Interaction of Rickettsiae with Eukaryotic Cells

Adhesion, Entry, Intracellular Growth, and Host Cell Responses
  • Marina E. Eremeeva
  • Gregory A. Dasch
  • David J. Silverman
Part of the Subcellular Biochemistry book series (SCBI, volume 33)

Abstract

The genus Rickettsia includes obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria which are associated with a variety of arthropod vectors. Based on antigenic, genetic, growth, and epidemiological characteristics, the genus is divided into the typhus group, which includes two human pathogens, Rickettsia prowazekii and R. typhi, and R. canada, which is known only from ticks, and the spotted fever group (SFG), which encompasses more than twenty distinct isolates (Raoult and Roux, 1997; Weiss and Moulder, 1984). The former scrub typhus group of rickettsiae was recently separated into a new genus, Orientia, which contains only a single species, O. tsutsugamushi (Tamura et al., 1995). Rickettsial species may cause diseases of different severity in humans which share the common symptoms of fever, rash, intoxication and vasculitis.

Keywords

L929 Cell Human Endothelial Cell Hemolytic Activity Scrub Typhus PLA2 Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amano, K., Tamura, A., Ohashi, N., Urakami, H., Kaya, S., and Fukushi, K., 1987, Deficiency of peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide components in Rickettsia tsutsugamushi, Infect. Immun 55: 2290–2292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersson, J.O., and Andersson, S.G.E., 1997, Genomic rearrangements during evolution of the obligate intracellular parasite Rickettsia prowazekii as inferred from an analysis of 52,015 bp nucleotide sequence, Microbiot. 143: 2783–2795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Austin, FE., Turco, J., and Winkler, H.H.,1987, Rickettsia prowazekii requires host cell serine and glycine for growth, Infect. Immun 55: 240–244.Google Scholar
  4. Bach, R., 1988, Initiation of coagulation by tissue factor, Crit. Rev. Biochem 23: 339–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balayeva, N.M., 1990, Interaction of rickettsiae with the eukaryotic cells, Zh. Mikrobiol. Epidemiol. Immunobiol. (in Russian) 1990 (2): 80–86.Google Scholar
  6. Balayeva, N.M., and Nikolskaya, V.N., 1973, Analysis of lung culture of Rickettsia prowazeki E strain with regard to its capacity of increasing virulence in passages on the lungs of white mice, J. Hyg. Epidemiol. Microbiol. Immunol 17: 294–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Burgdorfer, W, and Brinton, L.P., 1970, Intranuclear growth of Rickettsia canada, a member of the typhus group, Infect. Immun 2: 112–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Burgdorfer, W, Anacker, R.L., Bird, R.G., and Bertram, D.S., 1968, Intranuclear growth of Rickettsia rickettsii, J. Bacteriol 96: 1415–1418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ching, W.-M., Wang, H., Davis, J., and Dasch, G.A., 1993, Amino acid analysis and multiple methylation of lysine residues in the surface protein antigen of Rickettsia prowazekii, in: Techniques in Protein Chemistry IV ( R.H. Angeletti, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 307–314.Google Scholar
  10. Clarke, D.H., and Fox, J.P., 1948, The phenomenon of in vitro hemolysis produced by the rickettsiae of typhus fever, with a note on the mechanism of rickettsia) toxicity in mice, J. Exp. Med 88: 25–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clifton, D.R., Gross, R.A., Sahni, S.K., van Antwerp, D., Baggs, R.B., Marder, V.J., Silverman, D.J., and Sporn, L.A., 1998, NF-KB-dependent inhibition of apoptosis is essential for host cell survival during Rickettsia rickettsii infection, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 4646–4651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Courtney, M-A., Haidaris, P.J., Marder, V.J., and Sporn L.A., 1996, Tissue factor mRNA expression in the endothelium of an intact umbilical vein, Blood 87: 174–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Crawford, L.E., Milliken, E.E., Irani, K., Zweier, J.L., Becker, L.C., Johnson, T.M., Eissa, N.T., Crystal, R.G., Finkel, T., and Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pí.,1996, Superoxide-mediated actin response in post-hypoxic endothelial cells, J. Biol. Chem 271: 26863–26867.Google Scholar
  14. Davi, G., Giammarresi, C., Vigneri, S., Ganci, A., Ferri, C., Di Francesco, L., Vitale, G., and Mansueto, S., 1995, Demonstration of Rickettsia conorii-induced coagulative and platelet activation in vivo in patients with Mediterranean spotted fever, Thrombosis Haemostasis 74: 631–634.Google Scholar
  15. Devamanoharan, P.S., Santucci, L.A., Hong, J.E., Tian, X.-J., and Silverman, D.J., 1994, Infection of human endothelial cells by Rickettsia rickettsii causes a significant reduction in the levels of key enzymes involved in protection against oxidative injury, Infect. Immun 62: 2619–2621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Dignat-George, F., Teysseire, N., Mutin, M., Bardin, N., Lesaule, G., Raoult, D., and Sampol, J., 1997, Rickettsia conorii infection enhances vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-l-dependent mononuclear cell adherence to endothelial cells, J. Infect. Dis 175: 1142–1152.Google Scholar
  17. Drancourt, M., Alessi, M-C., Levy, P-Y., Juhan-Vague, I., and Raoult, D., 1990, Secretion of tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor by Rickettsia conorii-and Rickettsia rickettsii-infected cultured endothelial cells, Infect. Immun 58: 2459–2463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Eremeeva, M.E., and Silverman, D.J., 1998a, Effects of the antioxidant a-lipoic acid on human umbilical vein endothelial cells infected with Rickettsia rickettsii, Infect. Immun 66: 2290–2299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Eremeeva, M.E., and Silverman, D.J., 1998b, Rickettsia rickettsii infection of the EA.hy 926 endothelial cell line: morphological response to infection and evidence for oxidative injury, Microbiol 144 in press.Google Scholar
  20. Eremeeva, M.E., Popov, V.L., Walker, D.H., and Silverman, D.J., 1998, Ultrastructural studies of Rickettsia rickettsii entry into human endothelial cells, personal communication. E.ing, E.P., Jr., Takeuchi, A., Shirai, A., and Osterman, J.V., 1978, Experimental infection of mouse peritoneal mesothelium with scrub typhus rickettsiae: an ultrastructural study, Infect. Immun. 19: 1068–1075.Google Scholar
  21. Feng, H.-M., and Walker, D.H., 1993, Interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha exert their antirickettsial effect via induction of synthesis of nitric oxide, Am. J. Pathol 143: 1016–1023.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Feng, H.-M., Popov, V.L., and Walker, D.H., 1994, Depletion of gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha in mice with Rickettsia conorii-infected endothelium: impairment of rickettsicidal nitric oxide production resulting in fatal overwhelming rickettsial disease, Infect. Immun 62: 1952–1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Finlay, B.B., and Cossart, P., 1997, Exploitation of mammalian host cell functions by bacterial pathogens, Science 276: 718–725.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gambrill, M.R., and Wisseman, C.L., Jr., 1973, Mechanisms of immunity in typhus infections. II. Multiplication of typhus rickettsiae in human macrophage cell cultures in the nonimmune system: influence of virulence of rickettsial strains and of chloramphenicol, Infect. Immun 8: 519–527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. George, E, Brouqui, P., Boffa, M.C., Mutin, M., Drancourt, M., Brisson, C., Raoult, D., and Sampol, J., 1993, Demonstration of Rickettsia conorii-induced endothelial injury in vivo by measuring circulating endothelial cells, thrombomodulin, and von Willebrand factor in patients with Mediterranean spotted fever, Blood 82: 2109–2116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Gudima, O.S., 1979, Quantitative study on the reproduction of virulent and vaccine Rickettsia prowazeki strains in cells of different origin, Acta Virol. 23: 421–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Gudima, O.S., 1971, Cytopathic action of Rickettsia, Zh. Mikrobiol. Epidemiol. Immunobiol. (in Russian) 1971 (48): 39–44.Google Scholar
  28. Hackstadt, T., 1996, The biology of rickettsiae, Infect. Agents Dis 5: 127–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Hanson, B.A., 1987, Improved plaque assay for Rickettsia tsutsugamushi, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg 36: 631–638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hayes, S.F., and Burgdorfer, W, 1982, Reactivation of Rickettsia rickettsii in Dermacentor andersoni ticks: an ultrastructural analysis, Infect. Immun 37: 779–785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Heinzen, R.A., Hayes, S.F., Peacock, M.G., and Hackstadt, T., 1993, Directional actin polymerization associated with spotted fever group rickettsia infection of Vero cells, Infect. Immun 61: 1926–1935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Hong, J.E., Santucci, L.A., Tian, X., and Silverman, D.J., 1998, Superoxide dismutase-dependent, catalase-sensitive peroxides in human endothelial cells infected by Rickettsia rickettsia, Infect. Immun 66: 1293–1298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Hueck, C.J., 1998, Type III secretion systems in bacterial pathogens of animals and plants, Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev 62: 379–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Iwamasa, K., Okada, T., Tange, Y., and Kobayashi, Y., 1992, Ultrastructural study of the response of cells infected in vitro with causative agent of spotted fever group rickettsiosis in Japan, APMIS 100: 535–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jerrells,T.R., and Geng, P., 1994, The role of tumor necrosis factor in host defense against scrub typhus rickettsiae. Il. Differential induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by Rickettsia tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia conorii, Microbiol. Immunol 38: 713–719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Johnson, J.W., and Pedersen, C.E., Jr., 1978, Plaque formation by strains of spotted fever rickettsiae in monolayer cultures of various cell types, J. Clin. Microbiol 7: 389–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Kaplanski, G., Teysseire, N., Farnarier, C., Kaplanski, S., Lissitzky, J-C., Durand, J-M., Soubeyrand, J., Dinarello, C.A., and Bongrand, P., 1995, IL-6 and IL-8 production from cultured human endothelial cells stimulated by infection with Rickettsia conorii via a cell-associated IL-la-dependent pathway, J. Clin. Invest 96: 2839–2844.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kokorin, I.N., 1968, Biological peculiarities of the development of rickettsiae, Acta Virol. 12: 31–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Kordova, N., 1966, Plaque assay of rickettsiae, Acta Virol. 10: 278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kuen, B., and Lubitz, W., 1996, Analysis of S-layer proteins and genes, in: Crystalline Bacterial Cell Surface Proteins, ( U.B. Sleytr, P. Messner, D. Pum, and M. Sara, eds.), R.G. Landes Company, Austin, TX pp. 77–102.Google Scholar
  41. Li, H., and Walker, D.H., 1992, Characterization of rickettsia] attachment to host cells by flow cytometry, Infect. Immun 60:2030–2035.Google Scholar
  42. MacNaul, K.L., and Hutchinson, N.I., 1993, Differential expression of iNOS and cNOS mRNA in human vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells under normal and inflammatory conditions, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun 196: 1330–1334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Manor, E., and Sarov, I., 1990, Tumor necrosis factor alpha and prostaglandin E2 production by human monocyte-derived macrophages infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci 590: 157–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Manor, E., Carbonetti, N.H., and Silverman, D.J., 1994, Rickettsia rickettsii has proteins with cross-reacting epitopes to eukaryotic phospholipase A2 and phospholipase C, Microb. Pathog 17: 99–109.Google Scholar
  45. McDade, J.E., and Gerone, P.J., 1970, Plaque assay for Q fever and scrub typhus rickettsiae, Appl. Microbiol 19: 963–965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. McDade, J.E., Stakebake, J.R., and Gerone, P.J., 1969, Plaque assay system for several species of Rickettsia, J. Bacteriol 99: 910–912.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Nathan, C., 1992, Nitric oxide as a secretory product of mammalian cells, FASEB J. 6: 3051–3064.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Ng, F.K.P., Oaks, S.C., Jr., Lee, M., Groves, M.G., and Lewis, G.E., Jr., 1985, A scanning and transmission electron microscopic examination of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi-infected human endothelial, MRC-5, and L-929 cells, Japan. J. Med. Sci. Biol 38: 125–139.Google Scholar
  49. Nussler, A.K., DiSilvio, M., Liu, Z.Z., Geller, D.A., Freeswick, P., Dorko, K., Bartoli, E, and Billiar, T.R., 1995, Further characterization and comparison of inducible nitric oxide synthase in mouse, rat, and human hepatocytes, Hepatology 21: 1552–1560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Oaks, S.C., Jr., Osterman, J.V., and Hetrick, EM., 1977, Plaque assay and cloning of scrub typhus rickettsiae in irradiated L-929 cells, J. Clin. MicrobioL 6: 76–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Ojcius, D.M., Thibon, M., Mounier, C., and Dautry-Varsat, A., 1995, pH and calcium dependence of hemolysis due to Rickettsia prowazekii: comparison with phospholipase activity, Infect. Immun 63: 3069–3072.Google Scholar
  52. Paterson, P.Y., Wisseman, C.L., Jr., and Smadel, J.E., 1954, Studies of rickettsia! toxins. I. Role of hemolysis in fatal toxemia of rabbits and rats, J. ImmunoL 72: 12–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Penkina, G.A., Ignatovich, V.F., and Balaeva, N.M., 1995, Interaction of Rickettsia prowazekii strains of different virulence with white rat macrophages, Acta ViroL 39: 205–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Policastro, P.F., Munderloh, U.G., Fischer, E.R., and Hackstadt, T., 1997, Rickettsia rickettsii growth and temperature-inducible protein expression in embryonic tick cell lines, J. Med. MicrobioL 46: 839–845.Google Scholar
  55. Policastro, P.F., Peacock, M.G., and Hackstadt, T., 1996, Improved plaque assays for Rickettsia prowazekii in Vero76 cells, J. Clin. Microbio 34: 1944–1948.Google Scholar
  56. Popov, V.L., Dyuisalieva, R.G., Smirnova, N.S., Tarasevich, I.V., and Rybkina, N.N., 1986, Ultra-structure of Rickettsia sibirica during interaction with the host cell, Acta Virol. 30: 494–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Rachek, L.O.,TLcker,A.M., Winkler, H.H., and Wood, D.O., 1998, Transformation of Rickettsia prowazekii to rifampin resistance, J. Bacteriol 180: 2118–2124.Google Scholar
  58. Ramm, L.E., and Winkler, H.H., 1976, Identification of cholesterol in the receptor site for rickettsiae on sheep erythrocyte membranes, Infect. Immun 13: 120–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Ramm, L.E., and Winkler, H.H., 1973a, Rickettsial hemolysis: adsorption of rickettsiae to erythrocytes, Infect. Immun 7: 93–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Ramm, L.E., and Winkler, H.H., 19736, Rickettsia) hemolysis: effect of metabolic inhibitors upon hemolysis and adsorption, Infect. Immun 7: 550–555.Google Scholar
  61. Rao, A.K., Schapira, M., Clements, M.L., Niewiarowski, S., Budzynski, A.Z., Schmaier, A.H., Harpel, P.C., Blackwelder, W.C., Scherrer, J-R., Sobel, E., and Colman, R.W., 1988, A prospective study of platelets and plasma proteolytic systems during the early stages of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, N. EngL J. Med 318: 1021–1028.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Raoult, D., and Roux, V., 1997, Rickettsioses as paradigms of new or emerging infectious diseases, Clin. MicrobioL Rev 10: 694–719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Raoult, R., Arnoux, D., Drancourt, M., and Ardissone, J.P., 1987, Enzyme secretion by human endothelial cells infected with Rickettsia conorii, Acta Viro. 31: 352–356.Google Scholar
  64. Ridley, A.J., 1994, Signal transduction through the GTP-binding proteins Rac and Rho, J. Cell. Sci. SuppL 18: 127–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Rikihisa, Y., and Ito, S., 1982, Entry of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi into polymorphonuclear leukocytes, Infect. Immun. 38: 343–350.Google Scholar
  66. Rodionov, A.V., Eremeeva, M.E., and Balayeva, N.M., 1991, Isolation and partial characterization of the M(r) 100 kDa protein from Rickettsia prowazekii strains of different virulence, Acta Viro’. 35: 557–565.Google Scholar
  67. Roux, V., and Raoult, D., 1995, Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Rickettsia by 16S rDNA sequencing, Res. Microbiol. 146: 385–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sahni, S.K.; van Antwerp, D.J., Eremeeva, M.E., Silverman, D.J., Marder, V.J., and Sporn, L.A., 1998, Proteasome-independent activation of nuclear factor KB in cytoplasmic extracts from human endothelial cells by Rickettsia rickettsii, Infra. Immun 66: 1827–1833.Google Scholar
  69. Santucci, L.A., Gutierrez, P.L., and Silverman, D.J., 1992, Rickettsia rickettsii induces superoxide radical and superoxide dismutase in human endothelial cells, Infect. Immun 60: 5113–5118.Google Scholar
  70. Schaechter, M., Bozeman, F.M., and Smadel, J.E., 1957, Study on the growth of rickettsiae. II. Morphologic observations of living rickettsiae in tissue culture cells, Virology 3: 160–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Schoedon, G., Schneemann, M., Walter, R., Blau, N., Hofer, S., and Schaffner, A., 1995, Nitric oxide and infection: another view, Clin. Infect. Dis. 21(Suppl 2 ): 5152–5157.Google Scholar
  72. Schramek, S., Brezina, R., and Kazar, J., 1977, Some biological properties of an endodotoxic lipopolysaccharide from the typhus group rickettsiae, Acta Viro. 21: 439–441.Google Scholar
  73. Sessler, C.N., Schwartz, M., Windsor, A.C., and Fowler, A.A., 3rd, 1995, Increased serum cytokines and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in fulminant Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Crit. Care Med 23: 973–976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Shi, R-J., Simpson-Haidaris, P.J, Lerner, N.B., Marder, V.J., Silverman, D.J., and Sporn, L.A., 1998, Transcriptional regulation of endothelial cell tissue factor expression during Rickettsia rickettsii infection: involvement of the transcription factor NF-KB, Infect. Immun 66: 1070–1075.Google Scholar
  75. Silverman, D.J., 1986a, Adherence of platelets to human endothelial cells infected by Rickettsia rickettsii, J. Infect. Dis. 153: 694–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Silverman, D.J.,1986b, Infection and injury of human endothelial cells by Rickettsia rickettsii, Ann. Inst. Pasteur/Microbiol. 137A: 336–341.Google Scholar
  77. Silverman, D.J., 1984, Rickettsia rickettsii-induced cellular injury of human vascular endothelium in vitro, Infect. Immun. 44: 545–553.Google Scholar
  78. Silverman, D.J., and Bond, S.B., 1984, Infection of human vascular endothelial cells by Rickettsia rickettsii, J. Infect. Dis. 149: 201–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Silverman, D.J., and Santucci, L.A., 1990, A potential protective role for thiols against injury caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, Ann. N Y Acad. Sci 590: 11–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Silverman, D.J., and Santucci, L.A., 1988, Potential for free radical-induced lipid peroxidation as a cause of endothelial cell injury in Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Infect. Immun 56: 3110–3115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Silverman, D.J., Santucci, L.A., Meyers, N., and Sekeyova, Z., 1992, Penetration of host cells by Rickettsia rickettsii appears to be mediated by a phospholipase of rickettsia! origin, Infect. Immun. 60: 2733–2740.Google Scholar
  82. Silverman, D.J., Wisseman, C.L., Jr., and Waddell, A., 1980, In vitro studies of rickettsia-host cell interactions: ultrastructural study of Rickettsia prowazekii-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts, Infect. Immun. 29: 778–790.Google Scholar
  83. Smith, D.K., and Winkler, H.H., 1977, Characterization of a lysine-specific active transport system in Rickettsia prowazekii, J. Bacteriol 129: 1349–1355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Spencer, R.R., and Parker, R.R., 1924, Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Experimental studies on tick virus, Public Health Rep. 39: 3027–3040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Spencer, R.R., and Parker, R.R., 1923, Rocky Mountain spotted fever: infectivity of fasting and recently fed ticks, Public Health Rep. 38: 333–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sporn, L.A., and Marder, V.J.,1996, Interleukin-la production during Rickettsia rickettsii infection of cultured endothelial cells: potential role in autocrine cell stimulation, Infect. Immun. 64: 1609–1613.Google Scholar
  87. Sporn, L.A., Sahni, S.K., Lerner, N.B., Marder, V.J., Silverman, D.J., Turpin, L.C., and Schwab, A.L., 1997, Rickettsia rickettsii infection of cultured human endothelial cells induces NFkappaB activation, Infect. Immun 65: 2786–2791.Google Scholar
  88. Sporn, L.A., Haidaris, P.J., Shi, R-J., Nemerson, Y., Silverman, D.J., and Marder, V.J., 1994, Rickettsia rickettsii infection of cultured human endothelial cells induces tissue factor expression, Blood 83: 1527–1534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Sporn, L.A., Lawrence, S.O., Silverman, D.J., and Marder, V.J., 1993, E-selectin-dependent neu- trophil adhesion to Rickettsia rickettsii-infected endothelial cells, Blood 81: 2406–2412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Sporn, L.A., Shi, R-J., Lawrence, S.O., Silverman, D.J., and Marder, V.J., 1991, Rickettsia rickettsii infection of cultured endothelial cells induces release of large von Willebrand factor multimers from Weibel-Palade bodies, Blood 78: 2595–2602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Springer, T.A., 1995, Traffic signals on endothelium for lymphocyte recirculation and leukocyte emigration, Annu. Rev. Physiol 57: 827–872.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Stothard, D.R., and Fuerst, P.A., 1995, Evolutionary analysis of the spotted fever and typhus groups of Rickettsia using 16S rRNA gene sequences, System. Appl. Microbiol. 18: 52–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tamura, A., 1988, Invasion and intracellular growth of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi, Microbiol. Sci. 5: 228–232.Google Scholar
  94. Tamura, A., Ohashi, N., Urakami, H., and Miyamura, S., 1995, Classification of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi in a new genus, Orientia gen. nov., as Orientia tsutsugamushi comb. nov., Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 45: 589–591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Teysseire, N., Boudier, J-A., and Raoult, D., 1995, Rickettsia conorii entry into Vero cells, Infect. Immun. 63: 366–374.Google Scholar
  96. Teysseire, N., Arnoux, D., George, F., Sampol, J., and Raoult, D., 1992a, von Willebrand factor release and thrombomodulin and tissue factor expression in Rickettsia conorii-infected endothelial cells, Infect. Immun 60: 4388–4393.Google Scholar
  97. Teysseire, N., Chiche-Portiche, C., and Raoult, D., 1992b, Intracellular movements of Rickettsia conorii and R. typhi based on actin polymerization, Res. MicrobioL 143: 821–829.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Todd, W.J., Burgdorfer, W., and Wray, G.E. 1983, Detection of fibrils associated with Rickettsia rickettsii, Infect. Immun 41: 1252–1260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. TLrco, J., and Winkler, H.H., 1994a, Cytokine sensitivity and methylation of lysine in Rickettsia prowazekii EVir and interferon-resistant R. prowazekii strains, Infect. Immun. 62: 3172–3177.Google Scholar
  100. Tìtrco, J., and Winkler, H.H., 19946, Relationship of tumor necrosis factor alpha, the nitric oxide synthase pathway, and Iipopolysaccharide to the killing of gamma interferon-treated macrophagelike RAW264.7 cells by Rickettsia prowazekii, Infect. Immun 62: 2568–2574.Google Scholar
  101. Turco, J., and Winkler, H.H., 1993, Role of the nitric oxide synthase pathway in inhibition of growth of interferon-sensitive and interferon-resistant Rickettsia prowazekii strains in L929 cells treated with tumor necrosis factor alpha and gamma interferon, Infect. Immun 61: 4317–4325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Iìtrco, J., and Winkler, H.H., 1982, Differentiation between virulent and avirulent strains of Rickettsia prowazekii by macrophage-like cell lines, Infect. Immun 35: 783–791.Google Scholar
  103. Turco, J., Liu, H., Gottlieb, S.F., and Winkler, H.H., 1998, Nitric oxide-mediated inhibition of the ability of Rickettsia prowazekii to infect mouse fibroblasts and mouse macrophage-like cells, Infect. Immun 66: 558–566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Urakami, H., Tsuruhara, T., and Tamura, A., 1983, Penetration of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi into cultured mouse fibroblasts (L cells): an electron microscopic observation, Microbial. Immunol 27: 251–263.Google Scholar
  105. Urakami, H., Tsuruhara, T., and Tamura, A., 1982, Intranuclear Rickettsia tsutsugamushi in cultured mouse fibroblasts (L cells), Microbiol. Immunol 26: 445–447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Vicente, V., Alberca, I., Ruiz, R., Herrero, I., Gonzalez, R., and Portugal, J., 1986, Coagulation abnormalities in patients with Mediterranean spotted fever, J. Infect. Dis 153: 128–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Walker, D.H., 1988, Pathology and pathogenesis of the vasculotropic rickettsioses, in: Biology of Rickettsia! Diseases, Volume I ( D.H. Walker, ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 115–138.Google Scholar
  108. Walker, D.H., and Cain, B.G., 1980, The rickettsia) plaque. Evidence for direct cytopathic effect of Rickettsia rickettsii, Lab. Invest 43: 388–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Walker, D.H., Popov, V.L., and Feng, H.-M., 1998, personal communication.Google Scholar
  110. Walker, D.H., Popov, V.L., Crocquet-Valdes, P.A., Welsh, C.J.R., and Feng, H.M., 1997, Cytokine-induced, nitric oxide-dependent, intracellular antirickettsial activity of mouse endothelial cells, Lab. Invest 76: 129–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Walker, D.H., Popov, V.L., Welsh, C.J. R., and Feng, H.-M., 1996, Mechanisms of rickettsial killing within cytokine-stimulated endothelial cells, in: Rickettsiae and Rickettsia! Diseases, Proceedings of the Vth International Symposium, Stara Lesna, September 1–6, 1996 ( J. Kazar and R. Toman, eds.), VEDA, Bratislava, pp. 51–56.Google Scholar
  112. Walker, D.H., Firth, W.T., and Hegarty, B.C., 1984a, Injury restricted to cells infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae in parabiotic chambers, Acta Tropica Basel 41: 307–312.Google Scholar
  113. Walker, D.H., Tidwell, R.R., Rector,T.M., and Geratz, J.D., 19846, Effect of synthetic protease inhibitors of the amidine type on cell injury by Rickettsia rickettsii, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother 25: 582–585.Google Scholar
  114. Walker, D.H Firth, W.T., Ballard, J.G., and Hegarty, B.C., 1983, Role of phospholipaseassociated penetration mechanism in cell injury by Rickettsia rickettsii, Infect. Immun 40:840–842.Google Scholar
  115. Walker, D.H., Firth, W.T., and Edgell, C.-J.S., 1982, Human endothelial cell culture plaques induced by Rickettsia rickettsii, Infect. Immun 37: 301–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Walker, T.S., 1984, Rickettsial interactions with human endothelial cells in vitro: adherence and entry, Infect. Immune 44: 205–210.Google Scholar
  117. Walker,T.S., and Hoover, CS., 1991, Rickettsial effects on leukotriene and prostaglandin secretion by mouse polymorphonuclear leukocytes, Infect. Immun 59: 351–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Walker, T.S., and Mellott, G.E., 1993, Rickettsial stimulation of endothelial platelet-activating factor synthesis, Infect. Immun 61: 2024–2029.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Walker, T.S., and Triplett, D.A., 1991, Serologic characterization of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Appearance of antibodies reactive with endothelial cells and phospholipids, and factors that alter protein C activation and prostacyclin secretion, Am. J. Clin. Pathol 95: 725–732.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Walker, T.S., and Winkler, H.H., 1978, Penetration of cultured mouse fibroblasts (L cells) by Rickettsia prowazeki, Infect. Immun 22: 200–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Walker, T.S., Dersch, M.W., and White, W.E., 1991, Effects of typhus rickettsiae on peritoneal and alveolar macrophages: rickettsiae stimulate leukotriene and prostaglandin secretion, J. Infect. Dis 163: 568–573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Walker, T.S., Brown, J.S., Hoover, C.S., and Morgan, D.A., 1990, Endothelial prostaglandin secretion: effects of typhus rickettsiae, J. Infect. Dis 162: 1136–1144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Weinberg, E.H., Stakebake, J.R., and Gerone, P.J., 1969, Plaque assay for Rickettsia rickettsii, J. Bacteriol 98: 398–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Weiss, E., 1982, The biology of rickettsiae, Annu. Rev. Microbiol 36: 345–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Weiss, E., and Moulder, J.W., 1984, The rickettsias and chlamydias, in: Bergey ‘s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 1 (N.R. Krieg, and 1.G. Holt, eds.),The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, pp. 687–739.Google Scholar
  126. Wike, D.A., Tallent, G., Peacock, M.G., and Ormsbee, R.A., 1972, Studies of the rickettsia, plaque assay technique, Infect. Immun 5: 715–722.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Winkler, H.H., 1986, Early events in the interaction of the obligate intra-cytoplasmic parasite, Rickettsia prowazekii, with eurcaryotic cells: entry and lysis, Ann. Inst. Pasteur/Microbiol 137A: 333–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Winkler, H.H., 1985, Rickettsial phospholipase A activity, in: Rickettsiae and Rickettsia[Diseases ( J. Kazar, ed.), Publishing House of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, pp. 185–194.Google Scholar
  129. Winkler, H.H., 1977, Rickettsia! hemolysis: adsorption, desorption, readsorption, and hemagglutination, Infect. Immun 17: 607–612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Winkler, H.H., 1974, Inhibitory and restorative effects of adenine nucleotides on rickettsias adsorption and hemolysis, Infect. Immun 9: 119–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Winkler, H.H., and Daugherty, R.M., 1989, Phospholipase A activity associated with the growth of Rickettsia prowazekii in L929 cells, Infect. Immun 57: 36–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Winkler, H.H., and Daugherty, R.M., 1983, Cytoplasmic distinction of avirulent and virulent Rickettsia prowazekii: fusion of infected fibroblasts with macrophage-like cells, Infect. Immun 40: 1245–1247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Winkler, H.H., and Miller, E.T., 1984, Activated complex of L-cells and Rickettsia prowazekii with N-ethylmaleimide-insensitive phospholipase A, Infect. Immun 45: 577–581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Winkler, H.H., and Miller, E.T., 1982, Phospholipase A and the interaction of Rickettsia prowazekii and mouse fibroblasts (L-929 cells), Infect. Immun 38: 109–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Winkler, H.H., and Miller, E.T., 1980, Phospholipase A activity in the hemolysis of sheep and human erythrocytes by Rickettsia prowazekii, Infect. Immun 29: 316–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Winkler, H.H., and Ramm, L.E., 1975, Adsorption of typhus rickettsiae to ghosts of sheep erythrocytes, Infect. Immun 11: 1244–1251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Winkler, H.H., and Turco, J., 1994, Rickettsiae and macrophages, Immunology Series 60: 401–414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Winkler, H.H., and Turco, J., 1988, Rickettsia prowazekii and the host cell: entry, growth and control of the parasite, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol 138: 81–107.Google Scholar
  139. Winker, H.H., Day, L., and Daugherty, R., 1994, Analysis of hydrolytic products from choline-labeled host cell phospholipids during growth of Rickettsia prowazekii, Infect. Immun 62: 1457–1459.Google Scholar
  140. Wisseman, C.L., Jr., 1986, Selected observations on rickettsiae and their host cells, Acta Virol. 30: 81–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Wisseman, C.L., Jr., 1968, Some biological properties of rickettsiae pathogenic for man, Zbl. Bakt. Paras. Infekt. Hyg. I. Orig. Abt. 206: 299–313.Google Scholar
  142. Wisseman, C.L., Jr., and Waddell, A.D., 1975, In vitro studies on rickettsia-host cell interactions: intracellular growth cycle of virulent and attenuated Rickettsia prowazeki in chicken embryo cells in slide chamber cultures, Infect. Immun. 11: 1391–1401.Google Scholar
  143. Wisseman, C.L., Jr., Edlinger, E.A., Waddell, A.D., and Jones, M.R., 1976a, Infection cycle of Rickettsia rickettsii in chicken embryo and L-929 cells in culture, Infect. Immun. 14: 1052–1064.Google Scholar
  144. Wisseman, C.L., Jr., Waddell, A.D., and Silverman, D.J., 1976b, In vitro studies on rickettsia-host cell interactions: lag phase in intracellular growth cycle as a function of stage of growth of infecting Rickettsia prowazeki, with preliminary observations on inhibition of rickettsia) uptake by host cell fragments, Infect. Immun 13: 1749–1760.Google Scholar
  145. Wojciechowski, E., Mikolajczyk, E., and Frygin, C., 1963, Hemolytic activity of typhus rickettsiae on erythrocytes of different species, Exp. Med. Microbiol 15: 238–247.Google Scholar
  146. Woodman, D.R., Weiss, E., Dasch, G.A., and Bozeman, F.M., 1977, Biological properties of Rickettsia prowazekii strains isolated from flying squirrels, Infect. Immun 16: 853–860.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marina E. Eremeeva
    • 1
  • Gregory A. Dasch
    • 2
  • David J. Silverman
    • 1
  1. 1.School of MedicineUniversity of MarylandBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Naval Medical Research InstituteBethesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations