Control of the Output of the Heart: A Historical Perspective

  • Matthew N. Levy


The circulation of the blood was first described by William Harvey about 4 centuries ago. Subsequently, there was a considerable lag before some of the major factors that governed the circulatory system were elu­cidated. Most of that work has been accomplished in the present century. The various components of the circulatory system have usually been studied in isolation, under “open-loop” conditions. Studies of the function of the heart have also usually been done in the “open-loop” mode, and only relatively recently have investigators made a serious attempt to analyze the system in its natural “closed-loop” condition.


Initial Tension Myocardial Fiber Vascular Component Peak Systolic Pressure Myocardial Oxygen Supply 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Frank, 0.: Zur Dynamik des Herzmuskels. Z. Biol. 32: 370–447, 1895Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Patterson, S. W., Piper, H., and Starling, E.H.: The regulation of the heart beat. J. Physiol. (London) 48: 465–513, 1914Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chapman, C. B.: Impact of the Starling concepts on clinical cardiology. JAMA 183: 352–357, 1963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sarnoff, S.J., and Berglund, E.: Ventricular function I. Starling’s law of the heart studied by means of simultaneous right and left ventricular function curves in the dog. Circulation 9: 706–718, 1954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sarnoff, S.J., and Mitchell, J.H.: The control of the function of the heart. In: Handbook of Physiology, 1962: Hamilton, W.F., and Dow, P., Waverly Press, Baltimore, pp. 489–532Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rushmer, R.F.: Effects of nerve stimulation and hormones on the heart; the role of the heart in general circulatory regulation. In: Handbook of Physiology, 1962: Hamilton, W.F., and Dow, P., Waverly Press, Baltimore, pp. 533–550Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Braunwald, E., and Ross, J., Jr.: Control of cardiac performance. In: Handbook of Physiology, 1979: Berne, R.M., Sperelakis, N., and Geiger, S.R., Waverly Press, Baltimore, pp. 533–580Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guyton, A.C., Jones, C.E., and Coleman, T.G.: Circulatory Physiology: Cardiac Output and its Regulation. 1973, W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, pp. 3–549Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Grodins, F.S., Stuart, W.H., and Veenstral, R.L.: Performance characteristics of the right heart bypass preparation. Am. J. Physiol. 198: 552–560, 1960Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sagawa, K.: The use of control theory and systems analysis in cardiovascular dynamics. In Cardiovascular Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 1, 1972, ed. Bergel, D.G., Academic Press, London, pp. 115–171Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Levy, M.N.: The cardiac and vascular factors that determine systemic blood flow. Circ. Res. 44: 739745, 1979Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew N. Levy
    • 1
  1. 1.Mt. Sinai HospitalClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations