan, I. H., Johnson, G. S., and Anderson, W. B., 1975, Role of cyclic nucleotides in growth control, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 44: 491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. Pavlik, E. J., and Katzenellengoben, B. S., 1982, The intranuclear distribution of rat uterine estrogen receptor determined after nuclease treatment and chromatin fractionation, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 26: 201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. Payvar, F., Wrange, O., Carlstedt, Duke J., Okret, S., Gustafsson, J. A., and Yamamoto, K. R., 1981, Purified glucocorticoid receptors bind selectively in vitro to a cloned DNA fragment whose transcription is regulated by glucocorticoids in vivo, Cell 78: 6628.Google Scholar
  385. Pegg, A. E., Lockwood, D. M., and Williams-Ashman, H. G., 1970, Concentrations of putrescine and polyamines and their enzymic synthesis during androgen-induced prostatic growth, Biochean. J. 117: 17.Google Scholar
  386. Pennequin, P., Robins, D. M., and Schimke, R. T., 1978, Regulation of translation of ovalbumin messenger RNA by estrogen and progesterone in oviduct of withdrawn chicks, Eur. J. Biochem. 90: 51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. Perrone, M. H., and Hinkle, P. M., 1978, Regulation of pituitary receptor for thyrotropin-releasing hormone by thyroid hormones, J. Biol. Chem. 253: 5168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. Pierce, J. G., and Parsons, T. F., 1980, Glycoprotein hormones: Similar molecules with different functions, in: The Evolution of Protein Structure and Function ( D. S. Bysigman and M. A. B. Brazier, eds.), pp. 99–117, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  389. Pierce, J. G., and Parsons, T. F., 1981, Glycoprotein hormones: Structure and Function, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 50: 465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. Pierce, J. J., Liao, T.-H., Howard, S. M., Shome, B., and Cornell, J. S., 1971, Studies on the structure of thyrotropin: Its relationship to luteinizing hormone, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 27: 165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. Pietras, R. J., and Szego, C. M., 1980, Partial purification and characterisation of oestrogen receptors in subfractions of hepatocyte plasma membranes, Biochem. J. 191: 743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  392. Pitt-Rivers, R., and Tata, J. R., 1959, The Thyroid Hormones, Pergamon Press, London.Google Scholar
  393. Pliam, N. B., and Goldfine, I. D., 1977, High affinity thyroid hormone binding sites on purified rat liver plasma membranes, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 79: 166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. Posner, B. I., Kelly, P. A., and Friesen, H. G., 1974, Induction of a lactogenic receptor in rat liver: Influence of estrogen and the pituitary, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71: 2407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. Puca, G. A., Nola, E., Sica, V., and Bresciani, F., 1977, Estrogen binding proteins of calf uterus. Molecular and functional characterization of the receptor transforming factor: A Cat+-activated protease, J. Biol. Chem. 252: 1358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  396. Pullen, R. A., Lindsay, D. G., Wood, S. P. Tickle, I. J., Blundell, T. L., Wollmer, A., Krail, G., Brandenburg, D., Zahn, H., Gliemann, J., and Gammeltoft, S., 1976, Receptor binding region of insulin, Nature 259: 369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. Raaka, B. M., and Samuels, H. H., 1981, Regulation of thyroid hormone nuclear receptor levels in GH, cells by 3,5,3’-triiodo-L-thyronine. The use of dense amino acid labelling to determine the influence of hormone on the receptor half life and the rate of appearance of newly synthesized receptor, J. Biol. Chem. 256: 6883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  398. Raina, A., and Jänne, J., 1970, Polyamines and the accumulation of RNA in mammalian systems, Fed. Proc. 29: 1568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  399. Reel, J. R., and Shih, Y., 1975, Estrogen-inducible uterine progesterone receptors. Characteristics in the ovariectomized immature and adult hamster, Acta Endocrinol. 80: 344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  400. Retegui, L. A., De Meyts, P., Pena, C., and Masson, P. L., 1982, The same region of human growth hormone is involved in its binding to various receptors, Endocrinology 111: 668.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. Rhoads, R. E., McKnight, G. S., and Schimke, R. T., 1973, Quantitative measurement of ovalbumin messenger ribonucleic acid activity, J. Biol. Chem. 248: 2031.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  402. Richards, G., 1981, Insect Hormones in development, Biol. Rev. 56: 501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  403. Rilemma, J. A., Kostyo, J. L., and Gimpel, L. P., 1973, Inhibition of metabolic effects of growth hormone by various inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 297: 527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  404. Ringold, G. M., Yamamoto, K. R., Bishop, J. M., and Varmus, H. E., 1977, Glucocorticoid stimulated accumulation of mouse mammary tumor virus RNA: Increased rate of synthesis of viral RNA, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74: 2879.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. Roberts, J. L., and Herbert, E., 1977a, Characterization of a common precursor to corticotropin and fI-lipotropin: Cell-free synthesis of the precursor and identification of corticotropin peptides in the molecule, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74: 4826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  406. Roberts, J. L., and Herbert, E., 1977b, Characterization of a common precursor to corticotropin and fI-lipotropin: Identification of fI-lipotropin peptides and their arrangement relative to corticotropin in the precursor synthesized in a cell-free system, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74: 5300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  407. Robins, D. M., and Schimke, R. T., 1978, Differential effects of estrogen and progesterone on ovalbumin mRNA utilization, J. Biol. Chem. 253: 8925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  408. Robison, G. A., Butcher, R. W., and Sutherland, E. W., 1971, Cyclic AMP, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  409. Rosen, J. M., Harris, S. E., Rosenfeld, G. C., Liarakos, C. D., and O’Malley, B. W., 1974, Effect of estrogen on gene expression in the chick oviduct. III. Hybridization studies with [3H] messenger RNA and [3H] complementary DNA under conditions of DNA excess, Cell Differ. 3: 103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  410. Rosen, J. M., O’Neill, D. L., McHugh, J. E., and Comstock, J. P., 1978, Progesterone-mediated inhibition of casein messenger RNA and polysomal casein synthesis in rat mammary gland during pregnancy, Biochemistry 17: 290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  411. Rosenfeld, M. G., and O’Malley, B. W., 1970, Steroid hormones: Effects on adenyl cyclase activity and adenosine 3’:5’-monophosphate in target tissues, Science 168: 253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  412. Roth, G. S., and Hess, G. D., 1982, Changes in mechanisms of hormone and neurotransmitter action during aging: Current status of the role of receptor and post-receptor alterations. A review,. Mech. Ageing Dey. 20: 175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  413. Roth, J., LeRoith, D., Shiloach, J., Rosenzweig, J. L., Lesniak, M. A., and Havrankova, J., 1982, The evolutionary origins of hormones, neurotransmitters, and other extracellular chemical messengers. Implications for mammalian biology, N. Engl. J. Med. 306: 523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  414. Roy, A. K., Chatterjee, B., Demyan, W. F., Nath, T. S., and Motwani, N. M., 1982, Pretranslational regulation of a2u globulin in rat liver by growth hormone, J. Biol. Chem. 257: 7834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  415. Royal, A., Garapin, A., Cami, B., Perrin, F., Mandel, J. L., Le Meur, M., Bregegegre, F., Gannon, F., Le Pennec, J. P., Chambon, P., and Kourilsky, P., 1979, The ovalbumin gene region: Common features in the organization of three genes expressed in chicken oviduct under hormonal control, Nature 279: 125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  416. Russell, D. H., Snyder, S. H., and Medina, V. J., 1970, Growth hormone induction of ornithine decarboxylase in rat liver, Endocrinology 86: 1414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  417. Rutter, W. J., Pictet, R. L., and Morris, P. W., 1973, Towards molecular mechanisms of developmental processes, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 42: 601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  418. Ryffel, G. U., 1978, Synthesis of vitellogenin, an attractive model for investigating hormone-induced gene activation, Mol. Cell Endocrinol. 12: 237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  419. Sakai, S., Bowman, P. D., Young, J., McCormick, K., and Nandi, S., 1979, Glucocorticoid regulation of prolactin receptors on mammary cells in culture, Endocrinology 104: 1447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  420. Samuels, H. H., 1978, In vitro studies on thyroid hormone receptors, in: Receptors and Hormone Action (B. W. O’Malley and L. Birnbaumer, eds.), Vol. III, pp. 35–74, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  421. Samuels, H. H., and Shapiro, L. E., 1976, Thyroid hormone stimulates do novo growth hormone synthesis in cultured GH1 cells: Evidence for a rate limiting RNA species in the induction process, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73: 3369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  422. Samuels, H. H., Stanley, F., and Shapiro, L. E., 1976, Dose-dependent depletion of nuclear receptors by Ltriiodothyronine: Evidence for a role in induction of growth hormone synthesis in cultured GH1 cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73: 3877.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  423. Samuels, H. H., Stanley, F., and Shapiro, L. E., 1977, Modulation of thyroid hormone nuclear receptor levels by 3,5,3’-triiodo-L-thyronine in GH1 cells, J. Biol. Chem. 252: 6052.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  424. Samuels, H. H., Stanley, F., Casanova, J., and Shao, T. C., 1980, Thyroid hormone nuclear receptor levels are influenced by the acetylation of chromatin associated proteins, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 2499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  425. Sasaki, K., Dockerill, S., Adamiak, A., Tickle, I. J., and Blundell, T., 1975, X-ray analysis of glucagon and its relationship to receptor binding, Nature 257: 751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  426. Sato, G. H., and Ross, R. (eds.), 1979, Hormones and cell culture, in:Cold Spring Harbor Conferences on Cell Proliferation, Vol. 6, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.Google Scholar
  427. Sato, G. H., Pardee, A. B., and Sirbasku, D. A. (eds.), 1982, Growth of Cells in Hormonally Defined Media: Cold Spring Harbor Conferences on Cell Proliferation, Vol. 9, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.Google Scholar
  428. Sawyer, W. H., 1965, Evolution of neurophypophysial principles, Arch. Anat. Microsc. Morphol. Exp. 54: 295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  429. Schally, A. V., Arimura, A., and Kastin, A. J., 1973, Hypothalamic regulatory hormones. At least 9 substances from the hypothalamus control the secretion of pituitary hormones, Science 179: 341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  430. Schaltmann, K., and Pongs, O., 1982, Identification and characterization of the ecdysterone receptor in Drosophila_melanogaster by photoaffinity labelling, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79: 6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  431. Scharf, J.-H. (ed.), 1974, Das somatotrope hormon, Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher, Halle/Saale.Google Scholar
  432. Schimke, R. T., 1967, Protein turnover and the regulation of enzyme levels in rat liver, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. No. 27: 301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  433. Schimke, R. T., McKnight, G. S., Shapiro, D. J., Sullivan, D., and Palacios, R., 1975, Hormonal regulation of ovalbumin synthesis in the chick oviduct, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 31: 175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  434. Schorderet-Slatkine, S., Schorderet, M., Boquet, P., Godeau, P., and Baulieu, E.-E., 1978, Progesterone-induced meiosis in Xenopus laevis oocytes: A role for cAMP at the “maturation-promoting factor” level, Cell 15: 1269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  435. Schrader, W. T., and O’Malley, B. W., 1978, Molecular structure and analysis of progesterone receptors, in: Receptors and Hormone Action (B. W. O’Malley and L. Birnbaumer, eds.), Vol. II, pp. 189–224, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  436. Schulster, D., and Levitzki, A. (eds.), 1980, Cellular Receptors for Hormones and Neurotransmitters, John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  437. Schulster, D., Burstein, S., and Cooke, B. A., 1976, Molecular Endocrinology of the_Steroid Hormones, John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  438. Schutz, G., Killewich, L., Chen, G., and Feigelson, P., 1975, Control of mRNA for hepatic tryptophan oxygenase during hormonal and substrate induction, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72: 1017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  439. Schutz, G., Nguyen-Huu, M. C., Giesecke, K., Hynes, N. E., Groner, B., Wurtz, T., and Sippel, A. E., 1977, Hormonal control of egg white protein messenger RNA synthesis in the chicken oviduct, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 42: 617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  440. Scott, R. W., and Frankel, F. R., 1980, Enrichment of estradiol receptor complexes in a transcriptionally active fraction of chromatin from MCF 7 cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77: 1291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  441. Searle, P. F., and Tata, J. R., 1981, Vitelloginin gene expression in male Xenopus hepatocytes during primary and secondary stimulation with estrogen in cell cultures, Cell 23: 741.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  442. Roberts, J. L., and Herbert, E., 1977b, Characterization of a common precursor to corticotropin and fI-lipotropin: Identification of fI-lipotropin peptides and their arrangement relative to corticotropin in the precursor synthesized in a cell-free system, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74: 5300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  443. Robins, D. M., and Schimke, R. T., 1978, Differential effects of estrogen and progesterone on ovalbumin mRNA utilization, J. Biol. Chem. 253: 8925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  444. Robison, G. A., Butcher, R. W., and Sutherland, E. W., 1971, Cyclic AMP, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  445. Rosen, J. M., Harris, S. E., Rosenfeld, G. C., Liarakos, C. D., and O’Malley, B. W., 1974, Effect of estrogen on gene expression in the chick oviduct. III. Hybridization studies with [3H] messenger RNA and [3H] complementary DNA under conditions of DNA excess, Cell Differ. 3: 103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  446. Rosen, J. M., O’Neill, D. L., McHugh, J. E., and Comstock, J. P., 1978, Progesterone-mediated inhibition of casein messenger RNA and polysomal casein synthesis in rat mammary gland during pregnancy, Biochemistry 17: 290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  447. Rosenfeld, M. G., and O’Malley, B. W., 1970, Steroid hormones: Effects on adenyl cyclase activity and adenosine 3’:5’-monophosphate in target tissues, Science 168: 253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  448. Roth, G. S., and Hess, G. D., 1982, Changes in mechanisms of hormone and neurotransmitter action during aging: Current status of the role of receptor and post-receptor alterations. A review,. Mech. Ageing Dey. 20: 175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  449. Roth, J., LeRoith, D., Shiloach, J., Rosenzweig, J. L., Lesniak, M. A., and Havrankova, J., 1982, The evolutionary origins of hormones, neurotransmitters, and other extracellular chemical messengers. Implications for mammalian biology, N. Engl. J. Med. 306: 523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  450. Roy, A. K., Chatterjee, B., Demyan, W. F., Nath, T. S., and Motwani, N. M., 1982, Pretranslational regulation of a2u globulin in rat liver by growth hormone, J. Biol. Chem. 257: 7834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  451. Royal, A., Garapin, A., Cami, B., Perrin, F., Mandel, J. L., Le Meur, M., Bregegegre, F., Gannon, F., Le Pennec, J. P., Chambon, P., and Kourilsky, P., 1979, The ovalbumin gene region: Common features in the organization of three genes expressed in chicken oviduct under hormonal control, Nature 279: 125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  452. Russell, D. H., Snyder, S. H., and Medina, V. J., 1970, Growth hormone induction of ornithine decarboxylase in rat liver, Endocrinology 86: 1414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  453. Rutter, W. J., Pictet, R. L., and Morris, P. W., 1973, Towards molecular mechanisms of developmental processes, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 42: 601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  454. Ryffel, G. U., 1978, Synthesis of vitellogenin, an attractive model for investigating hormone-induced gene activation, Mol. Cell Endocrinol. 12: 237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  455. Sakai, S., Bowman, P. D., Young, J., McCormick, K., and Nandi, S., 1979, Glucocorticoid regulation of prolactin receptors on mammary cells in culture, Endocrinology 104: 1447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  456. Samuels, H. H., 1978, In vitro studies on thyroid hormone receptors, in: Receptors and Hormone Action (B. W. O’Malley and L. Birnbaumer, eds.), Vol. III, pp. 35–74, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  457. Samuels, H. H., and Shapiro, L. E., 1976, Thyroid hormone stimulates do novo growth hormone synthesis in cultured GH1 cells: Evidence for a rate limiting RNA species in the induction process, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73: 3369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  458. Samuels, H. H., Stanley, F., and Shapiro, L. E., 1976, Dose-dependent depletion of nuclear receptors by Ltriiodothyronine: Evidence for a role in induction of growth hormone synthesis in cultured GH1 cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73: 3877.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  459. Samuels, H. H., Stanley, F., and Shapiro, L. E., 1977, Modulation of thyroid hormone nuclear receptor levels by 3,5,3’-triiodo-L-thyronine in GH1 cells, J. Biol. Chem. 252: 6052.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  460. Samuels, H. H., Stanley, F., Casanova, J., and Shao, T. C., 1980, Thyroid hormone nuclear receptor levels are influenced by the acetylation of chromatin associated proteins, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 2499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  461. Sasaki, K., Dockerill, S., Adamiak, A., Tickle, I. J., and Blundell, T., 1975, X-ray analysis of glucagon and its relationship to receptor binding, Nature 257: 751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  462. Sato, G. H., and Ross, R. (eds.), 1979, Hormones and cell culture, in:Cold Spring Harbor Conferences on Cell Proliferation, Vol. 6, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.Google Scholar
  463. Sato, G. H., Pardee, A. B., and Sirbasku, D. A. (eds.), 1982, Growth of Cells in Hormonally Defined Media: Cold Spring Harbor Conferences on Cell Proliferation, Vol. 9, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.Google Scholar
  464. Sawyer, W. H., 1965, Evolution of neurophypophysial principles, Arch. Anat. Microsc. Morphol. Exp. 54: 295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  465. Schally, A. V., Arimura, A., and Kastin, A. J., 1973, Hypothalamic regulatory hormones. At least 9 substances from the hypothalamus control the secretion of pituitary hormones, Science 179: 341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  466. Schaltmann, K., and Pongs, O., 1982, Identification and characterization of the ecdysterone receptor in Drosophila_melanogaster by photoaffinity labelling, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79: 6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  467. Scharf, J.-H. (ed.), 1974, Das somatotrope hormon, Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher, Halle/Saale.Google Scholar
  468. Schimke, R. T., 1967, Protein turnover and the regulation of enzyme levels in rat liver, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. No. 27: 301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  469. Schimke, R. T., McKnight, G. S., Shapiro, D. J., Sullivan, D., and Palacios, R., 1975, Hormonal regulation of ovalbumin synthesis in the chick oviduct, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 31: 175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  470. Schorderet-Slatkine, S., Schorderet, M., Boquet, P., Godeau, P., and Baulieu, E.-E., 1978, Progesterone-induced meiosis in Xenopus laevis oocytes: A role for cAMP at the “maturation-promoting factor” level, Cell 15: 1269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  471. Schrader, W. T., and O’Malley, B. W., 1978, Molecular structure and analysis of progesterone receptors, in: Receptors and Hormone Action (B. W. O’Malley and L. Birnbaumer, eds.), Vol. II, pp. 189–224, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  472. Schulster, D., and Levitzki, A. (eds.), 1980, Cellular Receptors for Hormones and Neurotransmitters, John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  473. Schulster, D., Burstein, S., and Cooke, B. A., 1976, Molecular Endocrinology of the_Steroid Hormones, John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  474. Schutz, G., Killewich, L., Chen, G., and Feigelson, P., 1975, Control of mRNA for hepatic tryptophan oxygenase during hormonal and substrate induction, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72: 1017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  475. Schutz, G., Nguyen-Huu, M. C., Giesecke, K., Hynes, N. E., Groner, B., Wurtz, T., and Sippel, A. E., 1977, Hormonal control of egg white protein messenger RNA synthesis in the chicken oviduct, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 42: 617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  476. Scott, R. W., and Frankel, F. R., 1980, Enrichment of estradiol receptor complexes in a transcriptionally active fraction of chromatin from MCF 7 cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77: 1291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  477. Searle, P. F., and Tata, J. R., 1981, Vitelloginin gene expression in male Xenopus hepatocytes during primary and secondary stimulation with estrogen in cell cultures, Cell 23: 741.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  478. Sekeris, C. E., 1965, Action of ecdysone on RNA and protein metabolism in the blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala, in: Mechanisms of Hormone Action ( P. Karlson, ed.), pp. 149–164, Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  479. Senear, A. W., and Palmiter, R. D., 1981, Multiple structural features are responsible for the nuclease sensitivity of the active ovalbumin gene, J. Biol. Chem. 256: 1191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  480. Senior, M. B., and Frankel, F. R., 1978, Evidence for two kinds of chromatin binding sites for the estradiolreceptor complex, Cell 14: 857.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  481. Seo, H., Refetoff, S., Vassart, G., and Brocas, H., 1979, Comparison of primary and secondary stimulation of male rats by estradiol in terms of prolactin synthesis and mRNA accumulation in the pituitary, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76: 824.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  482. Shain, S. A., Boesel, R. W., and Axelrod, L. R., 1075, Aging in rat prostate. Reduction in detectable ventral prostate androgen receptor content, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 167: 247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  483. Sharma, O. K. and Borek, E., 1970, Hormonal effect on transfer ribonucleic acid methylases and on serine transfer ribonucleic acid, Biochemistry 9: 2507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  484. Sherman, M. R., Tuazon, F. B., Diaz, S. C., and Miller, L. K., 1976, Multiple forms of oviduct progesterone receptors analyzed by ion exchange filtration and gel electrophoresis, Biochemistry 15: 980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  485. Rosen, J. M., Harris, S. E., Rosenfeld, G. C., Liarakos, C. D., and O’Malley, B. W., 1974, Effect of estrogen on gene expression in the chick oviduct. III. Hybridization studies with [3H] messenger RNA and [3H] complementary DNA under conditions of DNA excess, Cell Differ. 3: 103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  486. Rosen, J. M., O’Neill, D. L., McHugh, J. E., and Comstock, J. P., 1978, Progesterone-mediated inhibition of casein messenger RNA and polysomal casein synthesis in rat mammary gland during pregnancy, Biochemistry 17: 290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  487. Rosenfeld, M. G., and O’Malley, B. W., 1970, Steroid hormones: Effects on adenyl cyclase activity and adenosine 3’:5’-monophosphate in target tissues, Science 168: 253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  488. Roth, G. S., and Hess, G. D., 1982, Changes in mechanisms of hormone and neurotransmitter action during aging: Current status of the role of receptor and post-receptor alterations. A review,. Mech. Ageing Dey. 20: 175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  489. Roth, J., LeRoith, D., Shiloach, J., Rosenzweig, J. L., Lesniak, M. A., and Havrankova, J., 1982, The evolutionary origins of hormones, neurotransmitters, and other extracellular chemical messengers. Implications for mammalian biology, N. Engl. J. Med. 306: 523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  490. Roy, A. K., Chatterjee, B., Demyan, W. F., Nath, T. S., and Motwani, N. M., 1982, Pretranslational regulation of a2u globulin in rat liver by growth hormone, J. Biol. Chem. 257: 7834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  491. Royal, A., Garapin, A., Cami, B., Perrin, F., Mandel, J. L., Le Meur, M., Bregegegre, F., Gannon, F., Le Pennec, J. P., Chambon, P., and Kourilsky, P., 1979, The ovalbumin gene region: Common features in the organization of three genes expressed in chicken oviduct under hormonal control, Nature 279: 125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  492. Russell, D. H., Snyder, S. H., and Medina, V. J., 1970, Growth hormone induction of ornithine decarboxylase in rat liver, Endocrinology 86: 1414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  493. Rutter, W. J., Pictet, R. L., and Morris, P. W., 1973, Towards molecular mechanisms of developmental processes, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 42: 601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  494. Ryffel, G. U., 1978, Synthesis of vitellogenin, an attractive model for investigating hormone-induced gene activation, Mol. Cell Endocrinol. 12: 237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  495. Sakai, S., Bowman, P. D., Young, J., McCormick, K., and Nandi, S., 1979, Glucocorticoid regulation of prolactin receptors on mammary cells in culture, Endocrinology 104: 1447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  496. Samuels, H. H., 1978, In vitro studies on thyroid hormone receptors, in: Receptors and Hormone Action (B. W. O’Malley and L. Birnbaumer, eds.), Vol. III, pp. 35–74, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  497. Samuels, H. H., and Shapiro, L. E., 1976, Thyroid hormone stimulates do novo growth hormone synthesis in cultured GH1 cells: Evidence for a rate limiting RNA species in the induction process, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73: 3369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  498. Samuels, H. H., Stanley, F., and Shapiro, L. E., 1976, Dose-dependent depletion of nuclear receptors by Ltriiodothyronine: Evidence for a role in induction of growth hormone synthesis in cultured GH1 cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73: 3877.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  499. Samuels, H. H., Stanley, F., and Shapiro, L. E., 1977, Modulation of thyroid hormone nuclear receptor levels by 3,5,3’-triiodo-L-thyronine in GH1 cells, J. Biol. Chem. 252: 6052.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  500. Samuels, H. H., Stanley, F., Casanova, J., and Shao, T. C., 1980, Thyroid hormone nuclear receptor levels are influenced by the acetylation of chromatin associated proteins, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 2499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  501. Sasaki, K., Dockerill, S., Adamiak, A., Tickle, I. J., and Blundell, T., 1975, X-ray analysis of glucagon and its relationship to receptor binding, Nature 257: 751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  502. Sato, G. H., and Ross, R. (eds.), 1979, Hormones and cell culture, in:Cold Spring Harbor Conferences on Cell Proliferation, Vol. 6, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.Google Scholar
  503. Sato, G. H., Pardee, A. B., and Sirbasku, D. A. (eds.), 1982, Growth of Cells in Hormonally Defined Media: Cold Spring Harbor Conferences on Cell Proliferation, Vol. 9, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.Google Scholar
  504. Sawyer, W. H., 1965, Evolution of neurophypophysial principles, Arch. Anat. Microsc. Morphol. Exp. 54: 295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  505. Schally, A. V., Arimura, A., and Kastin, A. J., 1973, Hypothalamic regulatory hormones. At least 9 substances from the hypothalamus control the secretion of pituitary hormones, Science 179: 341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  506. Schaltmann, K., and Pongs, O., 1982, Identification and characterization of the ecdysterone receptor in Drosophila_melanogaster by photoaffinity labelling, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79: 6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  507. Scharf, J.-H. (ed.), 1974, Das somatotrope hormon, Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher, Halle/Saale.Google Scholar
  508. Schimke, R. T., 1967, Protein turnover and the regulation of enzyme levels in rat liver, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. No. 27: 301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  509. Schimke, R. T., McKnight, G. S., Shapiro, D. J., Sullivan, D., and Palacios, R., 1975, Hormonal regulation of ovalbumin synthesis in the chick oviduct, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 31: 175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  510. Schorderet-Slatkine, S., Schorderet, M., Boquet, P., Godeau, P., and Baulieu, E.-E., 1978, Progesterone-induced meiosis in Xenopus laevis oocytes: A role for cAMP at the “maturation-promoting factor” level, Cell 15: 1269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  511. Schrader, W. T., and O’Malley, B. W., 1978, Molecular structure and analysis of progesterone receptors, in: Receptors and Hormone Action (B. W. O’Malley and L. Birnbaumer, eds.), Vol. II, pp. 189–224, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  512. Schulster, D., and Levitzki, A. (eds.), 1980, Cellular Receptors for Hormones and Neurotransmitters, John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  513. Schulster, D., Burstein, S., and Cooke, B. A., 1976, Molecular Endocrinology of the_Steroid Hormones, John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  514. Schutz, G., Killewich, L., Chen, G., and Feigelson, P., 1975, Control of mRNA for hepatic tryptophan oxygenase during hormonal and substrate induction, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72: 1017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  515. Schutz, G., Nguyen-Huu, M. C., Giesecke, K., Hynes, N. E., Groner, B., Wurtz, T., and Sippel, A. E., 1977, Hormonal control of egg white protein messenger RNA synthesis in the chicken oviduct, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 42: 617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  516. Scott, R. W., and Frankel, F. R., 1980, Enrichment of estradiol receptor complexes in a transcriptionally active fraction of chromatin from MCF 7 cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77: 1291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  517. Searle, P. F., and Tata, J. R., 1981, Vitelloginin gene expression in male Xenopus hepatocytes during primary and secondary stimulation with estrogen in cell cultures, Cell 23: 741.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  518. Sekeris, C. E., 1965, Action of ecdysone on RNA and protein metabolism in the blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala, in: Mechanisms of Hormone Action ( P. Karlson, ed.), pp. 149–164, Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  519. Senear, A. W., and Palmiter, R. D., 1981, Multiple structural features are responsible for the nuclease sensitivity of the active ovalbumin gene, J. Biol. Chem. 256: 1191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  520. Senior, M. B., and Frankel, F. R., 1978, Evidence for two kinds of chromatin binding sites for the estradiolreceptor complex, Cell 14: 857.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  521. Seo, H., Refetoff, S., Vassart, G., and Brocas, H., 1979, Comparison of primary and secondary stimulation of male rats by estradiol in terms of prolactin synthesis and mRNA accumulation in the pituitary, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76: 824.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  522. Shain, S. A., Boesel, R. W., and Axelrod, L. R., 1075, Aging in rat prostate. Reduction in detectable ventral prostate androgen receptor content, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 167: 247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  523. Sharma, O. K. and Borek, E., 1970, Hormonal effect on transfer ribonucleic acid methylases and on serine transfer ribonucleic acid, Biochemistry 9: 2507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  524. Sherman, M. R., Tuazon, F. B., Diaz, S. C., and Miller, L. K., 1976, Multiple forms of oviduct progesterone receptors analyzed by ion exchange filtration and gel electrophoresis, Biochemistry 15: 980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  525. Sherman, M. R., Pickering, L. A., Rollwagen, F. M., and Miller, L. K., 1978, Meroreceptors: Proteolytic fragments of receptors containing the steroid-binding site, Fed. Proc. 37: 167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  526. Shields, D., and Tata, J. R., 1976, Variable stabilities and recoveries of rat-liver RNA polymerases A and B according to growth status of the tissue, Fur. J. Biochem. 64: 471.Google Scholar
  527. Shore, G. C., and Tata, J. R., 1977, Functions for polyribosome-membrane interactions in protein synthesis, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 472: 197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  528. Sibley, C. H., and Tomkins, G. M., 1974, Mechanisms of steroid resistance, Cell 2: 22.Google Scholar
  529. Singhal, R. L., Vijayvargiya, R., and Ling, G. M., 1970, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate: Andromimetic action on seminal vesicular enzymes, Science 168: 261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  530. Sekeris, C. E., 1965, Action of ecdysone on RNA and protein metabolism in the blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala, in: Mechanisms of Hormone Action ( P. Karlson, ed.), pp. 149–164, Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  531. Senear, A. W., and Palmiter, R. D., 1981, Multiple structural features are responsible for the nuclease sensitivity of the active ovalbumin gene, J. Biol. Chem. 256: 1191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  532. Senior, M. B., and Frankel, F. R., 1978, Evidence for two kinds of chromatin binding sites for the estradiolreceptor complex, Cell 14: 857.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  533. Seo, H., Refetoff, S., Vassart, G., and Brocas, H., 1979, Comparison of primary and secondary stimulation of male rats by estradiol in terms of prolactin synthesis and mRNA accumulation in the pituitary, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76: 824.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  534. Shain, S. A., Boesel, R. W., and Axelrod, L. R., 1075, Aging in rat prostate. Reduction in detectable ventral prostate androgen receptor content, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 167: 247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  535. Sharma, O. K. and Borek, E., 1970, Hormonal effect on transfer ribonucleic acid methylases and on serine transfer ribonucleic acid, Biochemistry 9: 2507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  536. Sherman, M. R., Tuazon, F. B., Diaz, S. C., and Miller, L. K., 1976, Multiple forms of oviduct progesterone receptors analyzed by ion exchange filtration and gel electrophoresis, Biochemistry 15: 980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  537. Rosen, J. M., Harris, S. E., Rosenfeld, G. C., Liarakos, C. D., and O’Malley, B. W., 1974, Effect of estrogen on gene expression in the chick oviduct. III. Hybridization studies with [3H] messenger RNA and [3H] complementary DNA under conditions of DNA excess, Cell Differ. 3: 103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  538. Rosen, J. M., O’Neill, D. L., McHugh, J. E., and Comstock, J. P., 1978, Progesterone-mediated inhibition of casein messenger RNA and polysomal casein synthesis in rat mammary gland during pregnancy, Biochemistry 17: 290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  539. Rosenfeld, M. G., and O’Malley, B. W., 1970, Steroid hormones: Effects on adenyl cyclase activity and adenosine 3’:5’-monophosphate in target tissues, Science 168: 253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  540. Roth, G. S., and Hess, G. D., 1982, Changes in mechanisms of hormone and neurotransmitter action during aging: Current status of the role of receptor and post-receptor alterations. A review,. Mech. Ageing Dey. 20: 175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  541. Roth, J., LeRoith, D., Shiloach, J., Rosenzweig, J. L., Lesniak, M. A., and Havrankova, J., 1982, The evolutionary origins of hormones, neurotransmitters, and other extracellular chemical messengers. Implications for mammalian biology, N. Engl. J. Med. 306: 523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  542. Roy, A. K., Chatterjee, B., Demyan, W. F., Nath, T. S., and Motwani, N. M., 1982, Pretranslational regulation of a2u globulin in rat liver by growth hormone, J. Biol. Chem. 257: 7834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  543. Royal, A., Garapin, A., Cami, B., Perrin, F., Mandel, J. L., Le Meur, M., Bregegegre, F., Gannon, F., Le Pennec, J. P., Chambon, P., and Kourilsky, P., 1979, The ovalbumin gene region: Common features in the organization of three genes expressed in chicken oviduct under hormonal control, Nature 279: 125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  544. Russell, D. H., Snyder, S. H., and Medina, V. J., 1970, Growth hormone induction of ornithine decarboxylase in rat liver, Endocrinology 86: 1414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  545. Rutter, W. J., Pictet, R. L., and Morris, P. W., 1973, Towards molecular mechanisms of developmental processes, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 42: 601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  546. Ryffel, G. U., 1978, Synthesis of vitellogenin, an attractive model for investigating hormone-induced gene activation, Mol. Cell Endocrinol. 12: 237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  547. Sakai, S., Bowman, P. D., Young, J., McCormick, K., and Nandi, S., 1979, Glucocorticoid regulation of prolactin receptors on mammary cells in culture, Endocrinology 104: 1447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  548. Samuels, H. H., 1978, In vitro studies on thyroid hormone receptors, in: Receptors and Hormone Action (B. W. O’Malley and L. Birnbaumer, eds.), Vol. III, pp. 35–74, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  549. Samuels, H. H., and Shapiro, L. E., 1976, Thyroid hormone stimulates do novo growth hormone synthesis in cultured GH1 cells: Evidence for a rate limiting RNA species in the induction process, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73: 3369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  550. Samuels, H. H., Stanley, F., and Shapiro, L. E., 1976, Dose-dependent depletion of nuclear receptors by Ltriiodothyronine: Evidence for a role in induction of growth hormone synthesis in cultured GH1 cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73: 3877.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  551. Samuels, H. H., Stanley, F., and Shapiro, L. E., 1977, Modulation of thyroid hormone nuclear receptor levels by 3,5,3’-triiodo-L-thyronine in GH1 cells, J. Biol. Chem. 252: 6052.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  552. Samuels, H. H., Stanley, F., Casanova, J., and Shao, T. C., 1980, Thyroid hormone nuclear receptor levels are influenced by the acetylation of chromatin associated proteins, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 2499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  553. Sasaki, K., Dockerill, S., Adamiak, A., Tickle, I. J., and Blundell, T., 1975, X-ray analysis of glucagon and its relationship to receptor binding, Nature 257: 751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  554. Sato, G. H., and Ross, R. (eds.), 1979, Hormones and cell culture, in:Cold Spring Harbor Conferences on Cell Proliferation, Vol. 6, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.Google Scholar
  555. Sato, G. H., Pardee, A. B., and Sirbasku, D. A. (eds.), 1982, Growth of Cells in Hormonally Defined Media: Cold Spring Harbor Conferences on Cell Proliferation, Vol. 9, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.Google Scholar
  556. Sawyer, W. H., 1965, Evolution of neurophypophysial principles, Arch. Anat. Microsc. Morphol. Exp. 54: 295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  557. Schally, A. V., Arimura, A., and Kastin, A. J., 1973, Hypothalamic regulatory hormones. At least 9 substances from the hypothalamus control the secretion of pituitary hormones, Science 179: 341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  558. Schaltmann, K., and Pongs, O., 1982, Identification and characterization of the ecdysterone receptor in Drosophila_melanogaster by photoaffinity labelling, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79: 6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  559. Scharf, J.-H. (ed.), 1974, Das somatotrope hormon, Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher, Halle/Saale.Google Scholar
  560. Schimke, R. T., 1967, Protein turnover and the regulation of enzyme levels in rat liver, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. No. 27: 301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  561. Schimke, R. T., McKnight, G. S., Shapiro, D. J., Sullivan, D., and Palacios, R., 1975, Hormonal regulation of ovalbumin synthesis in the chick oviduct, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 31: 175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  562. Schorderet-Slatkine, S., Schorderet, M., Boquet, P., Godeau, P., and Baulieu, E.-E., 1978, Progesterone-induced meiosis in Xenopus laevis oocytes: A role for cAMP at the “maturation-promoting factor” level, Cell 15: 1269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  563. Schrader, W. T., and O’Malley, B. W., 1978, Molecular structure and analysis of progesterone receptors, in: Receptors and Hormone Action (B. W. O’Malley and L. Birnbaumer, eds.), Vol. II, pp. 189–224, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  564. Schulster, D., and Levitzki, A. (eds.), 1980, Cellular Receptors for Hormones and Neurotransmitters, John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  565. Schulster, D., Burstein, S., and Cooke, B. A., 1976, Molecular Endocrinology of the_Steroid Hormones, John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  566. Schutz, G., Killewich, L., Chen, G., and Feigelson, P., 1975, Control of mRNA for hepatic tryptophan oxygenase during hormonal and substrate induction, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72: 1017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  567. Schutz, G., Nguyen-Huu, M. C., Giesecke, K., Hynes, N. E., Groner, B., Wurtz, T., and Sippel, A. E., 1977, Hormonal control of egg white protein messenger RNA synthesis in the chicken oviduct, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 42: 617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  568. Scott, R. W., and Frankel, F. R., 1980, Enrichment of estradiol receptor complexes in a transcriptionally active fraction of chromatin from MCF 7 cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77: 1291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  569. Searle, P. F., and Tata, J. R., 1981, Vitelloginin gene expression in male Xenopus hepatocytes during primary and secondary stimulation with estrogen in cell cultures, Cell 23: 741.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  570. Sekeris, C. E., 1965, Action of ecdysone on RNA and protein metabolism in the blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala, in: Mechanisms of Hormone Action ( P. Karlson, ed.), pp. 149–164, Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  571. Senear, A. W., and Palmiter, R. D., 1981, Multiple structural features are responsible for the nuclease sensitivity of the active ovalbumin gene, J. Biol. Chem. 256: 1191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  572. Senior, M. B., and Frankel, F. R., 1978, Evidence for two kinds of chromatin binding sites for the estradiolreceptor complex, Cell 14: 857.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  573. Seo, H., Refetoff, S., Vassart, G., and Brocas, H., 1979, Comparison of primary and secondary stimulation of male rats by estradiol in terms of prolactin synthesis and mRNA accumulation in the pituitary, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76: 824.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  574. Shain, S. A., Boesel, R. W., and Axelrod, L. R., 1075, Aging in rat prostate. Reduction in detectable ventral prostate androgen receptor content, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 167: 247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  575. Sharma, O. K. and Borek, E., 1970, Hormonal effect on transfer ribonucleic acid methylases and on serine transfer ribonucleic acid, Biochemistry 9: 2507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  576. Sherman, M. R., Tuazon, F. B., Diaz, S. C., and Miller, L. K., 1976, Multiple forms of oviduct progesterone receptors analyzed by ion exchange filtration and gel electrophoresis, Biochemistry 15: 980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  577. Sherman, M. R., Pickering, L. A., Rollwagen, F. M., and Miller, L. K., 1978, Meroreceptors: Proteolytic fragments of receptors containing the steroid-binding site, Fed. Proc. 37: 167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  578. Shields, D., and Tata, J. R., 1976, Variable stabilities and recoveries of rat-liver RNA polymerases A and B according to growth status of the tissue, Fur. J. Biochem. 64: 471.Google Scholar
  579. Shore, G. C., and Tata, J. R., 1977, Functions for polyribosome-membrane interactions in protein synthesis, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 472: 197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  580. Sibley, C. H., and Tomkins, G. M., 1974, Mechanisms of steroid resistance, Cell 2: 22.Google Scholar
  581. Singhal, R. L., Vijayvargiya, R., and Ling, G. M., 1970, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate: Andromimetic action on seminal vesicular enzymes, Science 168: 261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  582. Sippel, A. E., Feigelson, P., and Roy, A. K., 1975, Hormonal regulation of the hepatic messenger RNA levels for a2u-globulin, Biochemistry 14: 825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  583. Skipper, J. K., and Hamilton, T. H., 1977, Regulation by estrogen of the vitellogenin gene, Proc. Natl. Acad. U.S.A. 74: 2384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  584. Skipper, J. K., and Hamilton, T. H., 1979, Xenopus liver: Ontogeny of estrogen responsiveness, Science 206: 693.Google Scholar
  585. Smith, P., and Von Holt, C., 1981, Interaction of the activated cytoplasmic glucocorticoid hormone receptor complex with the nuclear envelope, Biochemistry 20: 2900.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  586. Smuckler, E. A., and Tata, J. R., 1971, Changes in hepatic nuclear DNA-dependent RNA-polymerase caused by growth hormone and triiodothyronine, Nature 234: 37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  587. Smyth, D. G., 1982, Structural relationships of the potent endorphins, in: Endorphins. Chemistry, Physiology, Pharmacology, and Clinical Relevance (J. B. Malick and R. M. S. Bell, eds.), pp. 9–22, Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  588. Snipes, C. A., 1968, Effects of growth hormone and insulin on amino acid and protein metabolism, Q. Rev. Biol. 43: 127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  589. Spelsberg, T. C., and Halberg, F., 1980, Circannual rhythms in steroid receptor concentration and nuclear binding in the chick oviduct, Endocrinology 107: 1234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  590. Spelsberg, T. C., Thrall, G. L., Webster, R. A., and Martin, G. D., 1977, Nuclear interactions of steroid hormones: The initial event for gene activation, in: Molecular Endocrinology (I. Maclntyre and M. Szelke, eds.), pp. 151–172, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  591. Spona, J., Berglmayer, Ch., Adamiker, D., and Jettmar, W., 1977, Ontogeny of 17(3-estradiol-binding protein in the female rat hypothalamus and anterior pituitary, FEBS Lett. 76: 306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  592. Stark, G. R., Dower, W. J., Schimke, R. T., Brown, F. E., and Kerr, I. M., 1979, 2–5A synthetase: Assay, distribution and variation with growth or hormone status, Nature 278: 471.Google Scholar
  593. Stein, G. S., and Kleinsmith, L. J. (eds.), 1975, Chromosomal Proteins and Their Role in the Regulation of Gene Expression, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  594. Steiner, D. F., Kemmler, W., Clark, J. L., Oyer, P. E., and Rubenstein, A. H., 1972, The biosynthesis of insulin, in: Handbook of Physiology Section 7, Endocrinology 1 pp. 175–198, American Physiological Society, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  595. Sterling, K., Lazarus, J. H., Milch, P. 0., Sakurada, T., and Brenner, M. A., 1978, Mitochondrial thyroid hormone receptor: Localization and physiological significance, Science 201: 1126.Google Scholar
  596. Sutherland, E. W., 1972, Studies on the mechanism of hormone action, Science 177: 401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  597. Sutherland, R. L. and Baulieu, E.-E., 1976, Quantitative estimates of cytoplasmic and nuclear estrogen receptors in chick oviduct. Effect of estrogen on receptor concentration and subcellular distribution, Eur. J. Biochem. 70: 531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  598. Swaneck, G. E., Kreuzaler, F., Tsai, M.-J., and O’Malley, B. W., 1979, Absence of an obligatory lag period in the induction of ovalbumin mRNA by estrogen, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 88: 1412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  599. Talwar, G. P., Segal, S. J., Evans, A., and Davidson, O. W., 1964, The binding of estradiol in the uterus: A mechanism for depression of RNA synthesis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 52: 1059.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  600. Tardy, J., and Pasqualini, J. R., 1980, Autoradiographie studies on the fetal and newborn uteri of the guinea pig after injection of [3H1-progesterone into nontreated and into estradiol-primed animals, Cell Tissue Res. 213: 213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  601. Tata, J. R., 1963, Inhibition of the biological action of thyroid hormones by actinomycin D and puromycin, Nature 197: 1167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  602. Tata, J. R., 1964a, Basal metabolic rate and thyroid hormones, Ada. Metab. Disorders 1: 153.Google Scholar
  603. Tata, J. R., 19646, Accelerated synthesis and turnover of nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA during the latent period of action of thyroid hormone, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 87: 528.Google Scholar
  604. Tata, J. R., 1966a, The regulation of mitochondrial structure and function by thyroid hormones under physiological conditions, in: Regulation of Metabolic Processes in Mitochondria ( J. M. Tager, S. Papa, E. Quagliariello, and E. C. Slater, eds.), pp. 489–505, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  605. Tata, J. R., 19666, Hormones and the synthesis and utilization of ribonucleic acids, Prog. Nucleic Acids Res. Mol. Biol. 5: 191.Google Scholar
  606. Tata, J. R., 1967, The formation and distribution of ribosomes during hormone-induced growth and development, Biochem. J. 104: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  607. Tata, J. R., 1970, Regulation of protein synthesis by growth and developmental hormones, in: Biochemical Actions of Hormones ( G. Litwack, ed.), Vol. 1, pp. 89–134, Academic Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  608. Tata, J. R., 1971, Protein synthesis during amphibian metamorphosis, Curr. Topics Dey. Biol. 6: 79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  609. Tata, J. R., 1973, Ribosome-membrane interaction and protein synthesis, Karolinska Symp Res. Methods Reprod. Endocrinol. 8: 192.Google Scholar
  610. Tata, J. R., 1974, Growth and developmental actions of thyroid hormones at the cellular level, in: Handbook of Physiology, Section 7, Endocrinology 3, pp. 469–478, American Physiological Society, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  611. Tata, J. R., 1975, How specific are nuclear “receptors” for thyroid hormones? Nature 257: 18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  612. Tata, J. R., 1976a, The cell biology of action of growth and developmental hormones, in: Progress in Differentiation Research ( N. Müller-Bérat, ed.), pp. 409–416, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  613. Tata, J. R., 19766, Growth promoting actions of peptide hormones, in,Polypeptide Hormones: Molecular and Cellular Aspects pp. 297–322, Ciba Foundation Symposium 41, Elsevier/Excerpta Medica/North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  614. Tata, J. R., 1976e, The expression of the vitellogenin gene, Cell 9: 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  615. Tata, J. R., 1978, Induction and regulation of vitellogenin synthesis by estrogen, in: Biochemical Actions of Hormones ( G. Litwack, ed.), Vol. 5, pp. 397–431, Academic Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  616. Tata, J. R., 1980a, The action of growth and developmental hormones, Biol. Rev. 55: 285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  617. Tata, J. R., 1980b, Thyroid hormone receptors, in: Cellular Receptors for Hormones and Neurotransmitters ( D. Schulster and A. Levitzki, eds.), pp. 127–146, John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  618. Tata, J. R., 1981, Selective steroid hormonal regulation of gene expression in multigene families, J. Steroid Biochem. 15: 87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  619. Tata, J. R., and Smith, D. F., 1979, Vitellogenesis: A versatile model for hormonal regulation of gene expression, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 35: 47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  620. Tata, J. R., and Widnell, C. C., 1966, Ribonucleic acid synthesis during the early action of thyroid hormones, Biochem. J. 98: 604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  621. Tata, J. R., Ernster, L., and Lindberg, O., 1962, Control of basal metabolic rate by thyroid hormones and cellular function, Nature 193: 1058.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  622. Tata, J. R., Ernster, L., Lindberg, O., Arrhenius, E., Pedersen, S., and Hedman, R., 1963, The action of thyroid hormones at the cellular level, Biochem. J. 86: 408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  623. Tata, J. R., Baker, B., and Deeley, J., 1980, Vitellogenin as a multigene family. Not all Xenopus vitellogenin genes may be in an “expressible” configuration, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 6721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  624. Teng, C.-S., and Hamilton, T. H., 1970, Regulation of polyribosome formation and protein synthesis in the uterus, Biochem. J. 118: 341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  625. Teng, C.-S., and Teng, C. T., 1975, Studies on sex-organ development. Ontogeny of cytoplasmic estrogen receptor in chick müllerian duct, Biochem. J. 150: 191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  626. Teng, C. T., and Teng, C.-S., 1981, Changes in quantities of high mobility group protein 1 in oviduct cellular fractions after oestrogen stimulation. Biochem. J. 198: 85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  627. Tenniswood, M. P. R., Searle, P. F., Wolffe, A. P., and Tata, J. R., 1983, Rapid estrogen metabolism and vitellogenin gene expression in Xenopus hepatocyte cultures, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 30: 329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  628. Tepperman, J., and Tepperman, H. M., 1960, Some effects of hormones on cells and cell constituents, Pharm. Rev. 12: 301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  629. Timberlake, W. E., 1976, Alterations in RNA and protein synthesis associated with steroid hormone-induced sexual morphogenesis in the water mold Achlya, Dev. Biol. 51: 202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  630. Tomkins, G. M., 1975, The metabolic code, Science 189: 760.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  631. Tomkins, G. M., and Geleherter, T. D., 1972, The present status of genetic regulation by hormones, in: Biochemical Actions of Hormones ( G. Litwack, ed.), Vol. 2, pp. 1–20, Academic Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  632. Tomkins, G. M., and Maxwell, E. S., 1963, Some aspects of steroid hormone action, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 32: 677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  633. Topper, Y. J., 1970, Multiple hormone interactions in the development of mammary gland in vitro, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 26: 287.Google Scholar
  634. Torresani, J., Gharbi, J., and Lissitzky, S., 1979, Autoradiographie direction of triiodothyronine in nuclei from normal hypothyroid rat liver, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 86: 371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  635. Tsai, M.-J. Tsai, S. Y., Chang, C. W., and O’Malley, B. W., 1978, Effect of estrogen on gene expression in the chick oviduct. In vitro transcription of the ovalbumin gene, Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 521: 689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  636. Tsai, S. Y., Roop, D. R., Tsai, M.-J., Stein, J. P., Means, A. R., and O’Malley, B. W., 1978, Effect of estrogen on gene expression in the chick oviduct. Regulation of the ovomucoid gene, Biochemistry 17: 5773.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  637. Turkington, R. W., 1972, Multiple hormonal interactions. The mammary gland, in: Biochemical Action of Hormones ( G. Litwack, ed.), Vol. 2, pp. 55–80, Academic Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  638. Turner, C. D., and Bagnara, J., 1971, General Endocrinology, Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  639. Ui, H., and Mueller, G. C., 1963, The role of RNA synthesis in early estrogen action, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 50: 256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  640. Vidali, G., Boffa, L. C., Bradbury, E. M., and Allfrey, V. G., 1978, Butyrate suppression of histone deacetylation leads to accumulation of multiacetylated forms of histones H3 and H4 and increased DNase I sensitivity of the associated DNA sequences, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75: 2239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  641. Vigneri, R., Goldfine, I. D., Wong, K. Y., Smith, G. J., and Pezzino, V., 1978, The nuclear envelope. The major site of insulin binding in rat liver nuclei. J. Biol. Chem. 253: 2098.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  642. Wahli, W., Abraham, I., and Weber, R., 1978, Retention of the differentiated state by larval Xenopus liver cells in primary culture, Wilhelm Roux Arch. Develop. Biol. 185: 235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  643. Wahli, W., Dawid, I. B., Wyler, T., Jaggi, R. B., Weber, R., and Ryffel, G. U., 1979, Vitellogenin in Xenopus laevis is encoded in a small family of genes, Cell 16: 535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  644. Wahli, W., Dawid, I. B., Ryffel, G. U., and Weber, R., 1981, Vitellogenesis and the vitellogenin gene family, Science 212: 298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  645. Wallace, R. A., and Jared, D. W., 1968, Studies on amphibian yolk. VII. Serum phosphoprotein synthesis by vitellogenic females and estrogen-treated males of Xenopus laevis, Can. J. Biochem. 46: 953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  646. Wasserman, W. J., Richter, J. D., and Smith, L. D., 1982, Protein synthesis during maturation promoting factor-and progesterone-induced maturation in Xenopus oocytes. Dev. Biol. 89: 152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  647. Waters, M. J., Friesen, H. G., and Bohnet, H. G., 1978, Regulation of prolactin receptors by steroid hormones and use of radioligand assays in endocrine research, in: Receptors and Hormone Action ( L. Birnbaumer and B. W. O’Malley, eds.), Vol. 3, pp. 457–477, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  648. Weigel, N. L., Tash, J. S., Means, A. R., Schrader, W. T., and O’Malley, B. W., 1981, Phosphorylation of hen progesterone receptor by cAMP dependent protein kinase, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 102: 513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  649. Weil, P. A., Segall, J., Harris, B., Ng, W. H., and Roeder, R. G., 1979, Faithful transcription of eukaryotic genes by RNA polymerase III in systems reconstituted with purified DNA template, J. Biol. Chem. 254: 6163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  650. Weintraub, H., 1980, Tissue-specific DNA cleavages in the globin chromatin domain introduced by DNase I, Cell 20: 451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  651. Weintraub, H., and Groudine, M., 1976, Chromosomal subunits in active genes have an altered conformation, Science 193: 848.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  652. Weisbrod, S., 1982, Active chromatin, Nature 297: 289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  653. Weisbrod, S., and Weintraub, H., 1979, Isolation of a subclass of nuclear proteins responsible for conferring a DNase I-sensitive structure on globin chromatin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76: 630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  654. West, N. B., Verhage, H. G., and Brenner, R. M., 1976, Suppression of the estradiol receptor system by progesterone in the oviduct and uterus of the cat, Endocrinology 99: 1010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  655. Westley, B., and Knowland, J., 1978, An estrogen receptor from Xenopus laevzs liver possibly connected with vitellogenin synthesis, Cell 15: 367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  656. Westley, B., and Knowland, J., 1979, Estrogen causes a rapid, large and prolonged rise in the level of nuclear estrogen receptor in Xenopus laevis liver, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 88: 1167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  657. White, A., Handler, P., Smith, E. L., Hill, R. L., and Lehman, I. R., 1978, Principles of Biochemistry, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  658. Wicks, W. D., Greenman, D. L., and Kenney, F. T., 1965, Stimulation of ribonucleic acid synthesis by steroid hormones. I. Transfer ribonucleic acid, J. Biol. Chem. 240: 4414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  659. Widnell, C. C., and Tata, J. R., 1963, Stimulation of nuclear RNA polymerase during the latent period of action of thyroid hormones, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 72: 506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  660. Widnell, C. C., and Tata, J. R., 1964, Evidence for two DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activities in isolated rat-liver nuclei, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 87: 531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  661. Widnell, C. C., and Tata, J. R., 1966, Studies on the stimulation by ammonium sulphate of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase of isolated rat-liver nuclei, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 132: 478.Google Scholar
  662. Wieland, S. J., and Fox, T. O., 1979, Putative androgen receptors distinguished in wild-type and testicular-feminized (tfm) mice, Cell 17: 781.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  663. Wigglesworth, V. B., 1970, Insect Hormones, Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  664. Williams, J. L., and Tata, J. R., 1983, Simultaneous analysis of conformation and transcription of A and B groups of vitellogenin genes in male and female Xenopus during primary and secondary activation by estrogen, Nucleic Acids Res. 11: 1151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  665. Williams, L. T., Lefkovitz, R., Watanabe, A. M., Hathaway, D. R., and Besch, H. R., Jr., 1977, Thyroid hormone regulation of 3-andrenergic receptor number, J. Biol. Chem. 252: 2787.Google Scholar
  666. Williams-Ashman, H. G., 1975, Metabolic effects of testicular androgens, in: Handbook of Physiology, Section 7, Endocrinology 5, pp. 473–490, American Physiological Society, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  667. Williams-Ashman, H. G., and Reddi, A. H., 1972, Androgenic regulation of tissue growth and function, in: Biochemical Actions of Hormones ( G. Litwack, ed.), Vol. 2, pp. 257–294, Academic Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  668. Williams-Ashman, H. G., Liao, S., Hancock, R. L., Jurkowitz, L., and Silverman, D. A., 1964, Testicular hormones and the synthesis of ribonucleic acids and proteins in the prostate gland, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 20: 247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  669. Wilson, J., 1978, Sexual differentiation, Ann. Rev. Physiol. 40: 279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  670. Wilson, J. D., and Gloyna, R. E., 1970, The intranuclear metabolism of testosterone in the accessory organs of reproduction, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 26: 309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  671. Wilson, J. D., George, F. W., and Griffin, J. E., 1981, The hormonal control of sexual development, Science 211: 1278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  672. Wolffe, A. P., and Tata, J. R., 1983, Coordinate and non-coordinate estrogen-induced expression of A and B groups of vitellogenin genes in male and female Xenopus hepatocytes in culture, Eur. J. Biochem. 130: 365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  673. Woo, S. L. C., Tsai, S. Y., Tsai, M.-J., Lai, E. C., Mace, M. L., Jr., and O’Malley, B. W., 1979, Cloning and expression of a pseudo-ovalbumin gene, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 89: 997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  674. Wool, I. G., 1975, Effects of insulin on cellular protein synthesis, in: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology ( G. V. R. Born, O. Eichler, A. Farah, H. Herken, and A. D. Welch, eds.), Vol. 32, pp. 268–302, SpringerVerlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  675. Wright, B. E., 1966, Multiple causes and controls in differentiation, Science 153: 830.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  676. Wu, C., Bingham, P. M., Livak, K. J., Holmgren, R., and Elgin, S. C. R., 1979, The chromatin structure of specific genes: I. Evidence for higher order domains of defined DNA sequence, Cell 16: 797.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  677. Wuhrmann, P., Ineichen, H., Riesen-Willi, U., and Lezzi, M., 1979, Change in nuclear potassium electrochemical activity and puffing of potassium-sensitive salivary chromosome regions during Chzronomus development, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76: 806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  678. Yamamoto, K. R., and Alberts, B. M., 1976, Steroid receptors: Elements for modulation of eukaryotic transcription, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 45: 721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  679. Zasloff, M., and Felsenfeld, G., 1977, Analysis of in vitro transcription of duck reticulocyte chromatin using mercury substituted ribonucleoside triphosphates, Biochemistry 16: 5135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. R. Tata
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute for Medical ResearchMill Hill, LondonEngland

Personalised recommendations