Raynaud’s Phenomenon and Other Vasospastic Disorders

  • Marie Gerhard-Herman
  • Mark A. Creager


Raynaud’s phenomenon is defined as episodic digital vasospasm characterized by well-demarcated pallor or cyanosis that occurs in the digits during exposure to cold. This chapter reviews the pathophysiology, associated disorders, and treatment of Raynaud’s phenomenon. The mechanisms proposed to explain this phenomenon include increased sympathetic nervous system activity, local vascular hyperreactivity to sympathetic stimuli, decreased intravascular pressure or changes in blood rheology, and excessive vasoconstrictive stimuli. Raynaud’s phenomenon is categorized into primary and secondary forms. The primary form implies the absence of any disorder or drug treatment that promotes vasospasm.


Cold Exposure Ulnar Artery Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Digital Artery Thromboangiitis Obliterans 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marie Gerhard-Herman
  • Mark A. Creager

There are no affiliations available

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