Neuroendocrine Effects

  • Sol M. Michaelson
  • James C. Lin


To maintain homeostasis, a mammal possesses two control mechanisms that react to changes in internal and external environments (stimuli or stress). These two control mechanisms are the neural and endocrine systems. Separation of endocrine from neural control is not always possible as neural signals are integrated at the hypothalamus to react to deviations in the internal or external environment. Hypothalamichypophysial-adrenocortical (HHA), hypothalamic-hypophysial-hyroidal (HHT), and hypothalamic-hypophysial-somatotropic (HHS) are three endocrine systems that participate in the “stress” response. Generally, they operate through a negative feedback mechanism.


Growth Hormone Thyroid Hormone Adrenal Cortex Neuroendocrine System Endocrine Gland 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sol M. Michaelson
    • 1
  • James C. Lin
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Rochester School of Medicine and DentistryRochesterUSA
  2. 2.University of IllinoisChicagoUSA

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